Thousands of documents detailing some of the most shameful acts and crimes committed during the final years of the British empire were systematically destroyed to prevent them falling into the hands of post-independence governments, an official review has concluded.
Those papers that survived the purge were flown discreetly to Britain where they were hidden for 50 years in a secret Foreign Office archive, beyond the reach of historians and members of the public, and in breach of legal obligations for them to be transferred into the public domain.
The archive came to light last year when a group of Kenyans detained and allegedly tortured during the Mau Mau rebellion won the right to sue the British government. The Foreign Office promised to release the 8,800 files from 37 former colonies held at the highly-secure government communications centre at Hanslope Park in Buckinghamshire.
U.K. researchers and their organizations have reacted with dismay to
last night’s decision by the U.K. electorate to leave the European
Union. Science and technology were not a major talking point during the
referendum campaign but numerous scientists and research organizations
urged voters to preserve the United Kingdom’s E.U. membership.
“This is a really serious worry for me. … I fear desperately for U.K.
science,” says Steve Cowley, director of the Culham Centre for Fusion
Energy near Oxford, U.K., home of the Joint European Torus (JET), a
fusion reactor that is one of a handful of European facilities sited in
the United Kingdom. “There is no way I can pretend to be anything other
than dispirited and disappointed,“ says Simon Wessely, president of the
Royal College of Psychiatrists in London. "Whilst I don’t believe that
people voted to leave the E.U. with science and health foremost in their
minds, I fear that the consequences for both will be serious over the
coming year unless we take firm and decisive action now.”
"Personally, I’m a bit bewildered and ashamed by my own country. I
never thought this would happen,” the European Commission’s former
science adviser, Anne Glover, who is now vice principal for external
affairs and dean for Europe at the University of Aberdeen in the United
Kingdom, tells ScienceInsider.
November additions to my current series on the beauty and majesty, of the Great British Landscape. These will be seen in my upcoming book, sadly delayed until early 2016, but will be more beautiful nonetheless.
Perhaps one of the most famous bridges in the world, certainly in England; Tower Bridge. Tower Bridge was completed in 1894 after nearly 12 years of construction and allowed tall masted ships to dock at the Pool of London, whilst simultaneously provided a new river crossing made necessary due to the increase commercial development in London’s East End. It simultaneously a suspension bridge and a bascule bridge, a rare occurence - even in the late Victorian era, if 244 meters (801 feet) long and links the districts of Tower Hamlets to the North with Southwark in the south. Such is it’s Iconic nature if featured heavily in the promotion of the recently London 2012 Summer Olympic Games - to the point where the logos of both the Olympics and Paralympics where suspended from the second tier.
The bridge consists of two towers tied together at the upper level by means of two horizontal walkways, designed to withstand the horizontal forces exerted by the suspended sections of the bridge on the landward sides of the towers. The vertical component of the forces in the suspended sections and the vertical reactions of the two walkways are carried by the two robust towers. The bascule pivots and operating machinery are housed in the base of each tower. The bridge’s present colour scheme dates from 1977, when it was painted red, white and blue for the Queen Elizabeth II’s silver jubilee. Originally it was painted a mid greenish-blue colour