Of all transwomen, a third are what we call “Core Transwomen”. These are the women whose names begin with “Al-”. We’re talking “Alice”, “Allison”,
“Alyssa”, “Alana”, “Aleah”, and so on. Women with these names are always trans and have always been trans.
Next we have the “Inner Ring Transwomen”. These are the ones whose names begin with “A-”, but didn’t have enough points to afford an “L”, like the cool kids. Here you have “Amelia”, “Amber”, “Amy”,
and so on. Some women with names beginning with “A-” have also, at times in our history, even been cisgender. However, these are believed to have died out during the last glaciation.
Finally, we come to the “Outer Ring Transwomen”. These have names beginning with “E-” or, rarely, “I-”. They are commonly named “Emma”, “Emily”, “Esther”, “Elizabeth”, or “Isabella”. These names are problematic, because they sometimes lead to confusion with ciswomen. While ciswomen long ago abandoned the open plains of the letter “A”, they have not yet been cleared from all the other vowels. As part of the Millennium Development Goals, we are hoping to phase out all ciswomen with “E-” names by 2020.
It may interest the reader to learn that there are a total of six transwomen currently outside of this system. However, every single one of them is named “Sam”.
The ecliptic and fatal fire and smoke
In any given epoch
The sun as a centre of rotation
Axial precession moving millions of miles
Outwards, changing the geometry
There is no place for speculation here
A monster arose and chased the sun
The wild variation of glaciation and deglaciation
Upon which insurmountable problems
At present extend
(Or appear to enlarge)
The guardian it seemed he had lost
Was simply always there
The sight of the mental eyes
Upon a gravitational onset and demise
Free the great rock
And the vision
Of the true position of the
Annual celestial orbit
An elliptical path
Elongated in (un)predictable ways
Linked with domain changes
The earth darkened, waiting for the light
The child of the sun participating
Within the dance of the spheres
A crescent moon seemed still as it
hung low in the sky
Even that which appeared unmoving
Developed and evolved
Wanna shower you in so much ice you’re glaciated
Only diamonds for my world, I know that you been jaded
Wanna build you a garden
Filled with roses for each day the cold world caused your heart to harden
Wanna shower you in so much ice you’re glaciated
Only diamonds for my world, I know that you been waiting.
A perfect storm of fire and ice may have led to snowball Earth
Explaining a ‘once-in-a-billion-year event’
What caused the largest glaciation event in Earth’s history, known as 'snowball Earth’? Geologists and climate scientists have been searching for the answer for years but the root cause of the phenomenon remains elusive.
Now, Harvard University researchers have a new hypothesis about what caused the runaway glaciation that covered the Earth pole-to-pole in ice.
The research is published in Geophysical Research Letters.
Researchers have pinpointed the start of what’s known as the Sturtian snowball Earth event to about 717 million years ago – give or take a few 100,000 years. At around that time, a huge volcanic event devastated an area from present-day Alaska to Greenland. Coincidence?
Harvard professors Francis Macdonald and Robin Wordsworth thought not.
“We know that volcanic activity can have a major effect on the environment, so the big question was, how are these two events related,” said Macdonald, the John L. Loeb Associate Professor of the Natural Sciences.
At first, Macdonald’s team thought basaltic rock – which breaks down into magnesium and calcium – interacted with CO2 in the atmosphere and caused cooling. However, if that were the case, cooling would have happened over millions of years and radio-isotopic dating from volcanic rocks in Arctic Canada suggest a far more precise coincidence with cooling.
Macdonald turned to Wordsworth, who models climates of non-Earth planets, and asked: could aerosols emitted from these volcanos have rapidly cooled Earth?
The answer: yes, under the right conditions.
“It is not unique to have large volcanic provinces erupting,” said Wordsworth, assistant professor of Environmental Science and Engineering at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Science.
“These types of eruptions have happened over and over again throughout geological time but they’re not always associated with cooling events. So, the question is, what made this event different?”
Geological and chemical studies of this region, known as the Franklin large igneous province, showed that volcanic rocks erupted through sulfur-rich sediments, which would have been pushed into the atmosphere during eruption as sulfur dioxide. When sulfur dioxide gets into the upper layers of the atmosphere, it’s very good at blocking solar radiation. The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, which shot about 10 million metric tons of sulfur into the air, reduced global temperatures about 1 degree Fahrenheit for a year.
Sulfur dioxide is most effective at blocking solar radiation if it gets past the tropopause, the boundary separating the troposphere and stratosphere. If it reaches this height, it’s less likely to be brought back down to earth in precipitation or mixed with other particles, extending its presence in the atmosphere from about a week to about a year. The height of the tropopause barrier all depends on the background climate of the planet – the cooler the planet, the lower the tropopause.
“In periods of Earth’s history when it was very warm, volcanic cooling would not have been very important because the Earth would have been shielded by this warm, high tropopause,” said Wordsworth. “In cooler conditions, Earth becomes uniquely vulnerable to having these kinds of volcanic perturbations to climate.”
“What our models have shown is that context and background really matters,” said Macdonald.
Another important aspect is where the sulfur dioxide plumes reach the stratosphere. Due to continental drift, 717 million years ago, the Franklin large igneous province where these eruptions took place was situated near the equator, the entry point for most of the solar radiation that keeps the Earth warm.
So, an effective light-reflecting gas entered the atmosphere at just the right location and height to cause cooling. But another element was needed to form the perfect storm scenario. After all, the Pinatubo eruption had similar qualities but its cooling effect only lasted about a year.
The eruptions throwing sulfur into the air 717 million years ago weren’t one-off explosions of single volcanoes like Pinatubo. The volcanoes in question spanned almost 2,000 miles across Canada and Greenland. Instead of singularly explosive eruptions, these volcanoes can erupt more continuously like those in Hawaii and Iceland today. The researchers demonstrated that a decade or so of continual eruptions from this type of volcanoes could have poured enough aerosols into the atmosphere to rapidly destabilize the climate.
“Cooling from aerosols doesn’t have to freeze the whole planet; it just has to drive the ice to a critical latitude. Then the ice does the rest,” said Macdonald.
The more ice, the more sunlight is reflected and the cooler the planet becomes. Once the ice reaches latitudes around present-day California, the positive feedback loop takes over and the runaway snowball effect is pretty much unstoppable.
“It’s easy to think of climate as this immense system that is very difficult to change and in many ways that’s true. But there have been very dramatic changes in the past and there’s every possibility that as sudden of a change could happen in the future as well,” said Wordsworth.
Understanding how these dramatic changes occur could help researchers better understand how extinctions occurred, how proposed geoengineering approaches may impact climate and how climates change on other planets.
“This research shows that we need to get away from a simple paradigm of exoplanets, just thinking about stable equilibrium conditions and habitable zones,” said Wordsworth. “We know that Earth is a dynamic and active place that has had sharp transitions. There is every reason to believe that rapid climate transitions of this type are the norm on planets, rather than the exception.”
Angel Glacier near Jasper, Alberta, Canada. I did the Edith Cavell hike last weekend and the glacial geology is amazing. The Angle Glacier with it’s body and wings hangs across the valley. As shown in the lower photo, huge crevasses occur on he top of the ice.
Sycamore and Lysandre’s relationship done right. They knew each other! They were close! That’s what made it so damn tragic! C’mon, Gamefreak!
Related to the above, Sina and Dexio.
Also related to the above, the Couriway scene and the letter.
Also related to the above, AZ’s story. Maybe fully animating the events of the past.
AZ and Floette’s reunion.
The Essentia plotline! We want Emma! (And a friend really wants Xerosic!)
Legendary battle from BW2! (Ghetsis attempts to Glaciate protag, N and his dragon swoops in, fighting Black/White Kyurem. It’s entirely possible, given that Ghetsis has his BW2 costume on in the poster, and we see Kyurem.)
The ferris wheel!
Original Plasma vs Neo Plasma!
Iris as the champion she deserves to be!
ORAS!Wallace’s outfit ;D
ORAS Archie and Maxie, because the current anime ones are. Alarming.