Archaeobelodon filholi, an elephant-like “shovel-tusker” gomphothere from the Miocene of Europe and Africa, about 16 million years ago. Slightly smaller than modern elephants, they appear to have stood around 2m (6.5ft) tall at the shoulder.

The bizarre elongated lower jaw is thought to have been used to strip bark from trees. The two lower incisor “tusks” may also have acted as a cutting surface, grasping tough vegetation with the trunk and rubbing it against the lower teeth to slice through it.

Stegomastodon platensis

Extinct Late Pleistocene

Stegomastodon was a South American gomphothere, wiped out due to fact that the onset of climate change in its habitat coincided with the arrival of humans capable of hunting and killing it. Proboscideans are particularly vulnerable to human hunting activities, as they have a low birthrate and take a long time to reach maturity.