great war in europe

me, every time anyone bakes anything on gbbo: yes, this is it - this is what I’ll make for Christmas dinner every year once I’m a RealAdult™ with a PerfectFamily™ 

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Thinking of Pépère Hug today, on the 100th Anniversary of the United States entering World War One.

My great grandfather was an immigrant. Born in Alsace at a time when it was conquered by the German Empire, he was constantly harassed for being both French and German ethnically. He moved to the United States in 1910, when he was only 18 with his pregnant wife, settling in Rhode Island. A short six years later he as a soldier in the U.S. Army returned to Europe to fight in the Great War against the very nation that he was born in, and the one that had oppressed him so. To have done so much at such a young age is awe inspiring. His story is that of the American Dream, and supreme love for the Nation who had given him so much.

I love you Pépère Hug, and respect the millions of other Yanks who fought and bled “Over There”.

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Strada Statale “Strada degli Scrittori” - SS640

Vi sono dei luoghi che pur non identificabili come arte manifesta, come arte evidente, sono segretamente, intensamente nutrici di arte. È questo il caso della strada SS 640 ribattezzato “La strada degli scrittori” in quanto, per caso (ma in Sicilia il caso ha sempre una ragione per esistere) o per motivazioni sconosciute, si sono formati e cresciuti alcuni degli scrittori Italiani più famosi. Eppure, chi si trovasse a percorrerla, a parte il caldo non vedrebbe altro che terre e campi bruciati dal sole e dallo zolfo. Forse è proprio questo il suo segreto: essere terra estrema dove la povertà e i paesaggi nudi ed ascetici, l’esistenza della sola arte essenziale della parola, obbligano gli artisti ad esprimersi nella scrittura cercando in essa il senso di quei luoghi e di quelle vite che quei luoghi subiscono e malgrado tutto, amano. Venendo da Catania o Palermo, si incontra Caltanissetta dove Rosso di San Secondo nacque e studiò e che lasciò maledicendo lo zolfo e la società che l’abitava, cercando pace nel Nord Europa da dove tornò per la grande guerra comprendendo che anche il suo sangue era di zolfo e che la sua terra maledetta prima, era invece terra di pace, madre indimenticabile. Scendendo verso il mare troviamo Regalbuto dove Leonardo Sciascia creò il suo immaginario, la sua lucida e illuministica intelligenza in cui cercava di chiarire alcuni dei periodi più contraddittori della nostra terra. Si arriva quindi a Favara dove il mite Antonio Russello nacque e periodicamente tornò, in quel pendolarismo tutto siciliano in cui gli abbandoni sono seguiti da continui ritorni, da nuove temporanee rinascite. Agrigento ci appare e ci ricorda il grande Pirandello, la folle logica dei suoi personaggi, le maschere sociali dietro a cui ci si doveva nascondere per vivere. “Bruciatemi. E il mio corpo appena arso, sia lasciato disperdere; perché niente, neppure la cenere, vorrei avanzasse di me. Ma se questo non si può fare sia l’urna cineraria portata in Sicilia e murata in qualche rozza pietra nella campagna di Girgenti, dove nacqui » così scriveva il poeta per la sua morte e così venne fatto ed ora sotto un Pino, in una grezza pietra, c’è la sua tomba. In prossimità del mare eccoci nelle terre del Principe Tomasi di Lampedusa, il Gattopardo, signore di Palma di Montechiaro in cui ambientò parte del suo magnifico libro. Scendiamo ancora verso Porto Empedocle dove incontriamo l’immaginario del commissario Montalbano e la città di Camilleri, il suo creatore. Appoggiato ad un lampione, il commissario ci aspetta quasi a chiederci conto se in questo discendere dal cuore della Sicilia al mare, anche noi abbiamo percepito quell’arte della parola che qui è sempre stata più forte che mai.

 Nelle foto, inizio della “Strada degli Scrittori, Caltanissetta,  Racalmuto,Favara, Agrigento tomba di Pirandello, Palma di Montechiaro, Porto Empedocle.

There are places that, although not identifiable as manifest art, as obvious art, are secretly, intensely nourishing of art. This is the case of highway SS 640, which has been renamed as the “writers’ highway” since, by chance (but in Sicily the case always has reason to exist) or for unknown reasons, some of the most famous Italian writers have come up and raised on the towns close to this highway. Whoever is to go along the highway, apart from the heat, you would see only the fields and fields burned by the sun and the sulfur. Perhaps this is its secret: being extreme land where poverty and bare and ascetic landscapes, the existence of the only essential art of the word, requires the artists to express themselves in writing, seeking in it the sense of those countryside and those lives that those places suffer and love. Coming from Catania or Palermo, you’ll meet Caltanissetta where Rosso di San Secondo was born and studied and left cursing the sulfur and the society that lived there, seeking peace in northern Europe from where he returned for the great war, also realizing that his blood was made by sulfur and that his earth cursed before, was instead land of peace, unforgettable mother. Descending to the sea we find Regalbuto where Leonardo Sciascia created his imaginary world, his lucid and illuminist intelligence in which he tried to clarify some of the most contradictory periods of our land. Then we come to Favara where the mild Antonio Russello was born and periodically returned, in that all Sicilian commuting where abandonments are followed by continuous returns, by new temporary rebirths. Agrigento appears and reminds us of the great Pirandello, the crazy logic of his characters, the social masks behind which we had to hide to live. “Burn me. And my body just burned, let it be dispersed; Because nothing, not even ashes, I would like to advance to me. But if this can not be done, the urn of cineraria brought to Sicily and walled in some rough stone in the countryside of Girgenti, where it was born “ so the poet wrote for his death, and so it was done and now under a Pine in a rough stone , there is his tomb. Near the sea we are here in the land of Prince Tomasi of Lampedusa, the Gattopardo, Lord of Palma di Montechiaro where he set part of his magnificent book. We go down to Porto Empedocle where we meet the land of Commissioner Montalbano and the city of Camilleri, its creator. Leaning on a lamp, the Commissioner almost expects us to wonder if in this descend from the heart of Sicily to the sea, we have also perceived the art of the word that here has always been stronger than ever

Бронзовая скульптура «Воин-освободитель». Берлин. 1949 г.

Soviet War Memorial in Treptower Park, Berlin. 1949.

Canada Enacts Conscription

An anti-conscription march in Montreal in May 1917.

August 29 1917, Ottawa–Britain’s overseas dominions, though they had an initial enthusiastic call-up of volunteers, were deeply divided on the issue of conscription.  Whether men should be drafted to serve in a war on another continent was a matter of great debate.  In Australia, conscription was narrowly defeated in a plebiscite in late 1916, while in New Zealand it had been enacted a few weeks earlier.  In Canada, there was severe opposition to conscription in Québec.  French-speakers were not well-treated in the Canadian Army, which only had one belatedly-created French-speaking battalion.  Additionally, there was little affection for Great Britain (or even France) in Québec; the war in Europe was not viewed as Québec’s concern.

Despite these objections, in the summer of 1917, PM Borden’s government (which had already delayed mandated elections due to the war) pushed for conscription.  Canadian manpower in Europe was running low after years of war, and new volunteers were not forthcoming.  Additionally, the United States’ entry and own conscription program now threatened to put Canada to shame.  On August 29, Parliament passed the Military Service Act, which would call up unmarried men between 20 and 34 on November 10, though there were broad exemptions available.

The news was met with immediate protests in Montreal, where on the same day over 5000 people marched against conscription.  Resentment in Québec would continue for the rest of the war and beyond, and anti-conscription protests would increase in size and intensity in 1918.

Today in 1916: Falkenhayn Out; Hindenburg & Ludendorff In
Today in 1915: $55 Million in Gold and Securities Arrives in New York from Britain
Today in 1914: Russian General Samsonov Commits Suicide After His Army Is Destroyed at Tannenberg

August 13, 1917 - British Government Stops Labour Delegates from Attending Stockholm Peace Conference

Pictured - Pax im Weltkrieg - a poster advertising the socialist peace conference in neutral Stockholm in September 1917. Both Britain and France stopped their own socialists from attending.

Socialism and social democracy were popular platforms across Europe before the Great War - Germany’s Social Democrats were the largest political party. Yet when the war broke out, the respective socialist parties supported their governments and the conflict. But that consensus broke down as the war dragged on and especially after Russia’s February Revolution.

Inspired by the success of a moderate socialist revolution in Russia, socialist parties agreed to gather in Stockholm in September 1917 to discuss peace and the future of Europe. It was the third such meeting during the war, but the first with real optimism about a united front of workers in Europe. Socialist parties in Britain, France, the US, and in Germany and Austria-Hungary, were eager to attend.

The warring governments were cooler to the idea, however. French Premier Georges Clemenceau barred France’s socialists from attending. British Prime Minister David Lloyd George had at first been friendly to the conference, but worried about the attendance of delegates from the Labour Party. Some of the conference members were too radical for Britain and France’s liking - there would be both Bolsheviks and members of the Zimmerwald Movement there, a pro-peace group that included Vladimir Lenin. On August 13 the British government pulled passports from the British delegates who had planned to intend.

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I love this tree sculpture at the NZ War Memorial site, Pukeahu Unveiled in July, the memorial is a “gift from the people Britain to the people of New Zealand” recognising the 18,500 New Zealand Maori and Pakeha troops who did not return from Europe and the Middle East following the Great War. The nearly five metre tall memorial captures an oak tree intertwining with a pohutukawa tree against the silhouette of a World War I solider.

June 9, 1815

There have been a lot of meetings in Austria’s’ place as the Four Great Powers – Austria, Prussia, Russia, and England (and his brothers) – are trying to decide the fate of Europe after France was defeated at least they hope he was defeated, Napoleon has returned from his exile.

At first there was a short silent moment. It’s suspected that the Holy Roman Empire didn’t survive the wars. He’s nowhere to be found, so we need to assume he’s dead. Someone in the room was sobbing really loudly…

Then they wanted to cancel all the changes made by France or with the help of him.

…With some exceptions; Russia got permission to keep me and Bessarabia.

But because Sve was on the right side of the war, he couldn’t be punished by the loss of me. That’s why he got permission to keep Norway as compensation, even though Norway declared his wish to be independent.

Nobody was ready to agree on that, so he demanded that the great powers at least recognize his rights if he needs to live with Sve. He wants them to supervise he isn’t forced to do things he doesn’t want to do.

Norway wasn’t the only one, also Belgium was ready to be independent, but everybody thought it’s better for her and her brother to move in with Netherlands.

Because no one wanted to punish France and his allies too harshly, Denmark was given Swedish Pomerania, and permission to keep some of the former Norwegian territories, like Iceland. But he wasn’t interested in Pomerania and promised to sell the land to Prussia who’s been really eager to collect those Germanic lands.

Prussia also wanted to have Poland back, but so did Russia. That’s why they made a compromise; Russia, Prussia and Austria kept the Polish lands, but Prussia got a lot of lands of Saxony, and Russia got to keep Poland… who protested pretty strongly even though he was promised an autonomous position (better than mine…).

There were other changes too where those bigger nations got some of the smaller ones, liberated Switzerland was forced to become neutral etc.

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Writing Research - World War One

World War I (WWI or WW1 or World War One), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war, a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents’ technological and industrial sophistication, and tactical stalemate. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, paving the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. [1]

Names

  • Social Security Association - Popular Baby Names in 1914
  • Social Security Association - Popular Baby Names in 1918
  • British Baby Names - The Top 100 Names in England and Wales in 1914
  • About.com - Japanese Baby Names for 1915 - 2000

Society & Life

  • The Guardian - 1914: Life Before War – in Pictures (Britain)
  • The British Library - Europe Before 1914
  • Houston Chronicle - American Life in 1914: How We Lived A Century Ago
  • The Globe and Mail - What was life in Canada like before the First World War?
  • The Daily Mirror - 1913 in Pictures: Long Summer before World War One and End of Life as we Knew it
  • The Western Telegraph - life Before the First World War
  • History Learning Site - The Home Front 1914 to 1918 (Britain)
  • Life in Russia 1914-41
  • Alpha History - Great Britain before World War I
  • History of Ireland - 1914 to 1919: The First World War, Easter Rising and Rise of Sinn Féin
  • Click Americana - Average Life of a Woman in 1914
  • Australian Department of Veterans’ Affairs - Australian Women in World War I, 1914-1918 (PDF)
  • Australia.gov.au - Women in Wartime
  • Ontario Human Rights Commission - Women’s rights during WW1 in Canada
  • BBC - British Women at War, 1914-1918 (Video)
  • BBC - Women on the Home Front, 1914-1918 (Video)
  • BBC - British History: Women on the Home Front in World War One
  • BBC - What Did World War One Really Do For Women?
  • The British Library - Women at Home in a World at War
  • National Women’s History Museum - Women in World War I
  • San José State University - Women in WWI
  • Mail Online - Condemned to be virgins: The two million women robbed by the war
  • Clark College - Women’s Roles in the World War I Era and the Russian Revolution (PDF)
  • BBC - World War One: Family Life
  • Mail Online - Incredible photos from WW1 reveal the backbreaking and often dangerous work taken on by British women during the Great War
  • PBS - The Great War Timeline: Pre-1914
  • History.com - First World War Erupts
  • Australian War Memorial - Enlistment Standards
  • The British Library - Recruitment: Conscripts and Volunteers during World War One
  • The Telegraph - First World War Centenary: How the Events of August 1, 1914 Unfolded
  • Heritage History - Why the War Began in 1914
  • PBS - The Great War Timeline, 1914
  • History.com - U.S. Proclaims Neutrality in World War I
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - Why did the U.S. enter WWI?
  • Australian War Memorial - First World War 1914-18
  • University of Houston - Overview of World War I
  • Red Cross Canada - The First World War: 1914-1918
  • Education Scotland - The Great War, 1914-18
  • The George Washington University - World War I: 1914 - 1918
  • The National Archives - Civilians & War 1914-18, Britain
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica - World War I, 1914-18
  • Chicago Tribune - World War 1, 1914-1918
  • Anne Frank House - 1914: World War One
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - What would you say are the most notable reasons for the start of World War I?
  • Collin County Community College - Background to the War Nobody Won: World War I, 1914-1918
  • Academia.edu - Life in the Trenches: Soldiers on the Western Front, 1914-1918
  • The British Army in the Great War of 1914-1918 - The Life of a British Soldier
  • The British Library - Sensuous Life in the Trenches
  • The British Library - Combat and the Soldier’s Experience in World War One
  • BBC - World Wars: Soldier’s Stories (Audio)
  • Canadian War Museum - History of the First World War: Life at the Front
  • First World War - Life in the Trenches
  • BBC - Life in the trenches during World War One (Video)
  • The New York Times - Diaries of British Soldiers Detail Horrors of World War I
  • The Daily Telegraph - Soldier’s Diary of the First World War
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - How Dangerous was Life as a WWI Artilleryman?
  • Mail Online - Bloodthirsty World War I diaries of German soldier celebrate fighting on the Western Front
  • The Daily Telegraph - WW1 German soldier recalls moment he bayoneted foe to death
  • The Daily Beast - French Soldier’s WWI Memoir Vividly Describes Trench Warfare
  • The Daily Telegraph - Unseen interviews with WW1 veterans recount the horror of the trenches
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - In trench warfare, like what was seen during WWI, how were trenches excavated close to the opposing army front line without being overrun or shelled to pieces?
  • Reddit: Ask Histories - I know nothing about WWI warfare
  • Mail Online - World War One from the OTHER side: Hundreds of fascinating images taken by a GERMAN soldier reveal life in enemy’s trenches (Photos)
  • Canadian Naval Memorial Trust - Canadian Naval Operations in World War I (1914-18)
  • Life in Italy During World War I
  • Office of the Historian - American Entry into World War 1, 1917-1920
  • Schomburg-Mellon Humanities Summer Institute - African Americans and World War I
  • Wikipedia - United States Home Front During World War I
  • Wikipedia - United Kingdom Home Front During World War I
  • Wikipedia - Home Front During World War I (Covering all Major Countries Involved)
  • The Australian Home Front During World War 1
  • The Guardian - Children to mark WWI’s ‘Christmas Truce’ with plays and football
  • History.com - Christmas Truce of 1914: World War I
  • New Zealand History - Schools in 1914 and the First World War
  • The British Library - Children’s Experiences of World War One
  • The Atlantic - World War I in Photos: Soldiers and Civilians (Photos)
  • The Blaze - Simply Amazing Photos of WWI That You May Not Have Seen Before (Photos)
  • The Legal Genealogist - A Doughboy’s Age
  • Wikipedia - Recruitment to the British Army During the First World War
  • Australian War Memorial - Enlistment Statistic: First World War
  • Canadian War Museum - French Canada and Recruitment during the First World War
  • Mental Floss - 12 Technological Advancements of World War I
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - WWI: Technology and the Weapons of War
  • BBC - 10 Inventions That Owe Their Success to World War One
  • Encyclopedia Britannica - World War I: Technology of War in 1914
  • The Library of Congress - The Increasing Power of Destruction: Military Technology in World War I
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - How did submarines in WWI and WWII navigate underwater and avoid collisions?
  • The Atlantic - World War I in Photos: Technology (Photos)
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - What were the German war aims of World War I?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - Why was Germany blamed for World War I?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - Why did Japan change allegiance from the WWI to WWII?

Commerce

  • Arkansas Hearst Television Inc - What Things Cost in America in 1914 and 2014
  • University of Colorado Boulder - Wartime Changes in the Cost of Living (PDF)
  • Historical Text Archive - Retail Food Prices, 1913,1914, 1924, 1925
  • Food Timeline - Food for the Workers (PDF)
  • Food Timeline - Monthly Labor Review, 1914-1923 (PDF)
  • Federal Reserve Archival System for Economic Research - Retail Prices and Cost of Living Series: 1915 - 1937
  • International Institute of Social History - Datafiles of Historical Prices and Wages

Entertainment & Food

  • Le Moyne College - 19th & 20th Century Cookbooks
  • Vintage Recipes - Things Mother Used to Make: 1914
  • The Daily Telegraph - How to bake a First World War trench cake
  • The Daily Telegraph - Beef tea, potato pie and duff pudding: How to eat like a WW1 Tommy
  • National Archives and Records Administration - Food Will Win the War: On the Homefront in World War I
  • History Learning Site - Soldiers Food in the Trenches
  • BBC - Trench Food in World War One
  • Imperial War Museum - Rationing and Food Shortages during the First World War
  • Smithsonian Institution - American Food Posters From World War I and II
  • British Red Cross - True Stories from WWI: The Crimson Field and Hospital Food
  • BBC - WWI Home Front Food: What did children eat and drink?
  • History.com - Lunch With Libby: World War I Doughboy Rations and Red Cross Cakes
  • The Salvation Army, Palm Beach County - WWI Doughnut Recipe
  • Old Time Candy - Pre-1920 Candies
  • The Daily Telegraph - WW1 led to ‘ladette culture’ as women turned to drink
  • History Today - The Drink Crisis During World War One
  • BBC - The 'Lost’ Poetry of World War One
  • University of California, Santa Barbara Library - Popular Songs of World War I
  • Wikipedia - 1914 in Music
  • Wikipedia - 1915 in Music
  • Wikipedia - 1916 in Music
  • Wikipedia - 1917 in Music
  • Wikipedia - 1918 in Music
  • Smarthistory - British Art and Literature During WWI
  • History Today - First World War Literature
  • Wikipedia - World War I in Literature
  • Yale University - World War I: Literature and the War
  • Wikipedia - 1914 in Literature
  • Wikipedia - List of American Films of 1914
  • Wikipedia - List of American Films of 1915
  • Wikipedia - List of American Films of 1916
  • Wikipedia - List of American Films of 1917
  • Wikipedia - List of American Films of 1918
  • Wikipedia - List of French Films of 1914
  • World Socialist Web Site - Cinema as an imperialist weapon: Hollywood and World War I
  • The New York Times - How the First World War Changed Movies Forever
  • Wikipedia - World War I Film Propaganda
  • BBC - World War One Movies
  • The Daily Telegraph - Newly restored footage gives unique insight into WW1 (Video)
  • Military.com - Intense Battle Footage from WWI (Video)
  • Click Americana - Headlines from the Very Start of WWI, 1914
  • BBC - Art from Different Fronts of World War One

Hygiene, Health, & Medicine

  • Alverno College - Life Expectancy among Men and Women during World War I
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - WWI: Medicine on the Battlefield
  • BBC - How did WW1 Change the Way we Treat War injuries Today?
  • The British Library - Wounding in World War One
  • CEUFast - Nursing and Medicine During World War I
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Chemical Warfare and Medical Response During World War I
  • Imperial War Museum - Medical Services in the First World War
  • University of Kansas Hospital - Medicine in the First World War
  • Science Museum - Medicine in the War Zone, WWI
  • BBC - How WW1 Changed Emergency Medicine
  • American Memory - Health and Medicine: Red Cross and World War I
  • BBC - World War One: Illness and Injury
  • Prezi - Diseases During WWI (Video)
  • Prezi - Diseases and Medicine WWI (Video)
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - The U.S. Military and the Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919
  • The National Archives - First Word War: Problems
  • Prezi - Health & Hygiene in WWI (Video)
  • The National Archives - British Army nurses’ service records 1914-1918
  • First World War.com - Memoirs & Diaries: Nurse
  • Western Front Association - British Military Nurses and the Great War: a Guide to the Services
  • The Daily Telegraph - Pioneering Plastic Surgery Records From the First World War
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Medical advances consequent to the Great War 1914-1918
  • Science Museum - War and Medicine
  • United States Air Force - Military Medicine During the Twentieth Century: World War I
  • British Red Cross - Volunteers During the First World War
  • The Wall Street Journal - World War I Centenary: Medicine

Fashion

  • Fashion Era - 1914-1920: Towards Dress Reform
  • The Guardian - The Influence of the Great War on Fashion
  • Glamourdaze - History of Women’s Fashion: 1900 to 1919
  • BBC - World War I War Clothes
  • BBC - Men’s Clothes
  • BBC - Girls’ Clothes
  • BBC - Boys’ Clothes
  • Vogue Magazine - Wartime Wardrobe: How Will Downtown Abbey Dress for WWI?
  • Mail Online - Stylish in trousers and elegant in trench coats: The changing fashions worn by the battling women of World War One revealed in incredible illustrations
  • University of Massachusetts - Hairstyles of the War Eras
  • The University of Vermont - Women’s Hairstyles: 1910s
  • The University of Vermont - Women’s Hats: 1910s
  • The University of Vermont - Women’s Fashion Accessories: 1910s
  • The University of Vermont - Men’s Fashion: 1910s
  • The University of Vermont - Women’s Fashion: 1910s
  • Glamourdaze - The History of Makeup: 1900 to 1919
  • History of Footwear - 1870-1914 Women’s Shoes
  • Victoria and Albert Museum - WW1 Era Clothing: Archive of Art and Design Resources for Re-enactors and Costumers
  • Illinois State University - WWI Women Fashion
  • Wikipedia - British Army Uniform and Equipment in World War I
  • Solider of Fortune - WW1 British Army Soldier Uniform from the Somme 1916
  • BBC - World War One: Guided Tour of British Soldier’s Kit (Video)
  • Military Items- WWI American Military Uniforms
  • Old Magazine Articles - U.S. Army Uniforms of World War One
  • Collectors Weekly - World War One Antiques and Memorabilia
  • Trenches on the Web - Wartime Changes to the German Field Uniform 1914-1916

Dialogue

  • The British Library - Slang and World War One
  • Trenches on the Web - Words, Expressions & Terms Popularized 1914 - 1918
  • Mail Online - Oxford English Dictionary reveals how the trenches of World War One shaped our language…and there could be more
  • Australian War Memorial - Australian First World War “slanguage”
  • The Guardian - Trench talk: A Guide to First World War Slang
  • Mental Floss- 21 Slang Terms From World War I
  • Bartleby - The American Heritage Book of English Usage: War Slang
  • Canadian War Museum - Soldier's Slang
  • BBC History - Slang and swear words 'helped soldiers survive the First World War’
  • French Slang in the Trenches of World War One

Justice & Crime

  • Wikipedia - Battle of Tannenberg, 1914
  • Wikipedia - Abschwangen Massacre, 1914
  • Wikipedia - Ludlow Massacre, 1914
  • Wikipedia - Battle of Broken Hill, 1915
  • Wikipedia - Sinking of the RMS Lusitania, 1915
  • Wikipedia - 1915 Singapore Mutiny
  • Wikipedia - Surdulica Massacre, 1916
  • Wikipedia - Black Tom Explosion, 1916
  • Wikipedia - Everett Massacre, 1916
  • Wikipedia - Preparedness Day Bombing, 1916
  • Wikipedia - East St. Louis Riot, 1917
  • Wikipedia - Houston Riot, 1917
  • Wikipedia - 1917 Kazan Gunpowder Plant Fire
  • Wikipedia - Kielce Pogrom, 1918
  • Wikipedia - Lwow Pogrom, 1918
  • Wikipedia - March Days, 1918
  • Wikipedia - September Days, 1918
  • Wikipedia - 1914 in United States Case Laws
  • Wikipedia - 1915 in United States Case Laws
  • Wikipedia - 1916 in United States Case Laws
  • Wikipedia - 1917 in United States Case Laws
  • Wikipedia - 1918 in United States Case Laws
  • Wikipedia - United Kingdom Acts of Parliament 1914
  • British Military Crime and Punishment of 1914-1918
  • Wikipedia - List of War Crimes: World War I
  • BBC - The British WWI prisoner of war who returned to captivity
  • Trenches on the Web - Frank Savicki: First Doughboy Prisoner of War to Escape
  • Wikipedia - World War I Prisoners of War in Germany 
  • Academia.edu - Prisoners of War on the Eastern Front During World War I
  • History Learning Site - World War One Executions
  • International Committee of the Red Cross - Chemical and Biological Weapons
  • Wikipedia - Weapons of World War I
  • The Daily Telegraph - Weapons of World War I
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica - Biological weapons in the World Wars
  • Wikipedia - Chemical Weapons and the United Kingdom
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - Small Arms the World War One Era
  • Canadian War Museum - The First World War: Discipline and Punishment
  • The British Library - Military Discipline and Punishment
  • BBC - Shot at Dawn: Cowards, Traitors or Victims?
  • The National Archives - Courts Martial during the First World War
  • History Today - Crucifying Tommy: Punishment in the First World War
  • The Daily Mirror - Heroes Not Cowards: Pardons for Men Shot in WWI
  • History.com - British Soldier Henry Farr Executed for Cowardice
  • Australian War Memorial - Desertion and the Death Penalty
  • Wikipedia - World War I Prisoners of War Held by the United Kingdom
  • BBC - Why were journalist threatened with execution in WWI?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - We have all heard of the mass infantry charges in World War One, but what was the thought process behind them?
  • Imperial War Museum - Prisoners of War in the First World War

i saw a post that said the world wars were both about white people struggling for domination and some tumblr dipshit was like NO LOOK AT THESE THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES THAT FOUGHT IN THESE WARS (mostly ww2 but whatever) AS WELL. i mean….do you remember why world war one began. an assassination, but tensions were rising because of….border disputes in europe. d o you remember why world war two began. hitler began expanding rapidly out of germany and into the rest of europe. so, in other words…..border disputes in europe.

i could go on about this but these border disputes in europe eventually wrapped up the entire fucking planet in their narcissistic destruction. and yet somehow its wrong to say the ‘great wars’ were about anything but border disputes in europe. 

that isnt to say brazil, where i live and am from, hasnt had its fair share of horrific wars over territory (like when we went to war with paraguay and effectively genocided their entire male population) but to involve the entire planet in war is such a european concept. you people cant just fight it out amongst yourselves, you have to kill each other AND the planet. thats what i find so distasteful about europeans (and north americans). not to mention the rationalization and justification of why you had to involve the rest of us in your violence. 

also, your petty border issues demand suffocating millions with chlorine gas and that can be remembered as a great war but wars of liberation waged in the third world are never justified. colonizers (including first world leftists truthfully) are a truly stupid animal.

“Sophie, Sophie! Don’t die! Live for our children!” -Franz Ferdinand’s last words

June 28, 1914- After a failed bombing attempt, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, is shot and killed in Sarajevo. 

Picture-The front page of the newspaper Domenica del Corriere, Achille Beltrame, 1914

HOGWARTS AU: Part 2 of ???

Alright everyone. Time to talk WORLDBUILDING. Aka: all the check please characters are on the same team despite being in different houses, and I can explain it, I PROMISE.

After the 2nd Wizarding War, Hogwarts underwent some significant changes. The Battle of Hogwarts underscored for the administration (Read: one Minerva McGonagall) that serious steps needed to be taken to encourage greater house unity. 

So, when she was appointed Headmistress and she had seen to the years of bare-bones distance learning while Hogwarts was being restored, and once the school was rebuilt and the destroyed records from the Death Eaters’ administration put right, she turned her attention to the changes that would take place when the school officially reopened its doors for the first school year of the new millennium. Hogwarts is an ancient school; change doesn’t come easily, and the rivalries between the houses seemed insurmountable. 

But one day when she was pondering this, she happened to look out her office window towards the quidditch pitch. That’s when it hit her: sport. Sport would be the way to foster unity. 

The house quidditch teams were disbanded. Four teams would still exist, but they would be associated not with the four houses, but with regional affiliation. One effect of the war was that the great magical schools of Europe and the Americas wished to foster greater international unity, as well. McGonagall had been one of the driving forces behind the creation of study abroad and exchange initiatives between these academies. As a result, when school resumed in September of 2000, Beauxbatons, Hogwarts, Drumstrang, and several American state academies would be taking in a number of foreign students. 

Thus, the four new teams created within Hogwarts were: 
Scotland
England
Wales/Ireland
International 

This is how our favorite Not-Hockey-Players ended up on the same quidditch team representing the International students at Hogwarts. 

More on nationalities and how our children ended up at Hogwarts in the next post! 

There is a place, deep in the Department of Mysteries, where learned witches and wizards confer and converse on the most frightening, most terrible mystery known to the magical world. A mystery of wonder and ruin that made even the powers of the Dark Lord seem trifling.

They realised that this secret had to be hidden when the Great War came to Europe. They began doing something about it when stories began to filter into Britain from Germany and Poland in the thirties and forties. That such terrors might be possible was something they had trouble even comprehending, but before long the proof was on their desks, irrefutable in photographs both magical and mundane, in reports written by hands that shook and ink that had been blurred with tears. Before the decade was half-done, they knew that this must be concealed.

Already, over the past several hundred years, the idea of the powerlessness and ignorance of Muggles was breaking up.  It was the time of the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution, it was an era of empires spanning the globe, and war on a scale that had never been seen before, outmatching the violence of Solomon’s wars against the Djinn and the terrors of the Aes Sidhe’s war with the Fomoiri.  What the Muggles had built and broken in this age of their ascendancy was genius and grotesque enough to alarm and awe even the most rabid of Wizarding supremacists, and their acts during what they would call World War II outstripped all these in horror.

More than eleven million - equivalent to twice the entire population of the Wizarding World from America to Zimbabwe - dead over seven years, trapped and murdered like vermin while the world did nothing. Eighty thousand - more than five times the population of Wizarding Britain - killed in a single instant of flame and horror as thunder fell from the heavens.

That was the Mystery, buried deep in the Ministry’s vaults. The power of Muggles. The dreadful, awe-inspiring power they had to kill, and the knowledge that if they should turn it against the magical world, with its wizards and witches, its seers and sages, its Mekubalim and Wu, would be annihilated in months.

They were faced with a choice. There was no question of lifting the Statute of Secrecy, but would they involve themselves in Muggle affairs and attempt to influence the world that way, or would they withdraw and place ever new strictures on their world, to bind them even more tightly to secrecy? The latter faction, led by Abraxas Malfoy, won out.

The Wizarding World turned inward. No official decision was made, but each of these men and women were puissant in their world, and they steered it subtly toward their goal. Having learned more than one lesson from the Third Reich, the press and the wireless were used as tools of education and indoctrination: over the years, wizards were taught to think of Muggles as not a dangerous, ever-present, all-encompassing collective, but as poor, miserable creatures, inferior and deserving of kindness.  The Ministry worked hard to reawaken the memories of their grandfathers’ fathers’ attitude toward Muggles - negligent, paternalistic, pitying, condescending. Why should we want anything to do with them? Incapable of defending themselves, unable to see the world clearly, the poor dears blundered through their half-life, and all the while, the Ministry filtered everything and anything that might reach the ears of the ever more isolated Wizarding World through the papers and the radio. Muggle inventions were disdained; Muggle learning was scorned; Muggle sympathies were frowned upon as eccentric at best and disastrous at worst. What did the Wizarding World need with televisions, computers, aeroplanes, space ships or penicillin? Poor substitutes for magic, dreamed up by stupid, foolish Muggles who couldn’t Apparate the lengths of their own bodies if they’d walked half the distance themselves.

Within a generation, the Department of Mysteries was satisfied that the Wizarding World would never know what Muggles were truly capable of, and that wizardkind could endure, changeless and eternal, in its hidden enclaves and country villages and enchanted sanctuaries until London fell and all of Muggle Britain was inevitably overturned in fire and blood. And all the while, around them, the Muggle world rose higher and brighter, their miracles and monstrosities outshining the grandest of enchantments.

(written and submitted by magical-flying-moron. This is true to the kind of arrogant foolishness canon shows us wizards are capable of, and is a very clever reversal besides, making wizards the small and ignorant party, and Muggles loom large and terrible. A fairly accurate reading of our Muggle world. Pity the wizards don’t seem to know it.)

velouriagreen  asked:

Very much in support of your fashion ethics, but do you ever feel the eco-friendly stance to "buy only the clothes you need" defeats your position as a clothing/Jewelry saleswoman? Unless of course there are folks who are indeed in need of clothing.

no, i don’t feel there is any conflict at all, but this is a good question and i haven’t been asked on tumblr before so here goes … there are two main justifications for this in my mind:

first — i’m a life long lover of visual art, and an illustrator/painter way before i was a clothing designer. a lover of beauty in other words. i share the passion for art with my dad and possibly inherited it from him but he hates fashion and believes everyone should dress plainly and comfortably preferably in navy, khaki and black (communism took it’s toll haha). so anyway i spent my teen years — marked by more or less successful style experiments — arguing with him about how expressing yourself through style and makeup is an extension of the same drive that makes humans draw and paint. it’s deeply ingrained in us, there’s never been a society that any historian or archaeologist is aware of that didn’t take an interest in decorating the body. dad said “shallow bullshit” and we disagree to this day. but he made good points, there are many reasons not to consume fashion … the textile/garment industry is a disaster when it comes to human rights and the eco system — this is a solid, indisputable fact so i won’t spend any time trying to convince you, if you don’t believe me, ask google. but then there are also less cut and dry, maybe spiritual - for lack of a better word - reasons not to own too many things. it’s my personal belief that because western society is so grossly given to overconsumption, we no longer appreciate our possessions. i grew up poor you know, but not dirt poor. i still remember many of my favourite garments from childhood, who i inherited them from, etc. they had meaning. to me objects, garments, jewels, carry energy and if you are surrounded by way too many of them, or ones that are created unethically it just won’t feel good. i could take this further and argue that over consuming is a contributing (perhaps small but not insignificant) factor when it comes to depression and mental illness which are rampant in our society … but i digress. as long as your wardrobe is full of things that are beautiful, useful or joyful or all of the above, all is well in my opinion. also, as we go through life our bodies change, our routines change, our needs change and we need new things to wear. so why not make it count and have fun with it? fashion and looks isn’t everything but i see nothing wrong with making the best of the human vessel we are given.

second — all that said i was not a quote-un-quote fashion designer until 2012 (always made clothes for myself though). here’s what happened — i’d had it with commercial illustration and couldn’t make a living doing art, comics or the indie illustration jobs i loved. i didn’t want to go back to being a cleaner or an office girl or daycare worker or personal assistant or any of my other previous non art day jobs. i saw other artists, visual artists, but also musicians etc making more money off of merch featuring their work than from the work itself. i’d had my etsy shop for a long time, selling prints and originals but it was basically coffee money. the natural thing to do would be to print my art on t-shirts, right? and i was about to look into doing so when i realized i just. fucking. can’t. every t-shirt i could afford to get, new, and print on was manufactured in a deeply unethical way. the sort-of-exception would be american apparel, and if i hadn’t actually worked for them and gained some insight into the company a few years prior i might have gone for their organic line and printed on those shirts. knowing how they function i didn’t want anything to do with them but most importantly i just couldn’t stomach the fact that any way i went about this i would be contributing to more garments being manufactured when there are already such masses of them going to landfill each year. now i love fleamarkets. always did — so next time i went to one i picked up some old shirts and started experimenting with re-sewing them and dying them with my designs and it went from there. this makes me a bottom feeder of the textile industry you know? i’ll explain. here’s the life span of a sweatshop made garment:

cotton growers (eco devastation) >
textile manufacturers (human suffering) >
dye and processing (chemical disaster) >
garment manufacturing/sewing (more human suffering) >
distribution (most likely across half the globe) >
high street shops (ads brainwashing young humans, another kind of human suffering) >
you, the consumer

that’s a lot of energy and resource put into something that in many cases costs 9 usd and is worn twice. so then what happens to the garment once the consumer is done with it? there are a few options:

thrift, charity or vintage shop (far from every garment has any resale value at ALL, it’s a common misconception that they do and you are not necessarily doing a good deed donating your clothes).
textile fibre recycling (again, not ideal because of how most garments these  days are mixed fibre and difficult or impossible to take care of. it also takes a lot of energy).
sending the garments to developing countries as “aid” (again, not great - more transportation is taxing on the environment and the garments tend to dump prices for local producers. lack of clothes is also not the most pressing problem in the third world, so really it’s just a way for the west to ease their consciousness about over consuming and colonialism by pretending to help the less fortunate. how about education and medicine instead of your old ill fitting jeans).
landfill (sucks for obvious reasons)

what does this leave us with? a need for people like me. bottom feeders. if there was nothing for me to feed on (and i don’t see that happening in my lifetime thankyou very much) i simply wouldn’t “do” fashion. i pride myself on being a more or less resourceful person and i’m pretty sure i could think of some other way to pay the rent.

i was brought up to believe that wastefulness is a great sin. europe is a war torn continent and my family suffered a lot, it’s a wonder that i exist, sitting in a nice coffee shop in stockholm typing this. very grateful for it. my whole childhood was marked by stories of how the only way to survive is by making use of every single resource you’ve got. and this always made perfect sense to me which is why i was baffled when i grew up and realized that is far from the ideal in society today. this thinking extends to every aspect of my life — all my furniture and house plants come from out of the trash, i don’t throw away food, etc.

also this is kind of beside the point, but i don’t think i’m really a sales woman. i should be one because it’s way better if people buy from me or my fellow designers that recycle but honestly i just made some clothes and put em on etsy and now it’s this big thing. and i get to do jewellery which i always dreamed of! amazing and i love it but i did not see it coming and couldn’t do a sales pitch to save my life. i’m getting some help from friends now because i DO want raintower to grow, there is so much fabric for us to take care of if we can just source it and i have so many fun designs in my head that i want to share with you.

i hope that clarifies my thought process, thankyou for a reasonable and relevant question and please feel free to ask follow up questions :)