greco italian war


October 28th 1940: Greece rejects Mussolini’s ultimatium

On this day in 1940 during World War Two, the Greek government rejected Italian dictator Benito Mussolini’s demand that the Greeks allow the Italian army to enter and occupy the country. At 3 a.m. the Italian ambassador to Greece, Emanuele Grazzi, delivered Mussolini’s ultimatum to Greek Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas. The Prime Minister replied with “Alors, c'est la guerre"  ("Then, it is war”). The people of Greece celebrated Metaxas’s defiant “Oxi” (Greek for ‘no’) and resisted when the Italian army crossed the Greek border. The Greeks fought valiantly in the subsequent Greco-Italian War, successfully pushing the Italian army back into Albania. Greece ultimately fell to the Axis powers, with Nazi Germany assisting Italy in Greece and eventually occupying the country. It has been suggested that had Greece surrendered, the Nazis would have made greater strides across Europe and thus Mataxas’s 'No’ prevented the war from lasting longer. By having to detour through Greece, Hitler’s Germany lost valuable time in the spring and had to delay the invasion of Russia until the winter, a decision that proved disastrous for the Axis war effort. This day is celebrated in Greece as 'No Day’, and is marked with military parades and displays of patriotism.

Italian troops in action against Greek forces in Albania during the Greco-Italian War in 1940. Expecting a quick victory, Italy invaded Greece in the fall of 1940, but great material and numerical superiority, were quickly stalled in their offensive, and by December found themselves pushed back to Albania by the tenacious Greek defenders.

The front stabilized through the winter, further attempts to move into Greece were thwarted until German intervention. Mussolini had ignored Hitler’s request to not undertake the operation in the first place, and combined with Italian setbacks in Africa, accepting the German assistance was just one embarrassment among many for the Fascist dictator.

Greco-Italian War 1940, Klisura Pass. A Greek soldier plays the bugle during the Capture of the pass .

Ελληνο-Ιταλικός πόλεμος του 1940, στενό της Κλεισούρας. Ένας Έλληνας στρατιώτης παίζει τη σάλπιγγα κατά την κατάληψη του περάσματος.


January 29th 1941: Ioannis Metaxas died

On this day in 1941, Greek dictator Ioannis Metaxas died in Athens aged 69. Born in Ithaca in 1871, Metaxas joined the army and served in the 1897 Greco-Turkish War and in the Balkan Wars from 1912-13, becoming a general in 1916. Due to his staunch monarchism, the general was briefly exiled after the monarchy was deposed in 1917, but returned upon restoration in 1920. After the monarchy was deposed again in 1923, Metaxas entered politics as a loyalist and received strong electoral support. His loyalty was rewarded, as upon the restoration of the monarchy, Metaxas was appointed to a ministerial position, and then premier in April 1936. However, soon into his premiership, Metaxas dissolved Parliament and began a dictatorship - known as the Fourth of August regime - which was authorised by the monarch. Metaxas intended to create a new Greek civilisation to emulate the glory of ancient Greece, but instead his regime was fascistic and fiercely repressive of political dissent. Metaxas is best known for his refusal to allow Benito Mussolini’s troops occupy Greece in 1940. Metaxas’s defiant ‘ohi’ (’no’) to Mussolini began the Greco-Italian War, and the general lead the small Greek army to victory, making the dictator a popular figure in Greece. Metaxas’s sudden death in 1941 was shrouded in mystery, as while the official cause of death was septicemia, rumours abounded that he had been assassinated by the British. Metaxas was replaced by Alexandros Koryzis, who had to deal with the German invasion and ultimately committed suicide in April 1941 as German troops marched on Athens. While he ruled with an iron fist, and is reviled by many for his fascist sympathies, Ioannis Metaxas was hailed as a Greek national hero for his successful defence of Greece during the Second World War.

kazuhiramlller  asked:

WAIT SO YOU'VE READ CAPTIVE PRINCE TOO. I need an honest review from someone I know has good taste, stat. Amazon had bad reviews and I don't tend to trust the general tumblr populace has to say... So was it good? great? Completely awful?

The beginning of this sounds like I’m slamming the series, but I own all three books and gushed about it for days, so hold your horses until you finish reading.

Right, so I have several pretentious tumors that make it difficult for me to have fun. This is just how I am. I’ve given up caring whether or not 90% of my person is a stick in the mud or not. With that ‘no fun’ clause in place, I want to say that Captive Prince was my first ‘good time’ read in years. Bear with me when I say that. I’m just coming out of a creative writing/art history degree built on visual analysis, so I’ve had no time for an easy read since basically high school. It wasn’t by choice.

I think a lot of people scrunch their noses at Captive Prince, especially Tumblr, because it has extremely unapologetic sexual content that is evidently self-indulgent. To be honest, this is what made me like it. I miss that sense of ‘I don’t fucking care’ in fan fiction, so seeing it in a published work was like a goddamn treat. I ate it up. Licked the plate, even. I stole rolls and put them in my purse. You might even find the salt and pepper shakers in there.

Pacat conveniently framed it so that fluid sexuality was unquestionable. There are, unfortunately, moments of romanticized slave relationships, but that’s tackled by the eventual horrors she brings into it. Really, you get a sense of ‘this is just how the world is.’ The writer obviously branched from fan fiction, which is fine, but typically, when people make the transition into publishing, they’ve thoughtfully reformatted their tone for the small aspiration to be taken serious by the literary community. I could’ve gone through that whole book with an ink pen and highlighter and done double-time what her editor did. Sometimes you can’t tell if it’s romance or Stockholm Syndrome, but that also sorts itself out. There are a lot of – “Did that even make sense?” moments, but usually, you flit over them. Let’s be fair, we’re always more there for the characters. 

While reading it, it was easy to insert my OTP’s names on top of Laurent’s and Damen’s and build my own massively French/Italian meets Greco-Roman war au. Sometimes it dragged, and then other times, it went way too fast where it needed to drag (the ending), and you can feel when she got sick of certain parts of her own book rather than muscling through and tidying them up.  

Me picking it apart aside, she accurately captures the point blank neuroticism that comes from being abused and how it bleeds into your personality throughout the rest of your life; how it forcefully recreates your identity. She makes good commentary on how relationships cannot always come to fruition because we want them to, even when the pieces are lined up. Love never comes first when real life happens. Pacat was very thoughtful about never sweetening the relationship between the two men when you’re ripping your teeth out because they just won’t be. What makes it so good is how the start’s world building is so devoid from what the ending becomes. She hooks you with the sex and then guts you with unexpected emotional investment. Also, the unreliable narrator aspect of it is handled very well.

Seriously, you cannot have a full-bodied opinion of this series until you read all of it. It’s enjoyable. There’s great sexual tension. The slow burn is something I’ve been choking myself for since 2013. You cannot expect perfection in Captive Prince, but it really got my brain thinking about abuse and me as a person. I know it’s done that for a lot of people. That, in itself, makes it a good read. It also ends in hope. You really couldn’t ask for more. 


28η Οκτωβρίου - Επέτειος του «'Οχι»  

Epeteios tou “‘Ohi”, (Anniversary of the “No”) is celebrated throughout Greece, Cyprus and the Greek communities around the world on October 28 each year. Ohi Day commemorates the rejection by Greek dictator Ioannis Metaxas of the ultimatum made by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini on October 28, 1940, the Hellenic counterattack against the invading Italian forces at the mountains of Pindus during the Greco-Italian War, and the Greek Resistance during the Axis occupation.