Dante’s Hell is structurally based on the ideas of Aristotle, but with “certain Christian symbolisms, exceptions, and misconstructions of Aristotle’s text.” Dante’s three major categories of sin, as symbolized by the three beasts that Dante encounters in Canto I, are Incontinence, Violence and Bestiality, and Fraud and Malice. Sinners punished for incontinence – the lustful, the gluttonous, the hoarders and wasters, and the wrathful and sullen – all demonstrated weakness in controlling their appetites, desires, and natural urges; according to Aristotle’s Ethics, incontinence is less condemnable than malice or bestiality, and therefore these sinners are located in four circles of Upper Hell (Circles 2-5). These sinners endure lesser torments than do those consigned to Lower Hell, located within the walls of the City of Dis, for committing acts of violence and fraud – the latter of which involves, as Dorothy L. Sayers writes, “abuse of the specifically human faculty of reason”. The deeper levels are organized into one circle for violence (Circle 7) and two circles for fraud (Circles 8 and 9). As a Christian, Dante adds Circle 1 (Limbo) to Upper Hell and Circle 6 (Heresy) to Lower Hell, making 9 Circles in total; incorporating the Vestibule of the Futile, this leads to Hell containing 10 main divisions. This “9+1=10” structure is also found within the Purgatorio and Paradiso. Lower Hell is further subdivided: Circle 7 (Violence) is divided into three rings, Circle 8 (Simple Fraud) is divided into ten bolgia, and Circle 9 (Complex Fraud) is divided into four regions. Thus, Hell contains, in total, 24 divisions.
Corporate giant chain store in malls, Francesca’s, sold unauthorized copies of pins by me and 20+ other artists. I cannot tell you how exhausting it is to deal with this constant barrage of copying of my artwork, and how much it takes me away from things like sleep, family, and making new work. It’s made me fearful of sharing new work, and fearful of releasing new pins.
I called, they ignored. I lawyered up, they didn’t respond. Supporters of art and confused Francesca’s customers commented on their social media channels about this and were deleted and banned. Their handling of this situation is awful and unethical and doesn’t point toward resolution as they force artists to pursue expensive legal action.
I need your help.
Would you please share this image or story with your networks?
Would you please call out Francesca’s for their bad business practices and urge them to make it right with the artists?
Any of these things would be a huge help, and I welcome your suggestions as well. Thank you so much to those who are already doing so much to support me and the other artists. It’s been devastating, and while I’m not a stranger to being copied unethically, this is the first time I’ve ever experienced a company’s complete unwillingness to respond to a lawyer, not to mention their awful business practices in silencing consumers who felt misled. They know most artists can’t afford to or can’t take the time to fight legal battles in court, but I hope to find justice, and their customers deserve to know the truth.
America’s Founding Fathers initially
had no political parties because they
tried to avoid the vicious fighting
they’d witnessed within the British
government, and they aimed to focus
on electing the best candidate for
presidency instead of becoming divided
over greed-driven competitions. Source