graham french


history meme (french edition)  →  8 moments (4/8) The Southern Hundred Years War 

“The war between Toulouse and the Plantagenets continued in the 1180s: Raimond V supported the rebellion of Henry the Young King against Henry II in 1183 and was also at war with Richard, Duke of Aquitaine (d.1199) in 1188. […] A treaty made in 1186 between Alfons of Aragon and Richard indicates that the disputes between Aquitaine and Toulouse in the 1180s were directly connected to the disputed succession of a century before. Although the wars between Toulouse and Aquitaine and Toulouse and Barcelona had their origins in disputes over the succession to specific lands – Toulouse and Provence – the effects of these conflicts were felt throughout the Midi. The counts of Barcelona showed themselves willing to participate in any league against the counts of Toulouse, whether it directly involved the county of Provence or not. In 1159 Ramon Barenguer IV took part in Henry II’s campaign against Toulouse, presumably on the principle that ‘the enemy of my enemy is my friend’ and the continued willingness of the counts of Barcelona to support the Plantagenets against the counts of Toulouse can be seen in Alfons II’s 1186 treaty with Richard of Aquitaine. The violence of Languedoc in the twelfth century is clearly apparent. The records of the viscounts of Béziers and Carcassonne contain requests for fortification of various villages and small towns throughout the two viscounties from 1138 on; there was a similar process occurring in the churches of the region. To outsiders, Languedoc by the twelfth century was a terrible, lawless place.”  E. Graham-Leigh, The Southern French Nobility and the Albigensian Crusade.


Murder families’ crossover - Hannibal x Interview with the vampire : Omelette du au fromage

Lestat de Lioncourt, Professeur de Français depuis 1760 (French teacher since 1760).

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