The Great Andamanese of the Andaman Islands, was originally comprised of over 10,000 people and 10 individual tribes. Over time, the Great Andamanese had occasional contacts with outsiders such as the neighbouring Jarawa and South Andamans, or of the odd shipwrecked sailor.
In 1858, the British invaded the Andaman Islands. This year saw great bloodshed and surmounted in a coordinated rebellion by the now unified ten different Great Andamanese tribes. This rebellion was eventually ended by Britian’s force, and in the coming years, the colonizers led many punitive missions in which a great number of Andamanese were executed. Britian forcibly transported indigenous peoples from Central-Eastern India (Jharkhand and Bihar) who were skilled in ground clearing, and utilised their abilities to locate the remaining Great Andamanese families who were left hiding. These groups would later be known as Bush Police.
The Great Andamanese were forced to cede to the British and accept their invasion. By this time, their population had reduced by more than half, and many had contacted venereal disease. A large number of these diseases were generated by the sexual contact of British colonisers. Many of the Great Andamanese after colonisation had developed dependencies on modern vices and food resources.
By the end of the 19th Century, their population had reached 20 individuals, in what had originally spanned 10 different tribal groups.
The Kora, Kede, Kol, Juqoi, Pucikwar, Bale and Bea were all extinct by 1931. The Northern Andaman Bo and Jeru comprise the total population of the Great Andamanese with roughly 25 members each, and the Kari are unofficially extinct.