How Uncertain Are LIGO’s First Gravitational Wave Detections?

“What’s vital to understand is that no one is claiming LIGO is wrong, but rather that one team is claiming that perhaps LIGO has room for improvement in their analysis. And this is a very real danger that has plagued experimental physicists and astronomical observers for as long as those scientific fields have existed. The issue is not that LIGO’s results are in doubt, but rather that LIGO’s analysis may be imperfect.”

Three times now, the LIGO collaboration has produced very strong evidence that black hole pairs, from across the Universe, inspiraled and merged, producing gravitational waves. The twin LIGO detectors in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA each detected these signals, and the signals were correlated between both detectors. For the first time ever (and the second, and the third), we had directly detected gravitational waves. But last month, a team of independent scientists from Denmark attempted to reproduce LIGO’s analysis, and noticed something that shouldn’t be there: noise correlations between the two detectors. Noise is supposed to be uncorrelated, and yet the noise correlations peaked at the moment of the inspiral-and-merger event. It doesn’t mean that gravitational waves aren’t real, but it does mean that LIGO, perhaps, has room for improvement.

This has been a very controversial topic over the past few weeks; come learn where we are in this saga of science playing out in real-time!

anonymous asked:

if you're given a chance to meet kaisoo, what would you do?

So so so so many things! because they’ve honestly had such a great influence on me and I support their relationship wholeheartedly. I’ve said this many times but their relationship is a perfect example of how actions speak louder than words. There are no words to describe how beautiful their love is, it shines simply through their loving gazes and how they gravitate to one another like stars that collide and we can see the sparks that fly. The glimpses of their relationship that we’ve seen, moments on stage, are so utterly precious to me and I would want to compile an album of those moments to give to them. 

I think it would be beautiful because they’ve been in a relationship for so many years, a moment for us is like a second in their infinite love. All those candid moments, all the times they’ve smiled when the other sang, the times when their bodies would mirror each other, showing just how much they’re connected. There’s something beautiful in a tiny action that they do, not meant to show the world or anybody their love. It’s just something they do naturally without even knowing because similar to a Pablo Neruda poem I read once, loving them is in their nature. I want them to open up an album of those moments, all the times Kyungsoo lovingly gazed at Jongin from afar and the latter didn’t know, all the times that Jongin would do the same even if Kyungsoo isn’t doing anything. I hope they will be able to feel why us shippers love them through pictures that speak a thousand words and I hope they can laugh and remember all those memories and see how far they’ve come. I hope they will laugh at all the times they got jealous…which is never-ending. But I’m sure they’ve already seen some of their photos. :) I would just like to put all of it into something that’s put together with love and something they can actually flip through like a story. A timeline of their relationship through the eyes of Kaisoo shippers in photos, you can say. 

I would want to thank them for everything because they’re two wonderful individuals (which is why this relationship works) and I would let them know how much people support them which I’m sure they already know. Even if people didn’t support them, they would still love each other though because it’s important to know that the people that matter the most is the people within that relationship. What a hater says about them won’t change anything. Someone who doesn’t believe in them won’t change the fact that they are real. I would also want to include letters from fellow shippers who I gush about kaisoo with (winku winku) and if possible, I would like to buy Jongin chicken, ask Kyungsoo for his kimchi spaghetti recipe and what other things he make for Jongin, a list of movie recommendations from Kyungsoo, a list of book recommendations from Jongin etc. etc. and a photo of them for remembrance. I would look back on it, even when I’m not in fandom and smile because no matter what, I support true love.  

yuknoomyichakkahk  asked:

The Dai Li survived the Hundred Year War and they were still active in the age of Korra. What do you think about the decision of the writers of LoK regarding the survival of the Dai Li? Did the comics mention some sort of prosecution against them for high treason? What did the writers tell us about how the Earth King and Aang dealt with impunity?, since the King and the Avatar had the authority to dissolve the Dai Li, prosecute and condemn them, but apparently nothing of this happened.

It isn’t surprising to me at all that the Dai Li survived—they are very keen on self-preservation, as we know from the last half of Book 2 and their coup over the Earth King (and later, the Earth Kingdom itself). The Dai Li seek power and control, but they don’t like being in the spotlight, and they tend to gravitate to whoever is the strongest player on the board—hence their allegiance to Azula.

I don’t remember anything in the comics about the Dai Li at all, but then, I am sure large swaths of the comics have been purged from my memory.

Aang never tried to kill Zuko in the Avatar State.

Katara never became arm candy.

Sokka never reverted to a comic buffoon.

The Earth King shouldn’t have been put back on the throne of Ba Sing Se. He was a weak incompetent who never really had to govern. Heck, he happily traveled the world with Bosco at the beginning of Book 3! Realistically, I think what would have happened after Sozin’s Comet is that, if Bumi did not immediately take charge of Ba Sing Se, there would have been a military coup, with the generals who were on the side of the Earth King grabbing power, only for the newly banished Dai Li to return from the Fire Nation in secret and start taking their city back street by street. 

King Kuei does not have the know-how or the willpower to be an absolute ruler. Or any kind of ruler, really. His assassination is even more likely than Zuko’s. As for the Dai Li being prosecuted and all locked away, that simply isn’t practical. Controlling as they were, the Dai Li ran Ba Sing Se. The city would continue to function under Azula’s nominal rule—after all, she is known for keeping order among her subordinates—but without a strong head of state in the aftermath of the war, Ba Sing Se would need not only new leadership, but an entirely new government infrastructure. And none of the other three nations are in a good position to implement anything like that, especially since it would be considered a hostile invasion. No, the Dai Li at the end of Book 3 were in a good position to take and keep power for a long time to come.

My favorite part of Guardians of the Galaxy Annual #1 (this week’s comic).

Comics!Quill isn’t quite as galactically assimilated as MCU!Quill (he didn’t grow up in outer space, so he still gravitates towards Earth in a way movie!Quill doesn’t), but this is one of my favorite things about the entire GotG setting in both universes – the alienness of it, and the fact that for them, that’s just normal. Peter doesn’t center his perceptions on Earth or humans. To him, people with tentacles or animal heads or whatever are just regular people. And I love that.

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Do not repost my artwork! (do not re-upload my artwork!)

gravitality  asked:

I have two questions! First: have you ever thought of doing a tarot card suit for your characters? I think it'd work really well for them! And two: help me how do I draw legs


Hi!! I’ve absolutely been thinking about that, yeah, in fact I recently talked about that to my boyfriend just recently. It’ll likely happen after october! And to answer your second question! I made a thing on legs that i hope you’ll find useful!!

So. I’ve already explained basics on legs here, but I don’t think it hurts to go through some extra details to help you understand legs some more.

The very basic thing is to imagine legs as teardrops. Again, this has already been covered in said tutorial above, but I figured it’s still good to mention even the most basic thing that I know of. I still highly recommend you check it out to get in more detail and to see some other examples and practices that you do. But basically, think of legs in the shapes of teardrops, when it comes to shape. If you need a simple stick-figure to connect the legs in the first place, make sure that they bend at the knees a bit so that the legs don’t come off as stiff and unnatural. 

As you can see, this method works perfectly for realistic legs as it does for stylistic ones. Remember to use these as a guideline, never to be the exact base of the legs you will be drawing. If you draw traditionally, remember not to draw these guides too hard, or they will be hard to erase/do freestyle!

But how do you actually draw out the legs without drawing them perfectly straight, as shown to the left? The trick is to add volume to them, and how you do that can be winged to your own liking. The idea is to think in curves. As no leg is perfectly straight. You may make these curves minimal if you don’t want them to be curvy, but keep in mind, still, that not even your own bones are perfectly straight, so it is highly recommended that you make them bend, at least a little. 

It all depends on how you draw them as well. Say you put your legs together, as shown in this picture, what happens to the fat and muscle? Naturally, they press together, much like how thighs squish on the surface when you sit down (I’m sure most people know what I’m talking about). Make sure this shows in your art! This is very important to keep in mind, because it makes it all look more natural and believable. Try to cross your legs or stand up and sit down again for real-life examples!

The same applies for stretching your legs, more or less, except they appear to become more ‘hollow’ and slimmer. They become less soft to the touch, too, and might show. Try stretching your legs and feel where the muscles tense and where it feels ‘hollow’. This is very helpful with your art.

Many leg tutorials talk about legs without mentioning the behind. It requires a tutorial on it’s own, in all honesty, but this is the most simplest way to draw it connecting to the legs. Remember that it comes in many different shapes, and this is just a super basic guide! Two circles overlapping, while following the line and flow of the legs. Remember the muscle/fat as mentioned above!

Okay, so we got the basics of leg shapes figured out? What if you want o draw them in a certain pose, or with a certain silhouette, but perhaps do not have the reference for it? Or you want to blend your style into it? The key is to not shy away from doodling the form. Make mess, draw lightly and don’t care about the anatomy. That way you’ll get everything down without it appearing stiff. You can clean up the sketch later, always, and if you can, use a reference after you have drawn your pose, to correct your drawing.

Remember that the hips do a lot to the pose of the legs! Make sure they are in flow with your legs, so that it can look more natural. Remembers that hips ‘rotate’ with the spine.

I’ve talked about this method before when it comes to posing, and the same applies for the legs. One way to make legs appear ‘steady’ is to picture them standing in a line, and one of those legs need not to stray from the lines too much, making it steady. If you want a dynamic pose despite the steady pose, you can always have the other leg stray from the line, since it only matters that one leg is steady. This method can create good, casual poses without making them appear boring. (also notice how the teardrop shapes are used here, despite the highly stylized legs)

Do you want a highly dynamic pose, or them to appear unsteady, then skip the line entirely and make both legs aim away from it completely. As you can see, the legs appear more moving, in action, as if they’re fighting, falling, or dancing. As you can imagine, this is not a pose that one could stay steady on, suggesting that it’s taken mid-movement. More about posing and this ‘line’ method is talked about in this tutorial.

Hope this helped you, if you have any questions let me know, and if you’d like to check out all my tutorials they can be found here!


LIGO’s Successor Approved; Will Discover Incredible New Sources Of Gravitational Waves

“The huge advance of LISA, though, will be the ability to detect objects spiraling into and merging with the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. Stars and other forms of matter are constantly falling into black holes at the galactic center, both in our own galaxy and well beyond. These events often result in the ejection of matter, the acceleration of charged particles and the emission of radio and X-ray light. But they should also result in the emission of gravitational waves, and LISA will be sensitive to those. For the first time, we’ll be able to see supermassive black holes in gravitational waves.”

There’s no doubt that LIGO has given us one of the most incredible breakthroughs of the 21st century: the direct detection of gravitational waves. But as wonderful as LIGO is, so far it’s only been able to detect the very final stages of mergers of stellar mass-scale black holes, and only every few months at that. The technique of laser interferometry is sound and powerful, but properties inherent to Earth itself fundamentally limit how good LIGO can potentially be. But these restrictions go away if we go to space! Not only can we eliminate seismic noise, cease accounting for the curvature of the Earth, and get a better vacuum for free, but we can achieve much longer baselines. By sending a series of spacecraft up into orbit behind the Earth, we can detect more massive, more distant, and slower-period sources than LIGO could ever hope to see.

LISA is the gravitational wave observatory of the future, and the European Space Agency just greenlit it for 2034! Come get the exciting news and find out what science it will be able to do today!