Rate of geoid-height change over North America due to glacial-isostatic adjustment and ice-mass loss in Alaska and Greenland observed by GRACE between August 2002 and August 2011. The glacial-isostatic adjustment describes the deformation of the Earth due to the loading with the ice sheets present during the last glacial epoch. Displaced mantle material flows back into the regions with former glacial loads (increase in geoid height, red). Ice-mass loss (decrease in geoid height, blue) in Alaska and Greenland are to a large part a direct response to recent warming of the Polar Regions.

credit: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences