greek influence

Music in ancient Rome: some facts

  • It is safe to say that Roman music was mostly monophonic (that is, single melodies with no harmony) and that the melodies were based on an elaborate system of scales (called ‘modes’)
  • The Romans may have borrowed the Greek method of ’enchiriadic notation’ to record their music, if they used any notation at all. Four letters (in English notation 'A’, 'G’, 'F’ and 'C’) indicated a series of four succeeding tones.
  • There were also other, non-Greek, influences on Roman culture - from the Etruscans, for example, and, with imperial expansion, from the Middle Eastern and African sections of the empire.
  • Some roman wind instruments included: the askaules, a bagpipe; the Roman tuba, a long, straight bronze trumpet; the cornu (Latin “horn”) was a long tubular metal wind instrument that curved around the musician’s body; versions of the modern flute and panpipes.
  • Music contests were quite common and attracted a wide range of competition, including Nero himself, who performed widely as an amateur and once traveled to Greece to compete.
  • Mosaics depict instruments that look like a cross between the bagpipe and the organ. The pipes were sized so as to produce many of the modes (scales) known from the Greeks. It is unclear whether they were blown by the lungs or by some mechanical bellows.
  • There are numerous references to hundreds of trumpeters and pipers playing together at massive games and festivals.
  • Percussion instruments included drums, tambourines, cymbals, and castanets.
  • The majority of music for which we have surviving notation was vocal, and singing was probably the most common form of musical activity.

drags hands down face

Roman gods did not consist exclusively of the Greek gods with the serial numbers filed off and the names changed and were not just adopted to the abandonment of previous gods once Rome conquered Greek

Roman gods were heavily influenced by Greek gods, particularly in their iconography and mythology (many Greek myths were applied straight to the closest Roman gods bc the Romans weren’t previously SUPER huge into telling stories about gods), but many of them existed in some form before that influence came into play

some gods, like Proserpina, were p much carbon copies of the Greek ones with the names maybe slightly changed, and some had this whole parallel development thing going on, but, say, Minerva isn’t just “oh we borrowed Athena and changed her name” - she has a name very closely related to an Etruscan goddess, actually, which suggests she was more likely to be borrowed from them

in general the Etruscans had a strong influence on early Roman religion and many many Roman gods are borrowed/similar to Etruscan gods

it’s totally true that there was a lot of mutual borrowing and adopting going on between all three cultures and that we can’t always tell what originated where, that Greek religion had a huge influence on Roman religion, and that many Greek and Roman gods may have originally come from a similar root (Indo-European cultures and all)

but it’s like, SUPER oversimplified to say that the Romans just borrowed Greek gods and religion wholesale when they conquered them and didn’t have their own or threw their own gods out, pls stop doing that, thank you

hetaliafandomhubepsilon  asked:

Hello! To start off your Ambassador work, can you tell us about any words in your native language that you think are pretty? Thank you! (If you would like a different question, let me know)!

Ah, the question is alright! I’ll gladly take it!

How about I speak of the language first, so we’d get you used to what the Romanian language is!~

To start off, the Romanian language (Limba română) is classified within the Romance family of languages (alongside French, Italian and Spanish) and it’s spoken by approximately 24-26 million people as a native tongue. It is also an official language of the EU as well as the Latin Union.

The earliest documented history regarding the roots of the Romanian language date back to the first centuries AD, during the settlement of Dacian peoples over present-day Romanian land.

Romanian is widely considered to be the closest Romance language to it’s root, Latin, as there are many words in modern Romanian that are closely akin to what Latin words sounded like, thanks to the influence of the Latin spoken by the military of the Roman Empire during the the conquest of Dacia.

After the withdrawal of the Romans, along came a flow of foreign influence from neighboring languages which affected Romanian in various ways: such as the influence of Finno-Ugric languages, like Hungarian, or the Slavic languages within the Middle Ages (Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian); and to some degree, there are traces of Greek and Turkic influence, too.

The only text which showed the oldest trace of early Romanian was a document named “The letter of Neacșu of Câmpulung” (Română: Scrisoarea lui Neacșu de la Câmpulung)  

Written using Cyrillic, it was sent by Neacșu Lupu, a peasant from Dalgo Pole, Wallachia (now Câmpulung, Romania) to Johannes Benkner, the mayor of Brassó, Kingdom of Hungary (now Brașov, Romania), warning him about the imminent attack of the Ottoman Empire on Transylvania. The letter contains a phrase which comes from Old Church Slavonic, namely “I pak” which roughly translates to “And again”.

The Romanian language is mainly a phonetic language, meaning it is spelled the way it’s written, but there are a couple of letters which have a different pronunciation, thus having no exact equivalent in English:  ă ț , șî â . (I advise you to look up a spoken spelling of these letters, as I would have a hard time describing how they sound exactly!!)

Now, onto the actual subject matter of your inquiry! The most beautiful words in Romanian are prevalent in poems!~ They’re very pleasing for a Romanian speaker to hear, or at least that’s what I think.

Făptură - “fragile being” or “critter”

Văzduh - “forest breeze”

Ibovnic - “lover” 

Oacheș - “swathy”

Dor - this word is unique to the Romanian language, as there’s no English translation to it at all! What it’s supposed to mean is the description of a feeling of melancholy and loneliness, akin to when you’re missing someone’s company! 

Shit I Still Think I’m Right About

So a few months ago in this poetry class I took we were discussing the poetry of Ocean Vuong (who btw I HIGHLY recommend I think he’s great)

And his family moved from Vietnam to America when he was 2 and he grew up here and got a degree in Nineteenth Century English Literature (hashtag majors I wish my college offered) and got down to writing poetry

And in the book we read (Night Sky with Exit Wounds) he references Greek mythology a lot

And in my class (which was 11 white students, 1 black student, and a white professor) people were discussing that and people were saying that like it symbolized or was trying to say something about some East vs West tension or how the poet felt about the immigrant experience, because since he isn’t “from here” and specifically because he’s Asian, and because Greek philosophy influenced Western thought so much more than it influenced Eastern thought, that his use of Greek mythology was basically him using mythology that didn’t “belong to” him and that this somehow signified something

And I was like

Well first of all if he majored in nineteenth century English literature…those people were OBSESSED with Greek mythology so he would have had to study it a LOT so it probably comes up sometimes when he’s doing the poetry and trying to think of things to compare to other things

Second of all HE HAS LIVED IN AMERICA HIS WHOLE ENTIRE LIFE FOR AS LONG AS HE CAN REMEMBER, I’m pretty sure all of Western culture “belongs to” him if he wants it

Thirdly we just read some white poet who used the haiku form a lot and we never breathed a word about WHY he was using an Eastern poetry form when he’s a Westerner or whether or not haiku “belonged to” him

Fourthly like, oh my god, seriously though, HE LIVES HERE!!!!


Idk it’s just still on my mind a lot bc like…I felt like everyone was trying to be really progressive and understanding and it just ended up sounding racist to me and when I gently raised my objections everyone looked at ME like I had TWO HEADS!!!!

anonymous asked:

Could you share some information about the norns and the threads of fate? I normally leave my fate in the hands of the Gods and I'm now curious about the sisters.

Velkomin(n), vinur minn,
(Welcome, my friend,)

There are three norns who dwell beneath the world tree, Yggdrasil, and they are the most famous: Urðr (Fate), Verðandi (Being), and Skuld (Necessity).(1) There are others, however, and they each can have various roles, although generally centered around fate, childbirth, fertility, and “the protection of hearth and home.”(2) Those that are related to the gods “visit everyone when they are born to shape their lives.”(3) Their kinship with the gods, and with the divine in general, seems to be a bit of an obscurity. There are several other norns, though, which stem from the álfar (Elves) and even the dvergar (Dwarves), which is told to us in Fáfnismál:

“From very different tribes I think the norns come,
they are not of the same kin;
some spring from the Æsir, some from the elves,
some are daughters of Dvalin.”(4)

Snorri’s Prose Edda leads us to believe that the norns who govern fate are those of the Æsir: Urðr, Verðandi, and Skuld. Yet, it seems likely that the norns were far more regionally diverse, especially given their connection with localized fertility beings like álfar, and perhaps even with landvættir (land-spirits). The role of these women seems to play most heavily into that of fertility and childbirth, since that is when a child is to be given its fate. All of the roles mentioned above relate to each other during the time of childbirth, which would have occurred in the household — a very localized place. There is an example of this from Volsunga saga, in which norns come during the birth of Helgi, but they are not the three that reside among the Æsir (as suggested by the use of the indefinite rather than the definite — ‘norns’, rather than ’the norns’):

“…when Helgi was born, Norns came to set his destiny, saying that he would become the most famous of all kings.”(5)

Although Snorri says that the norns of the Æsir are the ones who “shape men’s lives”,(6) I suspect that the Norse would have considered otherwise, believing instead that local norns, those related more closely to the álfar, and perhaps the dvergar as well, were responsible for the fate bestowed upon themselves and their children. As they gave offerings to the landvættir for the prosperity of their farm and livestock,(7) so too could they have given offerings to ‘household’ norns for a prosperous life. The three named norns of the Æsir just seem to be a bit too specific for such a variety-rich and regionally-diverse religion. They do, however, symbolize and represent the norns as a whole quite well.


The norns share roles with various major deities, such as Frigg, Freyja, and even Odin, to some extents. Frigg actually knows the fate of all, although she does not bestow it as the norns do:

“Frigg knows, I think, all fate,
though she herself does not speak out.”(8)

Freyja governs the fertility of women, and yet the norns determine the fate of the children that they give birth to. In fact, both Frigg and Freyja are called upon during childbirth, as the poem Oddrúnargrátr suggests when Borgny is in labor:

“May the kindly beings help you,
Frigg and Freyja and more of the gods,
as you warded off that dangerous illness from me.”(9)

Despite this overlapping, the norns still have a unique role. Although they help ensure a successful birth, Frigg and Freyja do not decide that child’s fate.

Furthermore, Odin decides who lives and who dies in battle, and even Freyja has a choice in the matter herself, and yet the norns have already decided this long before they went to battle. A famous poem from Njal’s Saga has much to tell of both the valkyries and the norns during the Battle of Clontarf, which took place in Ireland in 1014. This poem tells of the valkyries coming for the slain (and it is mentioned that even they chose who lives and dies), all while maintaining the metaphor of weaving fabric on a loom with their guts, which is very characteristic of the norns, but with a battle-reddened flare:

“A wide harp

warns of slaughter;

blood rains

from the beam’s cloud.

A spear-grey fabric

is being spun,
which the friends (valkyries)
of Randver’s slayer (killed by Odin himself)
will fill out

with a red weft.



The warp is woven

with warriors’ guts,

and heavily weighted

with the heads of men.

Spears serve as heddle rods,

spattered with blood;

iron-bound is the shed rod,

and arrows are the pin beaters;

we will beat with swords

our battle web.

Hild sets to weaving
and Hjorthrimul
and Sanngrid and Svipul, (names of the valkyries)
with swords drawn. 

Shafts will splinter,

shields shatter;

the dog of helmets

devours shields.

We wind and wind

the web of spears

which the young king

has carried on before.

Let us go forth

amongst the fighters

when our dear ones

deal out blows.

We wind and wind

the web of spears,

and then stand by

our stalwart king.

Gunn and Gondul,

who guarded the king,

saw the bloody shields

of the brave men.

We wind and wind

the web of spears,

there where the banners

of bold men go forth;

we must not let

his life be lost —

valkyries decide

who dies or lives.

The men who inhabited

the outer headlands

will now be leaders

in the lands.

I declare the mighty king

doomed to death.

The earl has fallen

in the face of the spears.

And the Irish will

endure an evil time
which will never lessen

as long as men live.

Now the web is woven

and the war-place reddened;

the lands will learn

of the loss of men.

Now it is gruesome

to gaze around,

as blood-red clouds

cover the sky;

the heavens will be garish

with the gore of men

while the slaughter-wardens

sing their song.

Our pronouncement was good

for the young prince;

sound of mind

we sing victory songs.

May he who listens

learn from this

the tones of spear-women

and tell them to men.

Let us ride swiftly

on our saddle-less horses

hence from here,

with swords in hand.”(10)

It is not surprising, though, to have such overlapping roles, and they are not meant to contradict. Why give offerings to the landvættir for a farm’s prosperity when one could give those offerings to Freyr instead? Well, Freyr can bring rain and sunshine, but the landvættir inhabit the very land that needs those ingredients for growth; they must be willing to share their prosperity. The same goes for the norns. Although Freyja grants female fertility, the norns can still play a role in protecting and guiding that fertility through childbirth. The fact that the norns share roles with the gods shows that there is a great deal of interwoven complexity in the completion of their tasks; many forces are at work in this world, and even the gods are subject to them (Ragnarok).

In the end, there is no decisive answer for what the norns are, nor for what their roles and boundaries may be. It seems that the norns intermingle in many of the gods’ tasks, but that fate is their primary domain, especially during childbirth. The most important aspect to remember about them, though, is that there are more than the three that Snorri mentions. The Norse likely would have considered them to be localized deities, perhaps even unique to each community or household, or perhaps even abstract entities with no locative affiliation, rather than the same three that dwell among the Æsir.


I hope my insights were what you were seeking. As for the threads of fate, some believe that was influence from Greek mythology.(11) I would be happy to write more on this topic. I could have written much more, but this should suffice for now. If you need anything else, please do not hesitate to ask!

Með vinsemd og virðingu,
(With friendliness and respect,)
Fjörn


ENDNOTES:
1. H.R. Ellis Davidson, Gods and Myths of Northern Europe (repr., 1964; London: Penguin Books, 1990), 26.
2. Ibid., 112-13. The Germans and Celts both worshipped female deities that had similar roles as the norns, and so although they are not always regarded by the name ‘norn’, their roles suggest that they were linked in some way. In Germany, Holland, and Britain, for example, these deities were known as ‘the mothers’, and they were often depicted in groups of three.
3. Snorri Sturluson, Edda, translated by Anthony Faulkes (repr., 1987; London: Everyman, 1995), 18.
4. Carolyne Larrington trans., The Poetic Edda (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 155.
5. Jesse L. Byock trans., The Saga of the Volsungs (London: Penguin Classics, 1999),47.
6. Snorri, 18.
7. There is a case of this in Landnámabók, the Icelandic Book of Settlements, where a man name Thorstein Red-Nose “used to make sacrifices to the waterfall and all the left-overs had to be thrown into it.” (Hermann Pálsson and Paul Edwards trans., The Book of Settlements: Landnámabók (repr., 1972; Winnipeg, Canada: University of Manitoba Press, 2012), 134.) As a result of his offerings, the landvættir gave him 2400 sheep and even the gift of foresight.
8. Larrington, 85. (Lokasenna, stanza 29, lines 3 and 4.)
9. Ibid., 200. (Oddrúnargrátr, stanza 9.)
10. Robert Cook trans., Njal’s Saga (London: Penguin Classics, 2001), 303-7.
11. Lee M. Hollander trans., The Poetic Edda (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2014), 4. (Footnote 17)


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The Language of Silver Millennium

When watching Sailor Moon Crystal, have you ever seen the alien letters resembling that of an Ancient Language spoken in the Moon Kingdom? Usually one can see them on the screens of the computers used by Luna and Artemis, but by far the most noticeable example would be the following scene of the Sword of the Silver Crystal:

I looked everywhere online for answers… Is this even an actual language? Perhaps these letters are a simple cipher for the Latin alphabet or Japanese kana as with the Hylian languages of the Zeldaverse? My eventual conclusion, however, is that these are simply random symbols with no true meaning or correlation to any alphabet. In the picture above, for example, there is an insufficient number of symbols to represent a language with as deep a meaning as the supposed translation. They are made to appeal aesthetically to the idea of an ancient moon language, but the creators put no effort into making it an actual language to much of my dismay. And even if it was a simple cipher of an existing alphabet, I would still be very disappointed at the lack of effort and creativity on the matter.

So, as a result, I took it upon myself to experiment with the given symbols and create an Ancient Moon Language to be spoken in Silver Millennium. I thought the symbols looked as thought they would be a syllabary of some sort (although, the letter-to-word ratio in the picture makes it look as though it were a simple alphabet of some sort, unless the ‘words’ are actually entire sentences and they lack spaces and punctuation, which is also possible), and so I transformed it into a complex featural-syllabic script. The grammar I created is primarily Subject-Object-Verb and uses postpositions, and the language is topographically a fusional language. I based much of the vocabulary on Latin and Ancient Greek so far, as I figured some of the humans on Earth at the time would’ve spoken Latin and Ancient Greek and would be influenced by this language, especially since the Prince’s name is Endymion, which is a Greek name. I also thought that the names of the Sailor Senshi would influence the name of the Roman Gods and Goddesses through contact with the Moon Kingdom, hence their names being of Ancient Moon language origins (which in the language I created would be Giupitéra, Mársia, Mercuría, Venúsia).

Here’s an example I translated; it’s the quote from when Sailor Moon pulls the Sword of the Silver Crystal and the text appearing on the sword is read aloud:

I geládun ilumá cerún elá, Thási ípula irá térmia cristía íli cor-désu le vupá. Perféctu térmiu árgientu cristíu hávae, ne Lúni manílle furtúne empérae. Lúni divíne turúne alá oratíe dárae, ne pásia thasúne alá le tiverá.

(When this sword shines, the legendary crystal within the Queen will work as she wishes. Hold the complete Legendary Silver Crystal and awaken the great power of the Moon. Offer a prayer to the divine tower of the Moon, and peace shall return to the kingdom.)

And then here’s an example of the script as it would be correctly written; it says “Endymion” or literally “Endímiun” (En-dí-mi-un):

So what do you guys think? Should I continue to create this language, maybe even make lessons for others to learn it? Would you be interested in learning such a language?

Oracle Demigods

So, I was working on the next installment of the Oracle series and I thought, ‘Hey, I don’t think I’ve posted anything about the demigods on tumblr yet!’ 

Here we go~

Note: Although this AU doesn’t take place in Greece, it’s heavily influenced by Greek mythology.

The Demigods of the Oracle Universe:

Akashi Seijuurou
Son of the God of the Sky
Father’s Greek name: Zeus

Kise Ryouta
Son of the Goddess of Love & Beauty
Mother’s Greek name: Aphrodite 

Midorima Shintarou
Son of the Goddess of Wisdom & Reason
Mother’s Greek name: Athena

Aomine Daiki
Son of the God of Light
Father’s Greek name: Apollo

Momoi Satsuki
Daughter of the Goddess of the Harvest, Virginity & Women
Mother’s Greek name: Artemis

Murasakibara Atsushi
Son of the God of Ecstasy (& Unrestrained Consumption)
Father’s Greek name: Dionysus

Kuroko Tetsuya
Son of the God of the Underworld
Father’s Greek name: Hades

More info on gods and goddesses here.

LORD OF SHADOWS THEORY: PART 5: WHY JEMMA DOESN’T REMEMBER JESSA’S WEDDING

Disclaimer: My theories are built not just on the Dark Artifices, but from all the previous books as a whole, and will contain SPOILERS if you haven’t read them. These ideas are based solely on book canon.

ON THE NAME CORDELIA

I have seen this theory out there—I was glad someone else had it too. All the girls in my family have at least one name dedicated to a favorite grandmother, aunt or other female relative. Emma Cordelia and Cordelia Carstairs. The family trees are said to be either incomplete or a bit misleading, and I was thinking James and Cordelia had a daughter that was never listed, and Emma is a descendent of Tessa on a matriarchal side. Emma’s mother’s name was Cordelia too. That would mean she would have as much demon blood as the Blackthorns and Jace.

And everyone is comparing her to Jace. (I hope that Cassandra Clare puts in a scene where the two practice together—I’d really like to see who would be better!) This will come into play in a bit.

OH, MY GLITTERY MAGNUS ONE:

He’s up to his feline eyeballs in all of this. He’s the Clave approved warlock to call when you want someone to forget something…

Keep reading

rundown of the Italian renaissance

more notes.. YAY!!!

CAUSES

  1. black death = basically the end of the nobles and the rise of the kings 
  2. europe isn’t alone anymore cuz of the crusades and is now interacting and getting new ideas and spreading new ones 
  3. wealthy merchants are getting big cuz of trade and are now using arts and writing to show their wealth
    1. the competition leads to more education and art 

WHY ITALY?

  • well they are right SMACK in the middle of the Mediterranean sea (MARE NOSTRUM) and basically are at the best location for trade. 

ITALIANS WHO KICKED ASS 

  • all of the di’ Medicis
    • literally they were the coolest
    • they were bankers who were patrons of the art 
    • pretty much ran all of Florence (oligarchies) 
    • sponsored libraries, the arts, the Socratic school there 
    • it reached its peak under Lorenzo the Magnificent 

MEDIEVAL VS. RENAISSANCE MIND SET 

  • medieval
    • God is the fucking best and were all puny humans
    • we have no purpose and are pretty much insignificant 
    • even art was for god and not for the glory of the individual artists 
    • spiritual values and salvation 
  • renaissance
    • people are like the bets thing so set foot on this earth 
    • we gotta focus on the individual and we are awesome
    • people became focused on themselves and the merit
    • new idea of an “ideal renaissance man”
      • well rounded 
      • full range of human abilities
    • people interested in their material possessions: expensive foods, fine music and arts 

THE GREEKS AND ROMANS WERE COOL TOO (HUMANISM)

  • new focus on secularism and not on religion 
  • people revering back to the classical text from Greeks and Romans
  • studying literature, rhetoric, and history from the classics 
  • Lorenzo Valla 
    • proved that the Donation of Constantine was a sloppy forgery and made the church look stupid

MORE HUMANISM 

  • the humanist during the Renaissance used the classics to study human nature and use it practically (ehem common core ehem) 
  • taught things like history, grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy form the Roman and Greek classics 
  • believe that this new curriculum would influence the future youth -__-

CASTIGLIONE

  • wrote The Courtier
  • spoke about how upper class men and women could become courtiers 
  • it was like a guide to be rich and noble 
  • Men
    • charming, witty, can dance, sing, play music, physically graceful and strong 
  • Women
    • don’t seek fame as men do 
    • be perfectly well rounded but hold your tongues 
    • be well educated but do not act upon it 
    • expected to be an ornament of her husband or father

THE PRINCE 

  • Italy
    • in 1492 when Lorenzo died everything fell to shit 
    • then in the Hapsburg-Valois Wars France and Spain fought over Italy 
  • Machiavelli 
    • Florentine diplomat 
    • believed that Italy needed a ruler who was ruthless and could unite Italy during this turmoil 
    • wrote The Prince to explain this 
  • The Perfect Prince 
    • Eugene Fitzherbert 
    • Li Shang 
    • or…. 
      • the prince must do whatever it takes to get stuff done 
      • he though humans were evil, selfish,and corrupt and the ruler needed to be strong and shrewd to keep the peace
      • the end justifies the means 

ART 

  • Patrons
    • Catholic church 
    • guilds 
    • wealthy families
      • art used to display wealth and fame 
  • Characteristics
    • Perspective
      • depth om a flat surface 
    • Chiaroscuro 
      • blending of light and shade 
      • creates volume 
      • real people in real space 
    • Pyramid Configuration 
      • 3D configurations to create symmetry and balance 
    • Classical forms and Christian Subjects 
      • revive standards of beauty- perfect people 
      • combined classical forms with Christian themes 

EXAMPLES OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE 

  • Leon Battista Alberti, The West Facade of Sant’ Andrea 
    • roman arch with Corinthian pilasters that supported a pediment inspired by the classical design 
    • break with Christian traditions because of the Christian building with Roman designs 
  • Michelangelo, David
    • focused on the beauty and perfection of the human 
    • the perfect body emphasizes the Greek influence 
    • in a strong pose rather than serene like in Greek times 
  • Raphael, The School of Athens 
    • has a 3D view 
    • physical representation of past philosophers from the classics 
    • also includes popular philosophers of the time
    • focused on unity, symmetry, and order 

WOMEN 

  • humanists began to debate about women’s character, nature and role in society 
  • Christine De Pizan 
    • the first feminist 
    • wrote a history of women to get rid of the male perspective eon women 
  • Isabella D’Est 
    • most famous Renaissance women 
    • large patron of the arts 
    • patron of the arts was an acceptable role for a women during the time 
Architecture (Part 12): The Palace of Darius

Persian architecture is from the 500’s-300’s BC, and is mostly the remains of palace-temples in Pasagardae, Persepolis, and Susa.  This architecture has a mixture of Assyrian, Egyptian and Greek influences.  The Assyrian influences are that the Persians built on mounds or platforms, now with even more magnificent stone staircases, which were lined with carvings depicting animals and the king’s attendants.  They also used large relief decorations and brightly-coloured glazed brickwork like the Assyrians.

Persepolis has the greatest Persian architecture.  Here, the palaces are massive, dominated by huge square audience halls called apadana. The plans were very complex.

Persepolis is surrounded by a wall, with three large terraces inside. The high central terrace is flanked by lower platforms.  The palaces of Darius and Xerxes (his son) are on these terraces.

The Gate of All Nations, also called the Gate of Xerxes, is marked yellow on the second map.  It was built on the northern terrace, and the other buildings were built on the central terrace.  [Referring just to the palaces, or all of the buildings??]

Gate of All Nations.

The Apadana’s construction was begun by Darius, and finished by Xerxes.  It was mostly used for great receptions by the kings.  It had 72 columns, but only 13 are still standing.  There are two staircases, on the northern & eastern sides, lined with stone-carved reliefs of human figures and stylized plant forms, including rosettes.

The Palace of Darius was built in 521 BC, and below is a drawing based on a carving on Darius’ tomb.  A double flight of steps leads up to an open loggia (gallery/room with one/more open sides), which leads to a central hall.  On the roof is a talar (raised platform), where the king performed religious ceremonies, as he was also the high priest.

Remains of the Palace of Darius.

The doorway had a curved, reeded cornice (ornamental moulding just below the top), like over the doorways of Egyptian temples.

Doorway.

In the door-jamb is a carved stone slab, showing a servant escorting the king inside while holding a sunshade.

The palace had a central apadana with 16 columns.  It was surrounded by smaller cells.  Towers at each of the four corners may have contained guard-rooms and stairs.  A view of the open countryside could be seen from the western portico.

The Hall of 100 Columns (Throne Hall on the second map) had a portal in front of it, with human-headed winged stone bulls, similar to the Assyrian lamussu at Nineveh & Nimrud.  They flanked a mud-brick gatehouse, its walls faced with glazed multi-coloured bricks.

Portal.

Hall of 100 Columns.

anonymous asked:

hi, do you have any recommendations for texts heavily influenced by greek/roman canon (not necessarily straight adaptations but appropriations) in a similar vein to ulysses but hopefully more bearable? sorry if this has been answered ; i tried to quickly skim through your tags but couldn't find anything. thank you !

I do! I would say most of these are direct adaptations nonetheless, but I hope it helps.

POETRY
Autobiography of Red, Anne Carson
Averno, Louise Glück
Meadowlands, Louise Glück
Memorial, Alice Oswald
Orpheus and Eurydice, Gregory Orr
Sonnets to Orpheus, Rainer Maria Rilke
Roman Elegies, J. W. von Goethe
Endymion, John Keats

FICTION
The Penelopiad, Margaret Atwood
Kassandra, Christa Wolf
The Secret History, Donna Tartt
Frankenstein, Mary Shelley
Till We Have Faces, C. S. Lewis
Theseus, André Gide
Memoirs of Hadrian, Marguerite Yourcenar 
The Adventures of Telemachus, Fénelon
The Picture of Dorian Gray, Oscar Wilde
The Birth of the Odyssey, Jean Giono

DRAMA
The Flies, Jean-Paul Sartre
Elektra, Jean Giraudoux
Antigone, Jean Anouilh
Phaedra’s Love, Sarah Kane
Phaedra, Jean Racine
Andromache, Jean Racine
Iphigenia Auf Tauris, J. W. von Goethe
Medea, Pierre Corneille
Prometheus Unbound, Percy Bysshe Shelley
The Infernal Machine, Jean Cocteau
Persephone, André Gide

Have fun! 

“Not Only do I do what I want to do, but I do my work in my own way and never have been influenced by another artist. The sole influences on my art, through the course of my entire career, were the Persian and Indian Miniatures and Greek vases I saw in my childhood at the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg (Now Leningrad). I think that these influences have stayed with me to this day, although they were assimilated long ago.”
Erté

Erté or else Romain de Tirtoff (23 November 1892 – 21 April 1990) was a Russian-born French artist and designer. He was a diversely talented 20th-century artist and designer who flourished in an array of fields, including fashion, jewellery, graphic arts, costume and set design for film, theatre, and opera, and interior decor.

Erté’s love for classical greece is evident in his work, another example of how the grace of the eons that have passed keeps on rekindling inspiration.

“Sisters” by Erté

10

Time for FRIDAY FASHION FACT! I mention the French Revolution in these posts all the time. A few months ago, I discussed why this war (and others) had such a huge impact on fashion (read here.) Now I’m going to delve a little deeper, and discuss how exactly fashion morphed in the years leading up to and following the French Revolution.

There are many misconceptions surrounding this tumultuous era. Many people believe that when the monarchy fell, the extreme opulence fell simultaneously. They think that women quickly switched to simple classical gowns because Napoleon introduced the style. Of course, much of this misunderstanding has to do with a lack of knowledge of French history. As I stated in the post referenced above, dramatic changes in fashion do not happen overnight. The Revolution began in 1789, and Napoleon did not become Emperor until 1804. By the time he gained the title, women were already wearing the simplistic classical styles. In fact, the peak of the simplicity occurred right before Napoleon had a chance to become fully settled into his supreme role. So then how did this style come to be?

Classicism had actually been creeping its way into Western society for well over a century. The Renaissance brought a new-found appreciation and interest in Greek and Roman art and architecture. The Enlightenment, and the scholarly pursuits which accompanied it, were an added catalyst for widespread interest in these ancient cultures. Naturally, this interest was reflected in the art of the time. While myriad art forms were impacted, for our purposes, we’ll just talk about portraiture. Kings were depicted wearing the laurels of caesars. Women were depicted as goddesses and muses. Sometimes the classical inspiration was blatant, other times it was very subtle, such as a woman wearing soft chiton or toga-like drapery.

The first instances of neoclassical dress outside of portraits were in fancy dress. Characters from mythology were a common choice for masquerade costumes. Yet it was Marie Antoinette, who everyone thinks of as the Queen of Opulence, who in the early 1780s introduced simple, loose dress into everyday fashion with the chemise a la reine (which I previously wrote about here.) However, the classicism was taken to another level during the Directoire Era- aka, the years following the Revolution (ca. 1795-99.) Without getting into a whole history lesson, this was when France was run by a (incredibly unsuccessful) Republic, which was inspired by the governments of ancient Greece and Rome. This classical inspiration saturated French culture in many ways, but particularly the arts and fashion. Dresses became incredibly simplistic, typically cotton gowns with next to no tailoring and minimal embellishment, inspired by the pristine marble sculptures from ancient Rome. And as we all know, if the French wore a style, the rest of the Western world did, too.

Around the year 1800, when the French government was changing hands and incredibly unstable, fashion reached the apex of simplicity. The French fashion industry, along with the rest of the economy, had taken a nosedive. Additionally, times of social turmoil often result in simplistic fashion, as style seems to be frivolous when such important issues are at hand. Shortly after the turn of the 19th Century, though, when Napoleon took over and introduced a stable Empire to France, embellishment and opulence began to make its way back into fashion. That, though, is another post for another day.

Have a question about fashion history that you want answered in the next FRIDAY FASHION FACT? Just click the ASK button at the top of the page!