gnathostomata

Coelophysoidea

Art from http://green-mamba.deviantart.com/art/001-GOJIRASAURUS-QUAYI-279964835

Group: Coelophysoidea

Classification: Cellular Life, Archaea, Proteoarchaeota, Eukaryota, Unikota, Opisthokonta, Holozoa, Filozoa, Metazoa, Eumetazoa, Planulozoa, Bilatera, Nephrozoa, Deuterostomia, Chordata, Craniata, Vertebrata, Gnathostomata, Eugnathostomata, Teleostomi, Euteleostomi, Sarcopterygii, Rhipidistia, Tetrapodomorpha, Eotetrapodiforms, Elpistostegalia, Stegocephalia, Tetrapoda, Reptiliomorpha, Anthracosauria, Batrachosauria, Cotylosauria, Amniota, Sauropsida, Eureptilia, Romeriida, Diapsida, Neodiapsida, Sauria, Archosauromorpha, Archelosauria, Archosauriformes, Crurotarsi, Archosauria, Avemetatarsalia, Ornithodira, Dinosauromorpha, Dinosauriformes, Dinosauria, Saurischia, Eusaurischia, Theropoda, Neotheropoda 

Definition: Neotheropods more closely related to Ceolophysis than to Ceratosaurus, Carnotaurus, and Passer 

Organisms Within: Gojirasaurus?, Dolichosuchus?, Halticosaurus?, Liliensternus, Lophostropheus, Podokesaurus, Sarcosaurus, Coelophysidae (not examined here) 

Time Range: Shown below, numbers on the left in millions of years; organisms in red questionable members of the group. Coelophysoids first appeared fairly early in dinosaurian evolution, further pointing to the evidence that early dinosaurs diversified rapidly. They went extinct not long into the Jurassic period, as other small theropods evolved and outcompeted them for resources. 

Characteristics

Coelophysoids were a group of slender, lightly built, fast running theropods that had an extremely flexible jaw, allowing for them to have a wider gape with which to grab potential prey. They were very specialized predators, and in an ecosystem in which most of the other predators were of the bulky and large sort, they were specialized to be the opposite - small, and fast. 

Art from http://www.paleofile.com/Dinosaurs/Theropods/Lophostropheus.asp

Like other early dinosaurs, Coelophysoids were most likely covered in primitive feathers, and were small, bipedal animals with lightweight bones. They grew in size from 1 to 6 meters in length. They may have lived in packs to hunt, and were very successful prior to the Jurassic-Triassic extinction, after which their numbers dwindled. Some members of the group grew crests on their snouts, which were probably used for display.

Art from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liliensternus

Fossil Locations: Shown below; red means an organism is a questionable part of the group; colored countries are where fossil locations have been found. Though it is probable that Ceolophysoids may have originated in South America, due to their early appearance in Dinosaurian evolution, it is possible that they evolved elsewhere, given that most Coelophysoids (including Coelophysids, which we’ll look at next week) lived elsewhere. 


Biogeography: Names in red indicate questionable members of the group; names in white definite ones. Coelophysoids lived in North America and Europe. All maps from Dr. Christopher Scotese


Read more about Dolichosuchus here! 

Read more about Halticosaurus here! 

Read more about Gojirasaurus here! 

Read more about Liliensternus here!

Read more about Lophostropheus here!

Read more about Podokesaurus here!

Read more about Sarcosaurus here!

Post on Coelophysidae to come next week!

Sources: 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarcosaurus

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Podokesaurus

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lophostropheus

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liliensternus

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gojirasaurus

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halticosaurus

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolichosuchus

Shout out goes to @shadow73093!

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Taxonomy: Eukaryota-Filozoa-Eumetazoa-Deuterostomia-Chordata-Vertebrata-Gnathostomata-Chondrichthyes-Elasmobranchii-Neoselachii-Selachii-Selachimorpha-Galeomorphi-Lamniformes-Lamnidae-Carcharodon-Carcharodon carcharias

Great white shark *_*

Birth of Jaws: Tiny Fish May Be Ancient Ancestor

External image

The remains of a 415-million-year-old fish skull from Siberia — though miniscule in size — offer hints about the origins of all jawed vertebrates, ranging from reptiles to humans, a new study finds. There are two main types of living jawed vertebrates: those made of bone and those made of cartilage. “It’s a very interesting fossil, and it’s very small,” said Sam Giles, the study’s lead researcher and a paleobiology doctoral candidate at Oxford University in the United Kingdom. http://dlvr.it/851lL8

Neotheropoda

Source: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/10/new-meat-eating-dinosaur-lived-wake-mass-extinction

Group: Neotheropoda

Classification: Cellular Life, Archaea, Proteoarchaeota, Eukaryota, Unikota, Opisthokonta, Holozoa, Filozoa, Metazoa, Eumetazoa, Planulozoa, Bilatera, Nephrozoa, Deuterostomia, Chordata, Craniata, Vertebrata, Gnathostomata, Eugnathostomata, Teleostomi, Euteleostomi, Sarcopterygii, Rhipidistia, Tetrapodomorpha, Eotetrapodiforms, Elpistostegalia, Stegocephalia, Tetrapoda, Reptiliomorpha, Anthracosauria, Batrachosauria, Cotylosauria, Amniota, Sauropsida, Eureptilia, Romeriida, Diapsida, Neodiapsida, Sauria, Archosauromorpha, Archelosauria, Archosauriformes, Crurotarsi, Archosauria, Avemetatarsalia, Ornithodira, Dinosauromorpha, Dinosauriformes, Dinosauria, Saurischia, Eusaurischia, Theropoda 

Definition: The group including the most recent common ancestor of Ceolophysis and modern birds, and all of that animal’s descendants 

Organisms Within: Zupaysaurus, Tachiraptor, Dilophosauridae (not examined here), Coelophysoidea (not examined here), Averostra (not examined here), & two miscellaneous genera without further placement. 

Time Range: Shown below, numbers on the left in millions of years. Though the only basal Neotheropods known are from the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, members of other groups are present much earlier than that, about 220 million years ago, implying that they must have evolved at around that time or older.  

Characteristics

Neotheropods differ from basal theropods mainly on a few skeletal points. The ilium bone in the pelvis, expanded towards the top of the animal (dorsally).  The snout is more narrow than in basal theropods, there are more vertebrae fused to the hips, there is a complete loss of the fifth digit of the foot (as shown below), and a general stiffening of the legs overall. 

By @ewilloughby

Like all early dinosaurs, Neotheropods were probably covered in a layer of primitive feathers - though some theropods groups would later lose feathers, the general line leading up to birds must have kept them, given that birds have feathers. They were bipedal, fast predators, and basal members of Neotheropoda were probably outcompeted by later animals, and even during their existence Coelophysoids were far more common. 

Source: @alphynix

Fossil Locations: It is fairly likely that Neotheropods also originated in Argentina, during that very rapid early diversification of dinosaurs in the region. This assessment is based mainly on the presence of basal theropods mainly in the region, though its possible that it also occurred in North America, where many Coelophysoids lived. Coelophysoids have also been found in Europe and Asia, and so given this widespread range of this group and its early evolution, as well as the locations of basal theropods, its reasonable to suppose that Argentina is where they started, unless evidence to the contrary comes to light.

Biogeography: Neotheropods spread throughout the globe, as described above; this was relatively easy due to Panagaea, however, most Coelophysoids congregated around North America and Europe. The two basal members of the group stayed in South America. Maps from Dr. Christopher Scotese. 

Read more about Zupaysaurus here!

Read more about Tachiraptor here! 

Read more about Coelophysoidea here!

Posts on Dilophosauridae and Averostra to come soon!

Sources: 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neotheropoda

http://palaeos.com/vertebrates/theropoda/neotheropoda.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zupaysaurus

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tachiraptor

Shout out goes to @chequitablr!

Miscellaneous Neotheropods not examined here that do not have further placement (links added as I do posts on them): 

Altispinax

Szechuanosaurus