giant impact

Theories || How and why does an Impact work? :||

In Evangelion, the concept of “Impact” can refer to three different events; the First or Giant Impact, the Second Impact and the Third Impact. Only the last two of them are mentioned and seen in the original series.

Although these events share the same name, they differ from one another in terms of conduction and for their different purposes. They are all remembered as great cataclysms though, capable of destroying  the planet and its inhabitants.


An article about the deification and the First Impact can be found here.
In order to avoid extinction, the powerful First Ancestral Race, also called FAR, scattered Seven Seeds of Life in the galaxy; each Seed had its own Lance/Spear that would have activated if two Seeds had landed on the same planet, sealing their power. Each Seed wandered in space with their own vessel, a Moon. For sheer bad luck, Adam on his White Moon and Lilith on her Black Moon, both “decided” to colonize Earth with their respective progeny. 
The First Impact was caused by the collision of Earth with a giant spherical object, Lilith’s “Black Moon”, about 4 billion years ago. The impact created large amounts of debris that led to the formation of the Moon we all know. The core of the Black Moon, with Lilith in it, remained intact; however, Lilith’s Spear was lost or destroyed during the process.
At the time of that cataclysm, Adam had already nested on the planet, so to avoid a so-called “prohibited union”, one of these Seeds of Life was deactivated by the Spear of Longinus. And since Lilith’s one was lost, Adam was sealed by its own Spear - just according to the FAR’s plans, allowing the proliferation of the children of Lilith, owners of the Fruit of Knowledge: humans.


A cataclysm occurred on September 13, 2000, when a strong explosion took place in Antarctica, melting the polar ice cap and even changing the Earth’s axis. This caused several tsunamis in sequence, followed by an increase of the sea level, floodings in coastal cities or towns and a catastrophic weather modifications. Everything was justified by saying that a large meteorite had hit the South Pole, causing the melting of glaciers; of course, this was only an excuse designed to disguise what really triggered that apocalypse. 
The real cause of the Second Impact, in fact, was the “explosion” of the First Angel / Seed of Life, Adam, a consequence of the ”Contact Experiment“ conducted by Dr. Katsuragi and funded by Seele. The experiment was officially justified as an attempt to study the inexhaustible source of energy Adam had (in fact Katsuragi formulated the theory of the Super Solenoid, or the motor S^2 of the series), that was believed to be present on the chest of the giant. But something went wrong during the experiment, with the subsequent awakening of Adam. The cause of the failure of the experiment would be the contact of human DNA with the same Adam. The giant lost control of its own power, generating a tremendous explosion that liquefied the entire Antarctic continent; in addiction, the beast unfolded its wings, expanding its A.T.Field that wiped out all “alien” life forms, within hundreds of kilometers. Somehow however, the scientists (or Seele itself) managed to stop Adam, using the Spear of Longinus, thus managing to avoid a greater disaster. 

We have explained how the Second Impact took place here, but not the reason why it occurred. Seele was considering to initiate the Second Impact because, perhaps thanks to the Dead Sea Scrolls, they knew what would have happened if Adam had fully awakened. They used the Spear of Longinus to have Adam under a embryonic state, making it easier to be studied and protected. All this to arrive, 15 years later, to the plan for the defeat of the sons of Adam: the Angels.


This Impact differs from the other; it is nothing more than the prelude to the “Human Instrumentality Project”. Evangelion Unit-01 becomes the vessel of this Impact, since at the end of the series is, in all respects, a God - in the sense of being perfect, and therefore eligible to be the trigger for the Third Impact. With the S^2 Engine, we can notice how its A.T.Field expanded and became stronger (a power similar to the one Adam showed during the Second Impact).
At the sight of the Unit-02 and its pilot dismembered by the Eva Series, Shinji finally realized it was too late to save Asuka and began to scream in agony; in response to all the grief, pain and anger of his son, Unit-01 broke its armor again, trying to wake up once again - just like in Episode 19. However, the Spear of Longinus responded to the awakening of the Eva and returned to earth, "sealing” the Unit, thus preventing its full awakening.

At the same time, Rei was inside Terminal Dogma, ready to absorb Adam from Gendo’s hand and completing the “forbidden union”, necessary for the beginning of the Instrumentality Project the commander had in mind. However, feeling Shinji’s pain, she decided to betray Gendo and come to the aid of the Third Child.

Also, we can see how happy Seele was because of the return of the Spear from the Moon; they were finally ready to ask the Eva Series to start the opening ceremony for the Third Impact. So the nine White Evangelion use three clones of Longinus to crucify Unit-01 in the sky, on whose hands were inflicted the stigmata (probably their aim was to create a bridge for the passage of souls). The Series then arranged themselves around the Evangelion, taking the form of the diagram of the Tree of Life, with the consequent activation of their S^2 engines and A.T.Fields, that entered in resonance with each other causing a huge explosion that wiped everything in their surroundings and allowing the Black Moon to break free.

Refusing to “accept” Gendo and “take him to Yui”, Rei ripped the hand containing Adam and joined the body of Lilith; the results however cannot be considered “Lilith” per se: it contains both Adam (and its soul too perhaps) and Lilith, it is the fruit of a “Forbidden Union” of two Seeds of Life, controlled by Rei. In Gendo’s plan, he would have been the controlling mind of that being. After that, Rei reached Unit-01 and tried to close/hide it in her hands; at the same time, she also took control of the Eva Series, entering in “sync” with them - and we can assume that since they all received her facial features.
Shinji, already terrified by that sight, completely loses his mind when he sees the giant reacting to the name “Rei”.

It is quite interesting to note that this is absolutely the first time Shinji calls Rei by her first name. The Third Child is now on the brink of madness, but Lilith / Rei / Adam turns into Kaworu and still calms him. This makes his A.T.Field disappear and allows the Spear to penetrate the core of Unit-01, thus creating the Tree of Life. 

What we are witnessing, however, it’s not the plan of Seele - which didn’t include the presence of Lilith / Rei / Adam, nor Gendo or NERV’s plan; in fact, Rei is doing nothing but giving Shinji the command of Instrumentality, to choose what to do with humanity: destroy it or save it.
Here, the real Instrumentality for Shinji takes place, as he seems trapped in his own subconscious, with no idea of what to do. Everything he sees, he destroyes it - living in the costant fear of being rejected by Asuka, for example, even after having lowered his own defenses and A.T.Field. He realizes that he won’t be accepted by anyone and he gladly accepts a world with no physical barriers or limitations, starting the Project and uniting all souls and hearts into a single entity; by doing so, he also eliminates conflicts, human grief ans sorrow.

Lilith / Rei / Adam had got out of Earth’s atmosphere, while holding the Black Moon and assimilating the Tree of Life, born from union of the Spear of Longinus and Unit-01. Every A.T.Field on the planet disappears; the open Chamber of Guf takes the souls and also regulates their flow, making them pass through the Black Moon and then the stigmata on Lilith’s hands, uniting everyone into a single entity: the Sea of LCL, or primordial soup. The Eva Series, which have exhausted their task, pierce themselves with their Lances of Longinus. 
Instrumentality seems concluded. But Shinji strangely still has his own individuality, he isn’t part of the gian entity of life and souls yet - since his dream was to be alone, he always believed to be unwanted. But his desire to meet again Asuka and the others leads him to suddenly interrupt Instrumentality: this is the first independent choice Shinji makes, an evidence of his “growth” and his sad “introduction into the adult world”.

He refuses his dream world, accepting a dimension of misunderstanding and suffering.

Lilith’s neck is cut from the inside, staining the moon with a trail of blood; the stigmata are gone and the white giant slowly starts falling to pieces. Unit-01 emerges from her eye and its A.T.Field also breaks the Black Moon. The real Spear of Longinus destroys the others fake lances, petrifying the whole Eva Series; so does the armor of Unit-01 and Longinus itself, both now floating in the space. Yui’s soul remains inside the Evangelion, as an eternal proof and testimony of the existence of the human race.
Shinji didn’t fully stopped Instrumentaliity, but he has simply given a choice to every soul: they can return to their body and live again, or just remain part of the Sea of LCL. Shinji and Asuka chose to live, at the end of the movie, but we can’t know what the other souls decided to do. As evidences of this event, the oceans (or Sea of LCL) became completely red and pieces of Lilith / Rei / Adam are decomposing on the Earth, surrounded by a giant ring of blood.

anonymous asked:

What's the most bizarre animal at your zoo?

anteaters. ok i know you are all sick of hearing about anteaters- but look at them.

They’re perfect.


The last great discovery of our trip to the Moon: lunar volcanic glass!

“Oh, hey! Wait a minute… there is orange soil! It’s all over! I stirred it up with my feet!”

They say that one of the most exciting phrases to hear in science is not “eureka!” but “that’s funny,” and the Apollo 17 astronauts, just over 43 years ago, certainly got such a moment when they discovered orange soil just beneath the grey regiolith. What turned out to be volcanic glass with tin inclusions had another surprise: olivine deposits that showed signs that they contained significant amounts of water inclusions when they were baked, at about ~1200 parts-per-million. This matches the water levels in Earth’s upper mantle along ocean ridges, providing further evidence for the giant impact hypothesis and a common origin for the Earth and Moon.

anonymous asked:

Are you aware that Drew has become a reaction meme? And if so how does this impact Giant Bomb's #brand?

Drew is probably too famous for Giant Bomb now. Do us a favor and don’t show him that, it’d probably be the launching point for a whole new career or something.

adjameson  asked:

Besides inventing D&D, Gary Gygax also founded Gen Con, which led indirectly to Magic's creation. As I understand it, Peter Adkison asked Richard Garfield for a game that RPG enthusiasts could play while waiting around at conventions--specifically Gen Con, which Adkison would later buy. And of course without D&D, Adkison wouldn't have created The Primal Order--which means he wouldn't have founded Wizards of the Coast :)

All good points. Dungeons & Dragons had a giant impact on gaming which obviously affected all games that came after it.

The point about Wizards of the Coast not existing without it is a great one.


Did Mars once have three moons?

“While the large Moon will be destined to be tidally destroyed and drawn to the surface through friction with Mars’ atmosphere, the other two moons could remain. Phobos and Deimos had a much larger sibling at some point in the past, but it may have lasted only for a few million years. After billions of years more, these two small moons remain. Perhaps in a few billion more, Phobos may be destroyed as well. If the new theory is right, a future scientist will only have Deimos and the basins on Mars to piece together this story from. It’s a stark reminder that in the Solar System and the Universe in general, the past is gone. All we have left to base its history on are the survivors.”

Compared to the other moons we know of in the Solar System, Mars’s two, Phobos and Deimos, are incredibly difficult to explain. They look like captured asteroids, being small, irregular, and exhibiting the right surface features. But captured asteroids form inclined or even retrograde orbits quite distant from their planet, while Phobos and Deimos live in circular, equatorial, close-in orbits to Mars. An alternative theory to the captured asteroid scenario is that the moons of Mars formed from a giant impact that kicked up a circumplanetary debris disk, similar to how Earth’s moon formed. But those scenarios never lead to merely two small moons; there’s always at least one large one. Thanks to a new simulation, all the pieces might finally be coming together.

Could Mars have had an inner, larger moon in the past that’s now decayed and collided back with the red planet? Get the story today!

dogfromfallout  asked:

Calming Starter Sentences: "You're not going to lose me" Sirius x Reyes bc I am Reyder trash and you do it so well

A/N - Sorry this took so long! This takes place quite late in my planned fic Sweet Little Lies (It’s the chapter where they start to get back together) - so if you don’t want to be spoiled, don’t read it!

The fiend reared up angrily ahead of Reyes, it’s knobbly skin crackled and dusty from the Kadara sun. For a moment, he stared at it in horror, wondering exactly how he had managed to forget that the badlands held such horrors … then it let out a roar of fury and charged towards him. He raised his gun and fired a few rounds, but knew it wouldn’t do anything to slow it down. If anything, his bullets would just make it even angrier.

Which it did.

Reyes looked frantically around as it bore down, hoping to see some place which he could take cover, but there was nothing within reach. The ground shook as it thundered towards him, it’s shadow loomed over him, it’s foul stench reached him, and he stumbled back in a futile attempt to get away as it reared up and prepared to strike.

“Oh, shi-”

Just as it’s claws brushed against him, something blue smashed into the side of the fiends head and it let out a mighty roar as it was staggered sideways. Reyes blinked as he realised that Sirius hadn’t left him. She was back. She had actually come to his rescue; that it was her who had slammed into it in a biotic charge, distracting it, and saving his life.

He watched, stunned, as she smashed her fist into it again and the biotic impact sent it reeling, then he shook his head and brought his gun up and began firing. There was no time to waste. Two people alone couldn’t bring down a fiend under most circumstances, and Sirius had put herself in serious trouble to try and distract it.

But they had to try.

The fiend was completely enraged now and it charged at Sirius as she streaked away from it, her blue glow blindingly bright. She kept it busy with Throws and Shockwaves, always dodging nimbly out of the way whenever it swiped at her with it’s giant clawed hands. Reyes’ heart was in his mouth the entire time, and he kept firing at it, never letting up as he cursed and swore each time she Charged at the giant creature and impacted it.

If it got hold of her … !

But it didn’t. And finally, after what felt like hours of fighting, the huge creature let out a piteous whine as Sirius slammed into it a final time, then it toppled sideways into the dust. It let out a long rattling breath; legs twitching as it died.

Sirius turned to face him, chest heaving as she doubled over and placed her hands on her knees. Her eyes were wide and they swirled with brighter than usual flecks of blue as they focused on him.

“You’re … okay?” she gasped in between breaths.

Reyes nodded. “You?”

“I’m fine.” She nodded and straightened, but before she could even take a step she swooned and slumped sideways onto the ground with a puff of dust.

He cursed and jogged over to her, kneeling and pulling her into his arms. Up close in the daylight he could see changes that hadn’t been evident at night;shadows under her eyes that spoke of sleepless nights, gaunt cheeks and pale lips from poor eating and working too hard. Liam was right; Sirius had stopped caring if she lived or died.

She was hurting herself, and charging at the fiend today had confirmed it.

“Oh, Bluebird,” Reyes cupped her cheek and her eyes fluttered open, his heart twisting in his chest as she looked up at him with so much pain that it was like a knife to the stomach. “We need to stop lying to each other. You’re not fine at all.”

He picked her up before she could complain, and carried her back to the shuttle. It was quite a walk, and by the time he made it there he was sweating and his muscles were screaming with exertion, but Sirius hadn’t told him to put her down, so he considered it worth the effort. She was surprisingly quiet when he settled her in the back and found her some water and rations, and only spoke up when he got the medical kit out and started to dig around for medigel.

“I thought I was going to lose you today,” she said softly as he tore the packet open and began to apply it to a cut on her face. “When I saw that fiend about to hit you,” her breath caught and she had to take a moment before she could keep going. “I thought I had lost you.”

Reyes paused, his fingers cool and sticky with medigel, and slowly let out the breath he was holding, barely daring to hope as he raised his eyes and met Sirius’ luminous blue gaze. Love. He could see it swirling in the depths of her eyes, undimmed by the exhaustion and pain, unmoved by the heartache she was suffering, and even unchanged by her recent brush with death on the Archon’s ship.

He didn’t deserve it, not after everything he’d done … but dammit, he needed her love.

She blinked and looked away, her lip trembling and her throat moving convulsively as she swallowed. “I hate feeling this way about you. I hate-”

“You’re not going to lose me,” he interrupted softly, and finally closed the distance between them properly, pulled against his will as though some greater force had hold of him. Reyes closed his arms about her tiny frame and held her close even as she fought against herself and her own emotions. “I know I’m a shady bastard, but I’m yours, Siri. Everything I am and everything I have is yours.”

He wanted to kiss her, to tilt her face up and show her just how much he’d missed her and how desperately he loved her too … but he held himself in check. They’d rushed into their relationship the first time around to their detriment; this time he would take things slow and get it right.

This time, Sirius would have no reason to doubt him.

(Art is by Stormcallart)

Lull in Mars' giant impact history discovered

From the earliest days of our solar system’s history, collisions between astronomical objects have shaped the planets and changed the course of their evolution. Studying the early bombardment history of Mars, scientists at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and the University of Arizona have discovered a 400-million-year lull in large impacts early in Martian history.

This discovery is published in the latest issue of Nature Geoscience in a paper titled, “A post-accretionary lull in large impacts on early Mars.” SwRI’s Dr. Bill Bottke, who serves as principal investigator of the Institute for the Science of Exploration Targets (ISET) within NASA’s Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), is the lead author of the paper. Dr. Jeff Andrews-Hanna, from the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory in the University of Arizona, is the paper’s coauthor.

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May 7th - Justice League

‘Ahem,’ Flash said briefly. Logan raised an eyebrow. ‘I’m sure you know the drill, guys. I don’t want to have to hurt you.’

‘That’s the benefit of being fucking psychopathic,’ Raven responded. ‘We do want to hurt you.’

They had been waiting on the steps of the Capitol Building for maybe thirty seconds, watching interestedly as crowds of people scattered in chaotic fashion away from the green in front of them. The huge white dome loomed above, providing a suitably dramatic backdrop. Gar bounced on the tips of his toes.
‘Damn, I love this.’
‘Me too.’
‘Why did we never do this before, Rae?’
‘No clue. Ask Dick.’
‘It is kinda his fault, ain’t it?’ There was a pause. Gar tapped his foot impatiently. ‘Fastest man alive, my ass. It’s been at least a minute since –’

The air in front of them erupted, a thunderclap echoing around the huge space. Raven shielded her eyes, squinting uncomfortably into the glare.
‘Right on time.’

Keep reading


From the earliest days of our solar system’s history, collisions between astronomical objects have shaped the planets and changed the course of their evolution. Studying the early bombardment history of Mars, scientists at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and the University of Arizona have discovered a 400-million-year lull in large impacts early in Martian history.

This discovery is published in the latest issue of Nature Geoscience in a paper titled, “A post-accretionary lull in large impacts on early Mars.” SwRI’s Dr. Bill Bottke, who serves as principal investigator of the Institute for the Science of Exploration Targets (ISET) within NASA’s Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), is the lead author of the paper. Dr. Jeff Andrews-Hanna, from the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory in the University of Arizona, is the paper’s coauthor.

“The new results reveal that Mars’ impact history closely parallels the bombardment histories we’ve inferred for the Moon, the asteroid belt, and the planet Mercury,” Bottke said. “We refer to the period for the later impacts as the ‘Late Heavy Bombardment.’ The new results add credence to this somewhat controversial theory. However, the lull itself is an important period in the evolution of Mars and other planets. We like to refer to this lull as the ‘doldrums.’”

The early impact bombardment of Mars has been linked to the bombardment history of the inner solar system as a whole. Borealis, the largest and most ancient basin on Mars, is nearly 6,000 miles wide and covers most of the planet’s northern hemisphere. New analysis found that the rim of Borealis was excavated by only one later impact crater, known as Isidis. This sets strong statistical limits on the number of large basins that could have formed on Mars after Borealis. Moreover, the preservation states of the four youngest large basins – Hellas, Isidis, Argyre, and the now-buried Utopia – are strikingly similar to that of the larger, older Borealis basin. The similar preservation states of Borealis and these younger craters indicate that any basins formed in-between should be similarly preserved. No other impact basins pass this test.

“Previous studies estimated the ages of Hellas, Isidis, and Argyre to be 3.8 to 4.1 billion years old,” Bottke said. “We argue the age of Borealis can be deduced from impact fragments from Mars that ultimately arrived on Earth. These Martian meteorites reveal Borealis to be nearly 4.5 billion years old – almost as old as the planet itself.”

The new results reveal a surprising bombardment history for the red planet. A giant impact carved out the northern lowlands 4.5 billion years ago, followed by a lull of approximately 400 million years. Then another period of bombardment produced giant impact basins between 4.1 and 3.8 billion years ago. The age of the impact basins requires two separate populations of objects striking Mars. The first wave of impacts was associated with formation of the inner planets, followed by a second wave striking the Martian surface much later.

IMAGE….Mars bears the scars of five giant impacts, including the ancient giant Borealis basin (top of globe), Hellas (bottom right), and Argyre (bottom left). An SwRI-led team discovered that Mars experienced a 400-million-year lull in impacts between the formation of Borealis and the younger basins.


One of my clubbing friends told me the other week that my nerdy attire makes me look like I’m a porn college student, jokingly obviously and we laughed about it, but all of you know how extra I am with deconstructing simple actions, so it got me thinking about how I can edit the way I can be perceived. I’m kinda insecure about a lot of things when it comes to my appearance as a result of being bullied and outcast in many levels through pretty much all of my teen years, obviously that has had a giant impact on how I have built my identity around arguably “nerdy” things. Becoming an adult has introduced me to other facets of my identity which I later developed more and more as I grew. And a lot of identities people seem to put on me from first impressions are false because the whole thing about being a nerd is you obsess about fandoms and fairly underground things. And most people in my adult life don’t really engage with those things so much, it’s a niche. This applies to how my body performs visually through fashion, as I do tend to dress in very “childish” ways for someone in their 20′s.

I’m not really insecure about the way I dress or how I come across to people, I find it to be a sort of badge of honour I give to someone for them to know me deeply and understand more about who I really am rather than making an assumption based on my appearance. However, I like to experiment with the many facets my body has to offer when subjected to different context, whether by posing, lighting, fashion etc. A lot of my selfies for me have become a study about this body I inhabit because I find it kind of weird that I never get to experience who I am physically while others do. It’s a way of very literal self-discovery, but it’s a self-discovery we share with people through the internet for multiple purposes in current culture. I literally don’t know who I am to others, I don’t know what it’s like to experience me, because perception will dictate what I become in a person’s mind, the way I “put myself out there” can only go so far.

I can’t help but wonder whether this is what Cyndi Sherman was trying to tell us with her self-portraiture, exposing this ability we all possess of becoming different identities simply through capturing a split second of an acted identity on film. Selfie culture itself allows us to perpetuate these identities coherently, giving us complete power to edit our image and chose how we want it to be perceived through performing certain identity nuances in photography.

I’m not saying any of this is a bad thing or a good thing. I’m simply trying to understand it.


** Synopsis: Some scientists have interpreted water-carved valleys on Mars formed within the last few billion years as a sign of either an active groundwater system or of transient warm periods in the atmosphere. But new research shows that snow and ice melted by hot impact ejecta could have produced enough water to carve those valleys with no groundwater or heat wave required. **

Present-day Mars is a frozen desert, colder and more arid than Antarctica, and scientists are fairly sure it’s been that way for at least the last 3 billion years. That makes a vast network of water-carved valleys on the flanks of an impact crater called Lyot – which formed somewhere between 1.5 billion and 3 billion years ago – something of a Martian mystery. It’s not clear where the water came from.

Now, a team of researchers from Brown University has offered what they see as the most plausible explanation for how the Lyot valley networks formed. They conclude that at the time of the Lyot impact, the region was likely covered by a thick layer of ice. The giant impact that formed the 225-kilometer crater blasted tons of blazing hot rock onto that ice layer, melting enough of it to carve the shallow valleys.

“Based on the likely location of ice deposits during this period of Mars’ history, and the amount of meltwater that could have been produced by Lyot ejecta landing on an ice sheet, we think this is the most plausible scenario for the formation of these valleys” said David Weiss, a recent Ph.D. graduate from Brown and the study’s lead author.

Weiss co-authored the study, which is published in Geophysical Research Letters, with advisor and Brown planetary science professor Jim Head, along with fellow graduate students Ashley Palumbo and James Cassanelli.

There’s plenty of evidence that water once flowed on the Martian surface. Water-carved valley networks similar to those at Lyot have been found in several locations. There’s also evidence for ancient lake systems, like those at Gale Crater where NASA’s Curiosity rover is currently exploring and at Jezero Crater where the next rover may land.

Most of these water-related surface features, however, date back to very early in Mars’ history – the epochs known as the Noachian and the Hesperian, which ended about 4 billion and 3 billion years ago respectively. From about 3 billion years ago to the present, Mars has been in a bone-dry period called the Amazonian.

The valley networks at Lyot therefore are a rare example of more recent surface water activity. Scientists have dated the crater itself to the Amazonian, and the valley networks appear to have been formed around the same time or shortly after the impact. So the question is: Where did all that water come from during the arid Amazonian?

Scientists have posited a number of potential explanations, and the Brown researchers set out to investigate several of the major ones.

One of those potential explanations, for example, is that there might have been a vast reservoir of groundwater when the Lyot impact occurred. That water, liberated by impact, could have flowed onto the surface along the periphery of the crater and carved the valleys. But based on geological evidence, the researchers say, that scenario is unlikely.

“If these were formed by deep groundwater discharge, that water would have also flowed into the crater itself,” Weiss said. “We don’t see any evidence that there was water present inside the crater.”

The researchers also looked at the possibility of transient atmospheric effects following the Lyot impact. A collision of this size would have vaporized tons of rock, sending a plume of vapor into the air. As that hot plume interacted with the cold atmosphere, it could have produced rainfall that some scientists think might have carved the valleys.

But that, too, appears unlikely, the researchers concluded. Any rain related to the plume would have fallen after the rocky impact ejecta had been deposited outside the crater. So if rainwater carved the valleys, one would expect to see valleys cutting through the ejecta layer. But there are almost no valleys directly on the Lyot ejecta. Rather, Palumbo said, “The vast majority of the valleys seem to emerge from beneath the ejecta on its outer periphery, which casts serious doubt on the rainwater scenario.”

That left the researchers with the idea that meltwater, produced when hot ejecta interacted with an icy surface, carved the Lyot valleys.

According to models of Mars’ climate history, ice now trapped mainly at the planet’s poles often migrated into the mid-latitude regions where Lyot is located. And there’s evidence to suggest that an ice sheet was indeed present in the region at the time of the impact.

Some of that evidence comes from the scarcity of secondary craters at Lyot. Secondary craters form when big chunks of rock blasted into the air during a large impact fall back to the surface, leaving a smattering of small craters surrounding the main crater. At Lyot, there far fewer secondary craters than one would expect, the researchers say. The reason for that, they suggest, is that instead of landing directly on the surface, ejecta from Lyot landed on a thick layer of ice, which prevented it from gouging the surface beneath the ice. Based on the terrain on the northern side of Lyot, the team estimates that the ice layer could have been anywhere from 20 to 300 meters thick.

The Lyot impact would have spat tons of rock onto that ice layer, some of which would have been heated to 250 degrees Fahrenheit or more. Using a thermal model of that process, the researchers estimate that the interaction between those hot rocks and a surface ice sheet would have produced thousands of cubic kilometers of meltwater – easily enough to carve the valley seen at Lyot.

“What this shows is a way to get large amounts of liquid water on Mars without the need for a warming of the atmosphere and any liquid groundwater,” Cassanelli said. “So we think this is a good explanation for how you get these channels forming in the Amazonian.”

And it’s possible, Head says, that this same mechanism could have been important before the Amazonian. Some scientists think that even in the early Noachian and Hesperian epochs, Mars was still quite cold and icy. If that was the case, then this meltwater mechanism might have also been responsible for at least some of the more ancient valley networks on Mars.

“It’s certainly a possibility worth investigating,” Head said.

IMAGE….Valley NetworksLyot Crater, rendered here with elevations exaggerated, is home to relatively recent water-carved valleys (white streaks). New research suggests the water came from melting snow and ice present at the time of the crater-forming impact.David Weiss/NASA/Brown University

“See, this is my folder for TF: Matrix stuff, and this is TF: Matrix After Dark!”

“So, is that like…all the sexy stuff?”

“Uhm…like 20% of it is. The rest of it is just all the other stuff that’s way too heavy to put the full impact of in TF: Matrix. Like what loss of bodily autonomy does to a Cybertronian, or the political impact of giant robots getting involved in human conflicts, or how Autotroopers are made-”

“what the fuck, Agatha.”

Classified Informations: Lilith - Second Angel

The Second Angel, known as Lilith. It came from the moon that carried the Black Moon (the former became Earth’s satellite). Giant, or First, Impact was caused by the collision between the Moon and Earth.

The white giant crucified in Terminal Dogma. It bore life such as apes and dolphins, and, as the final form, Lilin — that is, humankind. In addition, the liquid called LCL is Lilith’s body fluid.

Lilith had no soul. Moreover, its soul has been residing within a single body. Many copies of that body were made, but that is the reason why only one of them can exist at any given time.

To be honest, this whole plot line of Snape trying to get students to realize that Remus is a werewolf, and then later straight up telling them, is the thing Snape did in the series that bothers me the most. Because who are you to out someone else’s highly stigmatized medical condition? It would be one thing if he did it because he thought Remus wasn’t safe to have around the students and he thought outing him was the only way to get him to leave the school (still not an acceptable way to handle it, but a little more justifiable). But that’s not implied anywhere in the book. Snape never indicates that he’s worried about Remus’s lycanthropy.

I get that Snape thinks Remus was involved in Sirius’s prank in sixth year. And yes, that was a horrible prank and it was not in any way okay. But

1) that was seventeen years ago. And if you expect people to forgive you for the things that you did around that age (aka participating in what amounted to a pro-genocide cult), then you need to offer them the same privilege. 

2) it’s not acceptable to reveal someone’s private medical condition, particularly when society has a massive negative stigma against it, without a safety reason. Queen JK has said that she wrote Remus’s lycanthropy as a metaphor for HIV. In what universe would it be acceptable to tell a teacher’s students that their teacher has HIV just because that teacher’s friends bullied you in high school?Snape may have been prompted to set this assignment by the way Remus had Neville handle his Boggart, which might have reminded Snape of being bullied by the Marauders. Bullying is bad, yes. As someone who was bullied throughout childhood, I’ll be one of the last people to deny how hurtful and damaging it can be. But stigmas like the ones surrounding lycanthropy in the wizarding world make it hard for Remus to get a job, get housing, and even interact with large portions of society. Being outed as a werewolf has a giant and potentially permanent impact on his quality of life and his ability to meet his basic needs. Which in turn restricts his options for what he can do on a full moon (unless the Ministry of Magic pays for Wolfsbane Potion, and it doesn’t sound like they do), which then puts other people in danger. If Remus wants people to know, then he is obviously free to tell them, but it’s not someone else’s decision to make for him.

3) it’s especially not acceptable to reveal someone’s private medical condition because society has a massive negative stigma against said condition. This, to again go back to the metaphor, is the equivalent of telling a teacher’s students that their teacher has HIV because you know that many of the students and/or their parents will have a negative reaction to it. This is treating a person’s illness like a weapon you can use to attack them from the outside, as if it’s not bad enough already that the illness is attacking them from the inside.

Snape did good things. He wasn’t all bad, and, yes, he had a hard life. But, in my opinion, none of that excuses this, particularly not coming from an almost thirty-four-year-old man who should have known better and been beyond such pettiness at this point in his life.


Giant-impact hypothesis or the Theia Impact

The giant-impact hypothesis, suggests that the Moon formed out of the debris left over from a collision between Earth and an astronomical body the size of Mars, approximately 4.5 billion years ago, in the Hadean eon; about 20 to 100 million years after the solar system coalesced. The colliding body is sometimes called Theia, from the name of the mythical Greek Titan who was the mother of Selene, the goddess of the Moon. Analysis of lunar rocks, published in 2016, suggests that the impact may have been a direct hit, causing a thorough mixing of both parent bodies.

The giant-impact hypothesis is currently the favoured scientific hypothesis for the formation of the Moon. Supporting evidence includes: 1] Earth’s spin and the Moon’s orbit have similar orientations. 2] Moon samples indicate that the Moon’s surface was once molten. 3] The Moon has a relatively small iron core. 4] The Moon has a lower density than Earth. 5] Evidence exists of similar collisions in other star systems (that result in debris disks). 6] Giant collisions are consistent with the leading theories of the formation of the solar system. 7] The stable-isotope ratios of lunar and terrestrial rock are identical, implying a common origin.

There remain several questions concerning the best current models of the giant-impact hypothesis, however. The energy of such a giant impact is predicted to have heated Earth to produce a global “ocean” of magma, and evidence of the resultant planetary differentiation of the heavier material sinking into Earth’s mantle has been documented. However, as of 2015 there is no self-consistent model that starts with the giant-impact event and follows the evolution of the debris into a single moon. Other remaining questions include when the Moon lost its share of volatile elements and why Venus—which experienced giant impacts during its formation—does not host a similar moon. Although, this can be the result of Venus’ proximity to the sun. Read More || Edit

Street Fighter III: 2nd Impact

Giant Attack

On the side Capcom tells you plain and simple “You knew this game was coming…” as in you knew that there wasn’t only going to be Street Fighter III: New Generation But also Street Fighter III 2nd Impact Giant Attack and inevitable Street Fighter III 3rd Strike: Fight for the Future



Wanna see a Crash ? Well, here you go ! #Crash #failsforyourfriday #Freeride #eatingshit #nosedive #notevenascrap #nofilter #impact #goingdownhard #GoPro #Hero3 #Blackedition #blueskysnsunny #fail #Giant #Glory #mountains #Mountainbiking #livigno

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