It is safe
to say that Roman music was mostly monophonic (that is, single melodies with no
harmony) and that the melodies were based on an elaborate system of scales
may have borrowed the Greek method of ’enchiriadic notation’ to record their
music, if they used any notation at all. Four letters (in English notation 'A’,
'G’, 'F’ and 'C’) indicated a series of four succeeding tones.
also other, non-Greek, influences on Roman culture - from the Etruscans, for
example, and, with imperial expansion, from the Middle Eastern and African
sections of the empire.
wind instruments included: the askaules,
a bagpipe; the Roman tuba, a long,
straight bronze trumpet; the cornu
(Latin “horn”) was a long tubular metal wind instrument that curved
around the musician’s body; versions of the modern flute and panpipes.
contests were quite common and attracted a wide range of competition, including
Nero himself, who performed widely as an amateur and once traveled to Greece to
depict instruments that look like a cross between the bagpipe and the organ.
The pipes were sized so as to produce many of the modes (scales) known from the
Greeks. It is unclear whether they were blown by the lungs or by some
There are numerous
references to hundreds of trumpeters and pipers playing together at massive
games and festivals.
instruments included drums, tambourines, cymbals, and castanets.
majority of music for which we have surviving notation was vocal, and singing
was probably the most common form of musical activity.
Roman gods did not consist exclusively of the Greek gods with the serial numbers filed off and the names changed and were not just adopted to the abandonment of previous gods once Rome conquered Greek
Roman gods were heavily influenced by Greek gods, particularly in their iconography and mythology (many Greek myths were applied straight to the closest Roman gods bc the Romans weren’t previously SUPER huge into telling stories about gods), but many of them existed in some form before that influence came into play
some gods, like Proserpina, were p much carbon copies of the Greek ones with the names maybe slightly changed, and some had this whole parallel development thing going on, but, say, Minerva isn’t just “oh we borrowed Athena and changed her name” - she has a name very closely related to an Etruscan goddess, actually, which suggests she was more likely to be borrowed from them
in general the Etruscans had a strong influence on early Roman religion and many many Roman gods are borrowed/similar to Etruscan gods
it’s totally true that there was a lot of mutual borrowing and adopting going on between all three cultures and that we can’t always tell what originated where, that Greek religion had a huge influence on Roman religion, and that many Greek and Roman gods may have originally come from a similar root (Indo-European cultures and all)
but it’s like, SUPER oversimplified to say that the Romans just borrowed Greek gods and religion wholesale when they conquered them and didn’t have their own or threw their own gods out, pls stop doing that, thank you
Hello! To start off your Ambassador work, can you tell us about any words in your native language that you think are pretty? Thank you! (If you would like a different question, let me know)!
Ah, the question is alright! I’ll gladly take it!
How about I speak of the language first, so we’d get you used to what the Romanian language is!~
To start off, the Romanian language (Limba română) is classified within the Romance family of languages (alongside French, Italian and Spanish) and it’s spoken by approximately 24-26 million people as a native tongue. It is also an official language of the EU as well as the Latin Union.
The earliest documented history regarding the roots of the Romanian language date back to the first centuries AD, during the settlement of Dacian peoples over present-day Romanian land.
Romanian is widely considered to be the closest Romance language to it’s root, Latin, as there are many words in modern Romanian that are closely akin to what Latin words sounded like, thanks to the influence of the Latin spoken by the military of the Roman Empire during the the conquest of Dacia.
After the withdrawal of the Romans, along came a flow of foreign influence from neighboring languages which affected Romanian in various ways: such as the influence of Finno-Ugric languages, like Hungarian, or the Slavic languages within the Middle Ages (Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian); and to some degree, there are traces of Greek and Turkic influence, too.
The only text which showed the oldest trace of early Romanian was a document named “The letter of Neacșu of Câmpulung” (Română: Scrisoarea lui Neacșu de la Câmpulung)
Written using Cyrillic, it was sent by Neacșu Lupu, a peasant from Dalgo Pole, Wallachia (now Câmpulung, Romania) to Johannes Benkner, the mayor of Brassó, Kingdom of Hungary (now Brașov, Romania), warning him about the imminent attack of the Ottoman Empire on Transylvania. The letter contains a phrase which comes from Old Church Slavonic, namely “I pak” which roughly translates to “And again”.
The Romanian language is mainly a phonetic language, meaning it is spelled the way it’s written, but there are a couple of letters which have a different pronunciation, thus having no exact equivalent in English:
ă , ț , ș , î , â . (I advise you to look up a spoken spelling of these letters, as I would have a hard time describing how they sound exactly!!)
Now, onto the actual subject matter of your inquiry! The most beautiful words in Romanian are prevalent in poems!~ They’re very pleasing for a Romanian speaker to hear, or at least that’s what I think.
Făptură - “fragile being” or “critter”
Văzduh - “forest breeze”
Ibovnic - “lover”
Oacheș - “swathy”
Dor - this word is unique to the Romanian language, as there’s no English translation to it at all! What it’s supposed to mean is the description of a feeling of melancholy and loneliness, akin to when you’re missing someone’s company!
So a few months ago in this poetry class I took we were discussing the poetry of Ocean Vuong (who btw I HIGHLY recommend I think he’s great)
And his family moved from Vietnam to America when he was 2 and he grew up here and got a degree in Nineteenth Century English Literature (hashtag majors I wish my college offered) and got down to writing poetry
And in the book we read (Night Sky with Exit Wounds) he references Greek mythology a lot
And in my class (which was 11 white students, 1 black student, and a white professor) people were discussing that and people were saying that like it symbolized or was trying to say something about some East vs West tension or how the poet felt about the immigrant experience, because since he isn’t “from here” and specifically because he’s Asian, and because Greek philosophy influenced Western thought so much more than it influenced Eastern thought, that his use of Greek mythology was basically him using mythology that didn’t “belong to” him and that this somehow signified something
And I was like
Well first of all if he majored in nineteenth century English literature…those people were OBSESSED with Greek mythology so he would have had to study it a LOT so it probably comes up sometimes when he’s doing the poetry and trying to think of things to compare to other things
Second of all HE HAS LIVED IN AMERICA HIS WHOLE ENTIRE LIFE FOR AS LONG AS HE CAN REMEMBER, I’m pretty sure all of Western culture “belongs to” him if he wants it
Thirdly we just read some white poet who used the haiku form a lot and we never breathed a word about WHY he was using an Eastern poetry form when he’s a Westerner or whether or not haiku “belonged to” him
Fourthly like, oh my god, seriously though, HE LIVES HERE!!!!
Idk it’s just still on my mind a lot bc like…I felt like everyone was trying to be really progressive and understanding and it just ended up sounding racist to me and when I gently raised my objections everyone looked at ME like I had TWO HEADS!!!!
Could you share some information about the norns and the threads of fate? I normally leave my fate in the hands of the Gods and I'm now curious about the sisters.
Velkomin(n), vinur minn, (Welcome, my friend,)
There are three norns who dwell beneath the world tree, Yggdrasil, and they are the most famous: Urðr (Fate), Verðandi (Being), and Skuld (Necessity).(1) There are others, however, and they each can have various roles, although generally centered around fate, childbirth, fertility, and “the protection of hearth and home.”(2) Those that are related to the gods “visit everyone when they are born to shape their lives.”(3) Their kinship with the gods, and with the divine in general, seems to be a bit of an obscurity. There are several other norns, though, which stem from the álfar (Elves) and even the dvergar (Dwarves), which is told to us in Fáfnismál:
“From very different tribes I think the norns come, they are not of the same kin; some spring from the Æsir, some from the elves, some are daughters of Dvalin.”(4)
Snorri’s Prose Edda leads us to believe that the norns who govern fate are those of the Æsir: Urðr, Verðandi, and Skuld. Yet, it seems likely that the norns were far more regionally diverse, especially given their connection with localized fertility beings like álfar, and perhaps even with landvættir (land-spirits). The role of these women seems to play most heavily into that of fertility and childbirth, since that is when a child is to be given its fate. All of the roles mentioned above relate to each other during the time of childbirth, which would have occurred in the household — a very localized place. There is an example of this from Volsunga saga, in which norns come during the birth of Helgi, but they are not the three that reside among the Æsir (as suggested by the use of the indefinite rather than the definite — ‘norns’, rather than ’the norns’):
“…when Helgi was born, Norns came to set his destiny, saying that he would become the most famous of all kings.”(5)
Although Snorri says that the norns of the Æsir are the ones who “shape men’s lives”,(6) I suspect that the Norse would have considered otherwise, believing instead that local norns, those related more closely to the álfar, and perhaps the dvergar as well, were responsible for the fate bestowed upon themselves and their children. As they gave offerings to the landvættir for the prosperity of their farm and livestock,(7) so too could they have given offerings to ‘household’ norns for a prosperous life. The three named norns of the Æsir just seem to be a bit too specific for such a variety-rich and regionally-diverse religion. They do, however, symbolize and represent the norns as a whole quite well.
The norns share roles with various major deities, such as Frigg, Freyja, and even Odin, to some extents. Frigg actually knows the fate of all, although she does not bestow it as the norns do:
“Frigg knows, I think, all fate, though she herself does not speak out.”(8)
Freyja governs the fertility of women, and yet the norns determine the fate of the children that they give birth to. In fact, both Frigg and Freyja are called upon during childbirth, as the poem Oddrúnargrátr suggests when Borgny is in labor:
“May the kindly beings help you, Frigg and Freyja and more of the gods, as you warded off that dangerous illness from me.”(9)
Despite this overlapping, the norns still have a unique role. Although they help ensure a successful birth, Frigg and Freyja do not decide that child’s fate.
Furthermore, Odin decides who lives and who dies in battle, and even Freyja has a choice in the matter herself, and yet the norns have already decided this long before they went to battle. A famous poem from Njal’s Saga has much to tell of both the valkyries and the norns during the Battle of Clontarf, which took place in Ireland in 1014. This poem tells of the valkyries coming for the slain (and it is mentioned that even they chose who lives and dies), all while maintaining the metaphor of weaving fabric on a loom with their guts, which is very characteristic of the norns, but with a battle-reddened flare:
“A wide harp warns of slaughter; blood rains from the beam’s cloud. A spear-grey fabric is being spun, which the friends (valkyries) of Randver’s slayer (killed by Odin himself) will fill out with a red weft.
The warp is woven with warriors’ guts, and heavily weighted with the heads of men. Spears serve as heddle rods, spattered with blood; iron-bound is the shed rod, and arrows are the pin beaters; we will beat with swords our battle web.
Hild sets to weaving and Hjorthrimul and Sanngrid and Svipul, (names of the valkyries) with swords drawn. Shafts will splinter, shields shatter; the dog of helmets devours shields.
We wind and wind the web of spears which the young king has carried on before. Let us go forth amongst the fighters when our dear ones deal out blows.
We wind and wind the web of spears, and then stand by our stalwart king. Gunn and Gondul, who guarded the king, saw the bloody shields of the brave men.
We wind and wind the web of spears, there where the banners of bold men go forth; we must not let his life be lost — valkyries decide who dies or lives.
The men who inhabited the outer headlands will now be leaders in the lands. I declare the mighty king doomed to death. The earl has fallen in the face of the spears.
And the Irish will endure an evil time which will never lessen as long as men live. Now the web is woven and the war-place reddened; the lands will learn of the loss of men.
Now it is gruesome to gaze around, as blood-red clouds cover the sky; the heavens will be garish with the gore of men while the slaughter-wardens sing their song.
Our pronouncement was good for the young prince; sound of mind we sing victory songs. May he who listens learn from this the tones of spear-women and tell them to men.
Let us ride swiftly on our saddle-less horses hence from here, with swords in hand.”(10)
It is not surprising, though, to have such overlapping roles, and they are not meant to contradict. Why give offerings to the landvættir for a farm’s prosperity when one could give those offerings to Freyr instead? Well, Freyr can bring rain and sunshine, but the landvættir inhabit the very land that needs those ingredients for growth; they must be willing to share their prosperity. The same goes for the norns. Although Freyja grants female fertility, the norns can still play a role in protecting and guiding that fertility through childbirth. The fact that the norns share roles with the gods shows that there is a great deal of interwoven complexity in the completion of their tasks; many forces are at work in this world, and even the gods are subject to them (Ragnarok).
In the end, there is no decisive answer for what the norns are, nor for what their roles and boundaries may be. It seems that the norns intermingle in many of the gods’ tasks, but that fate is their primary domain, especially during childbirth. The most important aspect to remember about them, though, is that there are more than the three that Snorri mentions. The Norse likely would have considered them to be localized deities, perhaps even unique to each community or household, or perhaps even abstract entities with no locative affiliation, rather than the same three that dwell among the Æsir.
I hope my insights were what you were seeking. As for the threads of fate, some believe that was influence from Greek mythology.(11) I would be happy to write more on this topic. I could have written much more, but this should suffice for now. If you need anything else, please do not hesitate to ask!
Með vinsemd og virðingu, (With friendliness and respect,) Fjörn
ENDNOTES: 1. H.R. Ellis Davidson, Gods and Myths of Northern Europe (repr., 1964; London: Penguin Books, 1990), 26. 2. Ibid., 112-13. The Germans and Celts both worshipped female deities that had similar roles as the norns, and so although they are not always regarded by the name ‘norn’, their roles suggest that they were linked in some way. In Germany, Holland, and Britain, for example, these deities were known as ‘the mothers’, and they were often depicted in groups of three. 3. Snorri Sturluson, Edda, translated by Anthony Faulkes (repr., 1987; London: Everyman, 1995), 18. 4. Carolyne Larrington trans., The Poetic Edda (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 155. 5. Jesse L. Byock trans., The Saga of the Volsungs (London: Penguin Classics, 1999),47. 6. Snorri, 18. 7. There is a case of this in Landnámabók, the Icelandic Book of Settlements, where a man name Thorstein Red-Nose “used to make sacrifices to the waterfall and all the left-overs had to be thrown into it.” (Hermann Pálsson and Paul Edwards trans., The Book of Settlements: Landnámabók (repr., 1972; Winnipeg, Canada: University of Manitoba Press, 2012), 134.) As a result of his offerings, the landvættir gave him 2400 sheep and even the gift of foresight. 8. Larrington, 85. (Lokasenna, stanza 29, lines 3 and 4.) 9. Ibid., 200. (Oddrúnargrátr, stanza 9.) 10. Robert Cook trans., Njal’s Saga (London: Penguin Classics, 2001), 303-7. 11. Lee M. Hollander trans., The Poetic Edda (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2014), 4. (Footnote 17)
When watching Sailor Moon Crystal, have you ever seen the alien letters resembling that of an Ancient Language spoken in the Moon Kingdom? Usually one can see them on the screens of the computers used by Luna and Artemis, but by far the most noticeable example would be the following scene of the Sword of the Silver Crystal:
I looked everywhere online for answers… Is this even an actual language? Perhaps these letters are a simple cipher for the Latin alphabet or Japanese kana as with the Hylian languages of the Zeldaverse? My eventual conclusion, however, is that these are simply random symbols with no true meaning or correlation to any alphabet. In the picture above, for example, there is an insufficient number of symbols to represent a language with as deep a meaning as the supposed translation. They are made to appeal aesthetically to the idea of an ancient moon language, but the creators put no effort into making it an actual language to much of my dismay. And even if it was a simple cipher of an existing alphabet, I would still be very disappointed at the lack of effort and creativity on the matter.
So, as a result, I took it upon myself to experiment with the given symbols and create an Ancient Moon Language to be spoken in Silver Millennium. I thought the symbols looked as thought they would be a syllabary of some sort (although, the letter-to-word ratio in the picture makes it look as though it were a simple alphabet of some sort, unless the ‘words’ are actually entire sentences and they lack spaces and punctuation, which is also possible), and so I transformed it into a complex featural-syllabic script. The grammar I created is primarily Subject-Object-Verb and uses postpositions, and the language is topographically a fusional language. I based much of the vocabulary on Latin and Ancient Greek so far, as I figured some of the humans on Earth at the time would’ve spoken Latin and Ancient Greek and would be influenced by this language, especially since the Prince’s name is Endymion, which is a Greek name. I also thought that the names of the Sailor Senshi would influence the name of the Roman Gods and Goddesses through contact with the Moon Kingdom, hence their names being of Ancient Moon language origins (which in the language I created would be Giupitéra, Mársia, Mercuría, Venúsia).
Here’s an example I translated; it’s the quote from when Sailor Moon pulls the Sword of the Silver Crystal and the text appearing on the sword is read aloud:
I geládun ilumá cerún elá, Thási ípula irá térmia cristía íli cor-désu le vupá. Perféctu térmiu árgientu cristíu hávae, ne Lúni manílle furtúne empérae. Lúni divíne turúne alá oratíe dárae, ne pásia thasúne alá le tiverá.
(When this sword shines, the legendary crystal within the Queen will work as she wishes. Hold the complete Legendary Silver Crystal and awaken the great power of the Moon. Offer a prayer to the divine tower of the Moon, and peace shall return to the kingdom.)
And then here’s an example of the script as it would be correctly written; it says “Endymion” or literally “Endímiun” (En-dí-mi-un):
So what do you guys think? Should I continue to create this language, maybe even make lessons for others to learn it? Would you be interested in learning such a language?
LORD OF SHADOWS THEORY: PART 5: WHY JEMMA DOESN’T REMEMBER JESSA’S WEDDING
Disclaimer: My theories are built not just on the Dark
Artifices, but from all the previous books as a whole, and will contain
SPOILERS if you haven’t read them. These ideas are based solely on book canon.
ON THE NAME
I have seen
this theory out there—I was glad someone else had it too. All the girls in my
family have at least one name dedicated to a favorite grandmother, aunt or
other female relative. Emma Cordelia and Cordelia Carstairs. The family trees
are said to be either incomplete or a bit misleading, and I was thinking James
and Cordelia had a daughter that was never listed, and Emma is a descendent of Tessa
on a matriarchal side. Emma’s mother’s
name was Cordelia too. That would mean she would have as much demon blood as
the Blackthorns and Jace.
is comparing her to Jace. (I hope that Cassandra Clare puts in a scene where
the two practice together—I’d really like to see who would be better!) This
will come into play in a bit.
GLITTERY MAGNUS ONE:
He’s up to
his feline eyeballs in all of this. He’s the Clave approved warlock to call
when you want someone to forget something…
Persian architecture is from the 500’s-300’s BC, and is mostly the
remains of palace-temples in Pasagardae, Persepolis, and Susa. This
architecture has a mixture of Assyrian, Egyptian and Greek
influences. The Assyrian influences are that the Persians built on
mounds or platforms, now with even more magnificent stone staircases,
which were lined with carvings depicting animals and the king’s
attendants. They also used large relief decorations and
brightly-coloured glazed brickwork like the Assyrians.
Persepolis has the greatest Persian architecture. Here, the palaces
are massive, dominated by huge square audience halls called apadana.
The plans were very complex.
Persepolis is surrounded by a wall, with three large terraces inside.
The high central terrace is flanked by lower platforms. The palaces
of Darius and Xerxes (his son) are on these terraces.
The Gate of All Nations, also called the Gate of Xerxes, is marked
yellow on the second map. It was built on the northern terrace, and
the other buildings were built on the central terrace. [Referring
just to the palaces, or all of the buildings??]
Gate of All Nations.
The Apadana’s construction was begun by Darius, and finished by
Xerxes. It was mostly used for great receptions by the kings. It
had 72 columns, but only 13 are still standing. There are two
staircases, on the northern & eastern sides, lined with
stone-carved reliefs of human figures and stylized plant forms,
The Palace of Darius was built in 521 BC, and below is a drawing
based on a carving on Darius’ tomb. A double flight of steps leads
up to an open loggia (gallery/room with one/more open sides),
which leads to a central hall. On the roof is a talar (raised
platform), where the king performed religious ceremonies, as he was
also the high priest.
Remains of the Palace of Darius.
The doorway had a curved, reeded cornice (ornamental moulding just
below the top), like over the doorways of Egyptian temples.
In the door-jamb is a carved stone slab, showing a servant escorting
the king inside while holding a sunshade.
The palace had a central apadana with 16 columns. It was surrounded
by smaller cells. Towers at each of the four corners may have
contained guard-rooms and stairs. A view of the open countryside
could be seen from the western portico.
The Hall of 100 Columns (Throne Hall on the second map) had a portal
in front of it, with human-headed winged stone bulls, similar to the
Assyrian lamussu at Nineveh & Nimrud. They flanked a mud-brick
gatehouse, its walls faced with glazed multi-coloured bricks.
hi, do you have any recommendations for texts heavily influenced by greek/roman canon (not necessarily straight adaptations but appropriations) in a similar vein to ulysses but hopefully more bearable? sorry if this has been answered ; i tried to quickly skim through your tags but couldn't find anything. thank you !
I do! I would say most of these are direct adaptations nonetheless, but I hope it helps.
POETRY Autobiography of Red, Anne Carson Averno, Louise Glück Meadowlands, Louise Glück Memorial, Alice Oswald Orpheus and Eurydice, Gregory Orr Sonnets to Orpheus, Rainer Maria Rilke Roman Elegies, J. W. von Goethe Endymion, John Keats
FICTION The Penelopiad, Margaret Atwood Kassandra, Christa Wolf The Secret History, Donna Tartt Frankenstein, Mary Shelley Till We Have Faces, C. S. Lewis Theseus, André Gide Memoirs of Hadrian, Marguerite Yourcenar The Adventures of Telemachus, Fénelon The Picture of Dorian Gray, Oscar Wilde The Birth of the Odyssey, Jean Giono
DRAMA The Flies, Jean-Paul Sartre Elektra, Jean Giraudoux Antigone, Jean Anouilh Phaedra’s Love, Sarah Kane Phaedra, Jean Racine Andromache, Jean Racine Iphigenia Auf Tauris, J. W. von Goethe Medea, Pierre Corneille Prometheus Unbound, Percy Bysshe Shelley The Infernal Machine, Jean Cocteau Persephone, André Gide
“Not Only do I do what I want to do, but I do my work in my own way and never have been influenced by another artist. The sole influences on my
art, through the course of my entire career, were the Persian and Indian
Miniatures and Greek vases I saw in my childhood at the Hermitage
Museum in St. Petersburg (Now Leningrad). I think that these influences
have stayed with me to this day, although they were assimilated long
Erté or else Romain de Tirtoff (23 November 1892 – 21 April 1990) was a Russian-born French artist and designer. He was a diversely talented 20th-century artist and designer who flourished in an array of fields, including fashion, jewellery, graphic arts, costume and set design for film, theatre, and opera, and interior decor.
Erté’s love for classical greece is evident in his work, another example of how the grace of the eons that have passed keeps on rekindling inspiration.
Time for FRIDAY FASHION FACT! I mention the French Revolution in these
posts all the time. A few months ago, I discussed why this war (and
others) had such a huge impact on fashion (read here.) Now I’m going to
delve a little deeper, and discuss how exactly fashion morphed in the years leading up to and following the French Revolution.
are many misconceptions surrounding this tumultuous era. Many people
believe that when the monarchy fell, the extreme opulence fell
simultaneously. They think that women quickly switched to simple
classical gowns because Napoleon introduced the style. Of course,
much of this misunderstanding has to do with a lack of knowledge of French history. As I
stated in the post referenced above, dramatic changes in fashion do not
happen overnight. The Revolution began in 1789, and Napoleon did not
become Emperor until 1804. By the time he gained the title, women were
already wearing the simplistic classical styles. In fact, the peak of
the simplicity occurred right before Napoleon had a chance to become fully
settled into his supreme role. So then how did this style come to be?
had actually been creeping its way into Western society for well over a
century. The Renaissance brought a new-found appreciation and interest
in Greek and Roman art and architecture. The Enlightenment, and the
scholarly pursuits which accompanied it, were an added catalyst for
widespread interest in these ancient cultures. Naturally, this interest
was reflected in the art of the time. While myriad art forms were impacted, for our purposes, we’ll just talk about portraiture. Kings
were depicted wearing the laurels of caesars. Women were depicted as
goddesses and muses. Sometimes the classical inspiration was blatant,
other times it was very subtle, such as a woman wearing soft chiton or
The first instances of neoclassical
dress outside of portraits were in fancy dress. Characters from mythology
were a common choice for masquerade costumes. Yet it was Marie
Antoinette, who everyone thinks of as the Queen of Opulence, who in the
early 1780s introduced simple, loose dress into everyday fashion with
the chemise a la reine (which I previously wrote about here.) However,
the classicism was taken to another level during the Directoire Era-
aka, the years following the Revolution (ca. 1795-99.) Without getting
into a whole history lesson, this was when France was run by a
(incredibly unsuccessful) Republic, which was inspired by the
governments of ancient Greece and Rome. This classical inspiration
saturated French culture in many ways, but particularly the arts and
fashion. Dresses became incredibly simplistic, typically cotton gowns
with next to no tailoring and minimal embellishment, inspired by the
pristine marble sculptures from ancient Rome. And as we all know, if the
French wore a style, the rest of the Western world did, too.
Around the year 1800, when the French government was changing hands and incredibly
unstable, fashion reached the apex of simplicity. The French fashion
industry, along with the rest of the economy, had taken a nosedive.
Additionally, times of social turmoil often result in simplistic
fashion, as style seems to be frivolous when such important issues are
at hand. Shortly after the turn of the 19th Century, though, when
Napoleon took over and introduced a stable Empire to France,
embellishment and opulence began to make its way back into fashion.
That, though, is another post for another day.
a question about fashion history that you want answered in the next
FRIDAY FASHION FACT? Just click the ASK button at the top of the page!