Neferneferuaten Nefertiti (ca. 1370-1330 BC) was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. She and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped 1 god only, Aten, or the sun disc. They were responsible for the creation of a whole new religion which changed the ways of religion within Egypt. With her husband, she reigned at what was the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history. Some scholars believe that Nefertiti ruled briefly as Neferneferuaten after her husband’s death and before the accession of Tutankhamun, although this identification is a matter of ongoing debate.
She was made famous by her bust, now in Berlin, Germany’s Neues Museum. It’s one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. It was attributed to the sculptor Thutmose, and it was found in his workshop. The bust is notable for exemplifying the understanding Ancient Egyptians had regarding realistic facial proportions.
Neferneferuaten Nefertiti (ca. 1370 – ca. 1330 BC) was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. Nefertiti and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped one god only, Aten, or the sun disc. Akhenaten and Nefertiti were responsible for the creation of a whole new religion which changed the ways of religion within Egypt. With her husband, she reigned at what was arguably the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history. Some scholars believe that Nefertiti ruled briefly as Neferneferuaten after her husband’s death and before the accession of Tutankhamun, although this identification is a matter of ongoing debate. [x]
Calcite canopic jar; lid in the form of a human head; three columns of
incised Hieroglyphic text on the body including the cartouche of Queen
She was the Great Royal Wife of Horemheb, the last Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty, and is thought by some to have been the sister of Nefertiti. She died in her mid 40s, and was buried in her husband’s unused tomb near Memphis.
With her was the mummy of a stillborn, premature infant, meaning it’s highly likely she died in childbirth. Analysis of her mummy showed she’d supposedly given birth several times, but Horemheb had no children at the time of his death.
He was succeeded by his vizier, who would be known as Ramesses I.
Akhenaten joins a cult and other tales of the Amarna Period
So there’s this new Spike miniseries coming out next year, and it’s all about the life of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. Or, you know, a very fictionalized version of it. Leave it to a network more remembered for that Deadliest Warrior about zombies vs. vampires than prestige programming to actually cast people of color as people of color. Of course I’m going to watch it, but it got me thinking: why is that everyone likes to obsess over King Tut when his batshit crazy alien father was so much better?
The Stela of Pasi, Provenience Unknown, Amarna Period Egypt (1353–1336 BCE)
The Stela of Pasi is an small, unfinished limestone stela dating to the reign of the eccentric pharaoh, Akhentaten. According to the inscription, The stela was created by an individual named Pasi, who identifies himself as “captain of the state barge.” The stela is approximately 21.7 cm in height and depicts two unidentified kings in a loving embrace under the rays the solar diety Aten.
The Stela of Pasi is one of the most interesting pieces of Amarna art in existence, and there is much debate as to the identity of the two kings. One theory is that it depicts Akhenaten and his mysterious successor, Smenkhkare. Very little is known about Smenkhkare; depictions of him are extremely rare, and his name was erased from the historical record by later kings. It is known, however, that Smenkhkare served as co-regent with Akhenaten before his brief independent reign. The intimate embrace suggests that Akhenaten and Smenkhkare were perhaps relatives or in a homosexual relationship (the latter of which was accepted by Victorian archaeologists in an attempt to vilify Akhenaten as a heretic and sexual deviant).
Another theory that has emerged recently is that the two kings Akhenaten and his wife, Nefertiti. It is well known that Nefertiti had more political power than any previous Great Royal Wife, and was depicted equal to her husband in many respects. The most convincing evidence for the two figures being the royal couple is the cartouches on the stela. Although they are unmarked, we can infer the identities of the figures based on number of cartouches present. The odd number cartouches reveals that the two figures are not coregents since kings and deities are identified with two cartouches (on this particular stela, Aten has two pairs of cartouches located on either side of the sundisk). If the figures in the relief are indeed Akhenaten and Nefertiti, then she is the only known Great Royal Wife to be depicted wearing the Double Crown or the Blue Crown. Egyptologists who believe that Nefetiti became co-regent and later ruled independently use the Stela of Pasi as one of their main pieces of evidence.
Another interesting theory is that the stela is a forgery created by a 19th century artist looking to exploit Victorian consumers of “Egyptomania” The scene is considered too crude and poorly carved to have been created by a skilled artist, although this can be easily explained by the fact that Pasi was not an artist by trade. Unknown provenience is always a red flag for forgeries, and it is extremely rare for Ancient Egyptian artists to sign their work. The majority of egyptologists, however, consider the Stela of Pasi to be authentic.
The Stela of Pasi is located in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin.
Sarcophagus of Queen Ahmose Merit-Amun from Thebes. Ahmose-Meritamun was the royal daughter of Ahmose I and Ahmose
Nefertari, and became the Great Royal Wife of her brother Amenhotep I,
pharaoh of Ancient Egypt in the eighteenth dynasty.
Although we do not know a great deal about the historical Prince Djhutmose, isn’t it amazing that we do know that just over 3,000 years ago a young prince loved his cat, a young boy’s love for his cat. Prince Djhutmose was so fond of his cat that he had a fine limestone sarcophagus carved for her, had her body mummified and then carefully buried. The limestone sarcophagus is now on display in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and shows the cat sitting before an offering table heaped with goodies for the afterlife. It seems that her owner wanted her to enjoy her time after death as much as she had appreciated being a cosseted royal pet in life. We know from the inscriptions that she was called Ta-miu, which literally meant ‘she-cat’ and that her owner was Crown Prince Djhutmose, the eldest son of the mighty Pharaoh Amenophis III and his great royal wife, Queen Tiye.
Neferneferuaten Nefertiti (ca. 1370 – ca. 1330 BC) was the Great Royal Wife of the Pharaoh Akhenaten (originally Amenhotep IV). Together, they introduced a whole new religion to Egypt in which they worshipped the sun god, Aten. She and Akhenaten had six daughters together: Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten Tasherti, Neferneferure and Setepenre; and their marriage is generally believed to be a genuinely romantic, happy one. This belief has been strengthened because she’s often been depicted like a pharaoh would be – fighting and defeating enemies, thus making Nefertiti believed to have been a very influential and powerful queen. Nefertiti’s name is Egyptian and means “the beautiful one has come”, which is suiting considering that she is well-known for her elegant beauty. Some believe that Nefertiti ruled briefly as Neferneferuaten after her husband’s death and before the accession of his son, Tutankhamun, but another possibility is that one of her daughters ruled Egypt for that time period (+more).
Head of Queen Tiye, Great Royal Wife of the 18th Dynasty pharaoh Amenhotep III “the Magnificent” (r. ca. 1391-1353 BCE). Found in the Sinai Peninsula; now in the Neues Museum, Berlin. Photo credit: Miguel Hermoso Cuesta/Wikimedia Commons.
This is a picture of the descending corridor in the tomb of Nefertari. She, the great royal wife of Ramesses II, is presenting an offering, in the form of nemset jars while on the table before are lettuce, fruit,and meats before the Goddesses Hathor, Serqet, and Ma’at. Hathor is the bovine goddess of ferility, Serqet, protective goddess and finally Ma’at, goddess of truth and order.
Front and right profile photographs of
The Younger Lady (KV35YL), an unidentified mummy found in the Valley of the
Kings, tomb number 35. Housed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Egypt.
The Younger Lady was discovered in
1898 by Victor Loret alongside the mummies of Queen Tiye and a young boy. All
three mummies were naked and stripped of their jewels. Upon first seeing the
Younger Lady, Loret believed it be a young man whose head had been shaved,
however closer inspection revealed the mummy to be female. Genetic tests performed
in 2010 confirmed the mummy was female and a member of the royal family of the 18
Dynasty. The study also showed her to be a daughter of Pharaoh Amunhotep III
and his queen, Tiye, as well as the mother of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. The tests
also showed that she was about 25 when she died, and that the damage to her jaw
occurred prior to her death; the injury probably killed her.
The identity of the
Younger Lady has never been confirmed. Zahi Hawass, a famous Egyptologist, believes the mummy to
be Pharaoh Akhenaten despite the fact that Akhenaten was most certainly male and
that genetic tests show the Younger Lady is female. Joyce Filer, another Egyptologist,
believes this mummy to be Pharaoh Smenkhkare,
again despite the fact
that Smenkhkare was likely male and that genetic tests show the Younger Lady is female.
It is unlikely, other historians say, that the Younger Lady is Sitamun, Iset,
or Henuttaneb, daughters of Amunhotep III and Tiye, because if Akhenaten had married them
they would have taken precedence of Nefertiti as they were the wives of their father, Amunhotep III (note, only Sitamun
Iset are shown bearing the title Great Royal Wife, but there are several cartouches in temples that bear the name of Henuttaneb,
a privilege enjoyed only by kings and their wives).
Other historians believe the mummy to be Nefertiti herself,
although Nefertiti is not known to have beared the title ‘King’s Daughter’ or ‘King’s
Sister’ which the Younger Lady would have been granted as the daughter of one
pharaoh and sister-wife of another. The most likely possibility is that she is
either Princess Nebetah or Princess Baketaten (assuming that they are not the
same person), younger daughter(s) of Amunhotep and Tiye who did not marry her
(their) father, but are shown living with Akhenaten in Amarna with his family.