hi, do you know what kind of offering is appropriate for Athena ? I already tried olive oil but I used this offering several times and I'm afraid she could be upset about it. Also do you know any other way to worship this goddess ? thanks
So, first things first, you do not need to worry about mixing up offerings. You can give the same thing every day for as long as you worship and it’s still a good offering. Think about libations, mixed wine was the standard since that’s what people were drinking with dinner, so they’d pour out some mixed wine for the Theoi. Different offerings are/were appropriate for different festivals, celebrations, holy days, and rituals; but different offerings for daily worship are not a necessity.
Next, for the most part, historical offerings on a general basis did not vary between different Theoi. You’d get slightly different types of offerings between Ouranic and Khthonic Theoi, and you could give special offerings based on what things are sacred to a Theos, but the offering list for the most part is going to look the same for any given Theos.
For Ouranic Theoi (like Athene) you’re looking at a general list like this:
- First Fruit of the Season
- Fruits in general
- Meat, especially cattle
- Olive Oil
- Thigh bones, the tail, vertebrae and the sacrum of animals
- Wine mixed with water
If you’re looking for inspiration for specific/special offering based on what is important to a Theos, then looking at the way They were portrayed in ancient art, the cultic practices surrounding Them, and Their myths can be great places for inspiration. Theoi.com is a great place to start, and searching Pausanias’ Descriptions of Greece for Athena can be a big help as well.
Snakes, horses, owls, and a Gorgon head all appear frequently in art depicting Athene. Along with a helmet, spear, and shield. She’s also strongly connected to weaving. Images of these things (or taking up hobbies relating to them) can be good offerings.