gheeraerts

The historicity of Satine Kryze

I feel kind of awful discussing Satine Kryze after so many weeks of Maul but, well, when in Mandalore…

Duchess Satine Kryze is pacifist the ruler of Mandalore first introduced in The Clone Wars episode The Mandalore Plot. Her initial design was drawn from an unused McCaig concept for The Phantom Menace, but it has also been stated that Cate Blanchett was a key influence in her overall design. (given the appearance of Governor Pryce in Rebels season 3, it’s apparent that Blanchett is someone’s favourite over at LFL.) Blanchett’s role as Queen Elizabeth I was particularly drawn on, Satine’s key costuming borrowing many late Tudor/early Elizabethan elements, and certain parallels between the two women’s lives. 

L: Elizabeth as portrayed by Cate Blanchett with Robert Dudley (Joseph Fiennes) in Elizabeth. Preparing to be escorted to her incarceration in the Tower of London at the order of her sister Queen Mary I (’Bloody Mary’). R: Satine Kryze being rescued from her imprisonment by Obi-Wan Kenobi in Lawless.

Satine, as a young woman, lived her early years constantly at threat during the Mandalorian Civil War, her pacifist ideology at odds with ‘true’ warrior-like Mandalorian ways. Eventually peace was brokered, and Satine ruled over the New Mandalore even as violence, danger and oppositional factions brewed. In a way this could be seen to draw from Queen Elizabeth I’s tumultuous childhood: first as a child out of favour with her father King Henry VIII, being the child of ‘treasonous’ Anne Boleyn, then as a protestant young woman in the reign of her Catholic half-sister Queen Mary I. In this time Elizabeth was raised as a figurehead for Protestant rebellion, which eventually led to her detainment in the tower of London despite her claim of innocence. Throughout her reign Elizabeth faced a number of incidents of opposition from catholics and the Roman Catholic Church, though her attitude was one of pragmatic compromise in many aspects of religion. These parallels are loose but notable in their broad brushstrokes. 

Original Amidala sketch by Iain McCaig for The Phantom Menace

When designing Amidala for The Phantom Menace, McCaig was working through a ‘Space Nouveau’ aesthetic, borrowing elements from the works of Mucha, the Pre-Raphaelites and retro-futuristic romance of the first half of the twentieth century. Technology and nature in harmony. This design, when stripped back for animation to be practical, emphasised those now notably familiar Star Wars lines that borrow from Japanese fashions, whilst still retaining the Romantic aspects. the shapes of Satine’s headpiece echoes the increasingly elaborate ruffs and wired collarettes that grew exponentially throughout the fashions of the sixteenth century. The headpiece and gown are also heavy with symbolism: shell earrings and embellishments, the repeating petal shapes in her sleeves, skirts and tabbards as well as the literal lillies woven into her hair and headpiece loudly communicating her pacifism. She is visually placing herself within her own principles for all to see, decrying the past violence of her people, and the relative simplicity of this costume despite its ceremony (block colours and controlled embellishment - though the fabrics are clearly indicated to be silks) saves her message from being drowned out. These symbolic embellishments have been a popular aspect portraiture for centuries to communicate and sway power and impressions, in portraits of Elizabeth I the symbolic choices appear in their multitudes from props to tiny embellishements to the very styling of her hair. In the famed Rainbow Portrait (below) of Elizabeth I - a fantasy portrait painted late in her reign, but depicting a young newly crowned queen dressed for masque - embroidered eyes and ears show that she is a queen that Sees and Hears all. A queen in absolute control of her land. 

L & C: McCaig’s design reworked and streamlined by Killian Plunkett to work both within The Clone Wars aesthetic and for the character. This is a great example of concept recycling and adaptation for character, as when this design was originally selected as a base design for Satine, it wasn’t known that she would be quite so active and ‘dynamic’ as she ended up in the episodes. [X] R: The Rainbow Portrait, 1600-02, attributed to Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger. 

This organic silhouette at odds with the old is also visible in Satine’s landscape. Mandalore was designed drawing heavily from the Cubist movement in the most literal way. Their cities are built inside cubes within their destroyed environment. Sharp angles occur in everything from buildings, hair, food and ice cubes, floor texturing. Interspersed throughout are the diamond shapes and lines of Mandalorian armour, shifting into an Art Deco boundary between the Cubist harshness and Satine’s Nouveau romance. This mid-design point means that Satine is not entirely in opposition with her environment - her world and her people. These diamond shapes are present in the cut of her open oversleeves. She visually acknowledges Mandalore’s history whilst representing the new. (Equally, this could be seen in that her costume - despite it’s ceremony - holds little impediment to action and self-defence when necessary.)

The main plaza on Mandalore, clearly showing the Cubist influenced design, complete with detailed mural depicting the war with the jedi, and repeating diamond shapes.

Satine’s next notable costume looks a lot like she just walked out of an ‘80′s fantasy film and it is fantastic. The romance is heavy in this look with the long, soft lines and the muted pinks, particularly as she and Obi-Wan investigate the Death Watch on the industrial Concordia. She wears a shortened surcoat that mimics the cut of a man’s doublet, a fashion that was favoured throughout the sixteenth century, and appeared in both French and Italian fashions (Italian styles fell out of favour in much of Europe in the latter half of the century as Spain became increasingly influential.) This fashion has appeared, heavily embellished, in a number of portraits of Elizabeth I, reflective of her dichotomy as woman and sovereign, as expressed in her famous address at Tilbury, 

I know I have the body of a weak, feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king 

Satine’s ‘80′s adventuring costume.

The harsh cutaway style of Satine’s surcoat also mimics late eighteenth century frock coats and equestrian fashions, clearly communicating to the audience that is Time For Adventure! even whilst calling back to the late Tudor fashion for skirts cut to reveal heavily embroidered petticoats. Again, echoes of those Mandalorian armour diamonds are introduced in this cut, whilst organic elements are retained in shell detailing and the floral line of her chemise. Satine, too, must address her dichotomy of being in her very appearance.

L: Portrait of Mary Stuart (aka Mary Queen of Scots), c. 1559, Francois Clouet. R: Portrait of a Noblewoman, c. 1580, Lavinia Fontana. Mary Stuart is shown in a French doublet-styled bodice, whilst Fontana’s portrait is in the Italian giuppone style. The possibility of a Mary Stuart influence in Satine feels particularly apt given their mutual martyrdom. Mary, a devout Catholic who also lived a tumultuous life at odds with her country, was executed by Elizabeth for her movements to depose the heretical English queen. 

Satine’s final costume - in both its forms - is by far her most interesting and most historical. Its basic silhouette is a slimmed down take on the late Tudor/early Elizabethan bell shaped gown using the verdugle, or Spanish farthingale. As I mentioned above styles were influenced by politics, and the Spanish styles were favoured from the marriage of Katharine of Aragon to Henry VIII until late in Elizabeth I’s reign, when French fashions were favoured due to threatening war with Spain. (Anne Boleyn was known to have been bold in her favouring of French fashions as a couriter in the time of Katharine of Aragon, though styes were generally mixed.) Obviously Satine is not wearing a farthingale - it would be impractical, and her gown is later stripped away. But this is a politically influence shift in style: the symbolism in dress is stripped away, the flamboyance is gone. I have joked in private that maybe Satine borrowed the Naboo royal dressmaker, but there is little doubt that her ceremonial costume was designed with an eye to the wider galactic stage and what would be recognised as regal garb. This is a much stricter silhouette - upright, austere though still richly (but subtly) embellished. It is a design turned inward. Those Cubist elements are creeping into the lines of her skirt as she is taking a stand for her people and for New Mandalore.

L: Duchess Satine Kryze in Shades of Reason. C: Elizabeth I when a princess, c. 1546, attributed to William Scrots. This early fashion for oversleeves is also evident in Satine’s first ceremonial costume, as is the split skirt. R: A Young Lady Aged 21, Possibly Helena Snakenborg, Later Marchioness of Northampton, 1569, the British School (a personal favourite.) Here you can see shoulder rolls and the broad neckline with delicate open infill. 

Again, we are seeing a dichotomy between the feminine and masculine, her sleeves and stand neck calling back to those borrowed from the pourpoint doublet, the sleeves studded and bracciali, shoulder rolls, taking on the look of armoured pauldrons. The broad neckline introducing that diamond shape yet again and placing it directly against petal shapes of the stiff stand collar mimicking the guimpe, typically soft infill, now strengthened and yet vulnerable and exposed. Satine is strong in her beliefs, but the ground beneath her feet is vanishing rapidly. 

As this arc progresses, the costume is ripped, stripped away and softened. Embellishment - such as her jewels and belt - are removed, her hair is loose, her skirt shortened. It is here that those Cubist elements become even more apparent in the front tabbard-like section of her skirt, echoing the split-skirt Tudor fashion. Interestingly, these stylistic elements were favoured by Elizabeth when she was young, unstable in her position as princess and then, later, queen. 

Satine Kryze, deposed, imprisoned and the worse for wear.

It is relevant to notice at this point Satine’s colour palette. Her main colour is blue - particularly this deep prussiany blue - feminine whilst also strong. The colour of Mandalore. She and her people are not part of the war, but at this point she is caught - personally - between the personal vendettas of Maul and Obi-Wan, both of whom are sliding into bloody reds and browns. She is the middle ground, trapped. Pinks and reds emerge in her costumes at various points when she is knowingly heading into danger, the pinks of her Adventuring costume, the red of Coruscant costume when she is on the run in The Duchess of Mandalore. Satine’s primary ceremonial gown has elements of purple and greens - she is in power, and in control. A ruler in her prime. But in this final arc she is blue and stripped of everything but her principles, and yet perhaps at her most Mandalorian? Considering Padme’s watery funeral gown, it appears that blue is the colour of martyrdom. 

Next Time: The path unfollowed: the heroics of Padme & Leia

Last time: Darth Maul and the fashion of Nemesis - Part II

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Welcome back to FRIDAY FASHION FACT! Today’s topic is one that seems to be quite the curiosity to many people, or, more accurately, to many women. That’s right, I’m finally covering maternity wear in the age of corsets! It’s no wonder why this topic is so perplexing to so many people- it is a shockingly un-discussed area of fashion history. We rarely, if ever, see images of pregnant women throughout history. What we commonly see, though, is women with teeny-tiny waists that are caged in and perfectly flattened by stays and corsets. Clearly, those styles didn’t leave much room for a little alien growing in a woman’s belly. Yet the fact that we all here today is proof that the vast majority of women throughout history were pregnant at some point in their lives. This means that some sort of clothing accommodating a rapidly growing midsection had to exist. So what did it look like?

Up until the Renaissance, maternity wear was barely, if at all, different from regular dress. This is because in these early days, clothing was not fitted to the body. Fabric was cut in rectangular pieces that were laced together, making it easy to tighten or loosen a dress. During pregnancy, women would simply loosen the lacing, allowing more of her underlayers of clothing to be visible, possibly adding additional layers. Later in a pregnancy, women simply stayed at home, meaning they could just wear loose undergarments and open robes. During the late Middle Ages, it was in fact fashionable for a woman to appear pregnant, whether or not she actually was. They would wear high waisted gowns with extra fabric gathered around her belly, thus making specific maternity wear unnecessary.

By the Renaissance, though, seams and structure became integral parts of fashion. Stays came into fashion (read here) resulting in a restricted bodice. During this era, women would loosen the bottom of their stays as much as possible during the early part of their pregnancy, thus causing the bump to appear rather low. Those who could afford new clothing would wear shortened bodices as their stomachs grew larger. Those who could not had two options. One, they would wear a man’s waistcoat paired with their loose underlayers and skirts. This is because during this era men’s waistcoats had vents in the back, held together by lacing which could be loosened. The other option was to wear a bodice that laced in the front, leaving the lacing around the belly open. This would then be covered up with an apron. Using an apron to cover an open bodice that accommodated a full belly remained the go-to style for the pregnant poor for the next couple of centuries.

The first official pregnancy garment was created in the 17th century. Known as the Adrienne dress, the style had loose folds of fabric where normally a fitted waist would be found. The Adrienne developed throughout the next century, and by the 18th century it often included a bib that could be folded down for breastfeeding. In the early 19th century Neoclassical era, fashion was once again in a style that easily accommodated a pregnant figure. By the 1820s, though, structured undergarments made their way back into style, soon becoming the cinched-waisted corsets we associate with the word today. However, maternity corsets were also created around this time. These garments were created to shape, support, and minimize the appearance of a belly. They were adjustable, and some had flaps for breastfeeding. There were countless styles created, all boasting some new-found advantage.

Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, maternity wear would either raise or lower waistlines, depending on which was more fashionable at the time, to accommodate the shape. The crinoline era used empire waists, as well as separate blouses and skirts, often covered by a large jacket to hide the bump. At home, wrappers and robes were extremely common. The bustle era, with its drop waists, attempted to hide the shape by smoothing it down into folds of fabric by the hips. When tea gowns- unstructured, flowing dresses- were developed towards the end of the Victorian era, they became the fashionable choice for women at home, particularly towards the end of their term. Yet the birth (get it??) of the ready to wear industry (read here) and the downfall of the corset shortly after caused maternity wear to shift towards the distinctive garments we often think of today. That, however, is a topic for another day.

Have a question about fashion history that you want answered in the next FRIDAY FASHION FACT? Just click the ASK button at the top of the page!

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Oh, I couldn’t resist. I had such a hard time picking an Elizabeth R still to match with a portrait on my other post, so I figured why not just give it its own post.

All stills from BBC’s Elizabeth R, 1971.

Picture 1: Glenda Jackson as Princess Elizabeth, E:1 / “Elizabeth I when a princess”, William Scrots, 1546.

Picture 2: Daphne Slater as Mary I, E:1 / “Mary I of England”, Antonis Mor, 1554.

Picture 3: Glenda Jackson as Elizabeth I, E:4 / “The Sieve Portrait”, Quentin Metsys, 1583.

Picture 4: Glenda Jackson as Elizabeth I, E:5/ “The Darnley Portrait”, Federico Zuccaro (?), 1575.

Picture 5: Glenda Jackson as Elizabeth I, E:5/ “The Armada Portrait”, George Gower, 1588.

Picture 6: Glenda Jackson as Elizabeth I, E:6/ “The Ditchley Portrait”, Marcus Gheeraerts, 1592.

Picture 7: Vivian Pickles as Mary Queen of Scots, E:2/ “Mary Queen of Scots in White Mourning”, Francois Clouet (?), 1560.

Picture 8: Vivian Pickles as Mary Queen of Scots, E:4/ “Mary Queen of Scots in captivity”, unknown artist, c. 1580.

(Also can we just appreciate how all the actors play their characters all the way through, i.e. Glenda Jackson played Elizabeth from ages 15 - 66 when she herself was like 30.)

The Golden Age of Dutch and Flemish Paintings

The Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history generally spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years War (1568–1648) for Dutch independence. The new Dutch Republic was the most prosperous nation in Europe, and led European trade, science, and art. The northern Netherlandish provinces that made up the new state had traditionally been less important artistic centres than cities in Flanders in the south, and the upheavals and large-scale transfers of population of the war, and the sharp break with the old monarchist and Catholic cultural traditions, meant that Dutch art needed to reinvent itself entirely, a task in which it was very largely successful.

Although Dutch painting of the Golden Age comes in the general European period of Baroque painting, and often shows many of its characteristics, most lacks the idealization and love of splendour typical of much Baroque work, including that of neighbouring Flanders. Most work, including that for which the period is best known, reflects the traditions of detailed realism inherited from Early Netherlandish painting.

It is also a great time for Flemish Painters of the Baroque

Flemish Baroque painting refers to the art produced in the Southern Netherlands during Spanish control in the 16th and 17th centuries. The period roughly begins when the Dutch Republic was split from the Habsburg Spain regions to the south with the Spanish recapturing of Antwerp in 1585 and goes until about 1700, when Habsburg authority ended with the death of King Charles II. Antwerp, home to the prominent artists Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, and Jacob Jordaens, was the artistic nexus, while other notable cities include Brussels and Ghent.
Rubens, in particular, had a strong influence on seventeenth-century visual culture. His innovations helped define Antwerp as one of Europe’s major artistic cities, especially for Counter Reformation imagery, and his student Van Dyck was instrumental in establishing new directions in English portraiture. Other developments in Flemish Baroque painting are similar to those found in Dutch Golden Age painting, with artists specializing in such areas as history painting, portraiture, genre painting, landscape painting, and still life.

A distinctive feature of the period is the proliferation of distinct genres of paintings, with the majority of artists producing the bulk of their work within one of these. The full development of this specialization is seen from the late 1620s, and the period from then until the French invasion of 1672 is the core of Golden Age painting.

The term “genre” is much used in the history and criticism of visual art, but in art history has meanings that overlap rather confusingly.  Genre painting may also be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, and other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, landscapes, marine paintings and animal paintings.

The concept of the “hierarchy of genres” was a powerful one in artistic theory, especially between the 17th and 19th centuries:

  • History painting, including narrative, religious, mythological and allegorical subjects
  • Portrait painting
  • Genre painting or scenes of everyday life
  • Landscape (landscapists were the “common footmen in the Army of Art” according to the Dutch theorist Samuel van Hoogstraten) and cityscape
  • Animal painting
  • Still life, flowers, etc.

History Painting (historical, biblical, mythical, allegory, battle scenes)

  • Denis van Alsloot
  • Dirck Van Baburen
  • Jacob Adriaensz. Backer
  • Abraham Bloemaert
  • Jan Boeckhorst
  • Ferdinand Bol
  • Paulus Bor
  • Leonaert Bramer
  • Salomon de Bray
  • Bartholomeus Breenbergh
  • Jan Brueghel the Elder
  • Jan Brueghel the Younger
  • Hendrick ter Brugghen
  • Abraham Van Calraet
  • Jacob van Campen
  • Hendrik de Clerck
  • Gaspar de Crayer
  • Benjamin Gerritsz. Cuyp
  • Willem Drost
  • Karel Dujardin
  • Caesar van Everdingen
  • Carel Fabritius
  • Govert Flinck
  • Ambrosius Francken
  • Frans Francken the Younger
  • Hieronymus Francken the Younger
  • Aert de Gelder
  • Hendrik Goltzius
  • Pieter de Grebber
  • Cornelis van Haarlem
  • Hendrik Heerschop
  • Pauwels van Hillegaert
  • Gerard Hoet
  • Cornelis Holsteyn
  • Gerrit van Honthorst
  • Samuel van Hoogstraten
  • Arnold Houbraken
  • Michael Angelo Immenraet
  • Pieter Isaacsz
  • Lambert Jacobsz
  • Jacob Jordaens
  • Nicolaes Knüpfer
  • Salomon Koninck
  • Gerard de Lairesse
  • Pieter Lastman
  • Jan Lievens
  • Johannes Lingelbach
  • Jacob van Loo
  • Karel van Mander
  • Claes Cornelisz.Moeyaert
  • Paulus Moreelse
  • Daniel Mijtens the Younger
  • Jan Baptist van Meunincxhove
  • Eglon van der Neer
  • Adriaen van Nieulandt
  • Abraham Janssens van Nuyssen
  • Jacob van Oost the Elder
  • Jacob van Oost the Younger
  • Palamedes Palamedesz
  • Cornelius van Poelenburgh
  • Willem de Poorter
  • Jacob Pynas
  • Jan Pynas
  • Erasmus Quellinus II
  • Nicolas Regnier
  • Pieter Cornelisz van Rijck
  • Rembrandt van Rijn
  • Peter Paul Rubens
  • David Rijckaert (III)
  • Cornelis Saftleven
  • Joris van Schooten
  • Pieter Snayers
  • Frans Snyders
  • Matthias Stom
  • Jacob van Swanenburg
  • Abraham van den Tempel
  • Jan Tengnagel
  • David Teniers the Elder
  • David Teniers the Younger
  • Theodoor van Thulden
  • Moses van Uyttenbroeck
  • Gillis van Valckenborch
  • Otto van Veen
  • Esaias van de Velde
  • Adriaen Pietersz van de Venne
  • Johannes Vermeer
  • Simon de Vos
  • Cornelis de Wael
  • Jan Baptist Weenix
  • Jan Weenix
  • Adriaen van der Werff
  • Pieter van der Werff
  • Thomas Willeboirts Bosschaert
  • Frans Wouters
  • Philips Wouwerman
  • Joachim Wtewael

Tronies, portrait, selfportrait, equestrian, groupsportrait, military

  • Pieter van Anraedt
  • Jan de Baen
  • David Bailly
  • Jan van Bijlert
  • Abraham van Blyenberch
  • Gerard ter Borch
  • Gesina ter Borch
  • Jan de Bray
  • Gonzales Coques
  • John de Critz the elder
  • Jacob Gerritszoon Cuyp
  • Jan Frans van Douven
  • Anthony van Dyck
  • Albert Eckhout
  • Wybrand de Geest
  • Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger
  • Frans Pietersz de Grebber
  • Johannes van Haensbergen
  • Frans Hals
  • Daniel Haringh
  • Bartholomeus van der Helst
  • Jan van den Hoecke
  • Ludolf Leendertsz de Jongh
  • Thomas de Keyser
  • Roelof Koets of Zwolle
  • Sir Peter Lely
  • Isaac Luttichuys
  • Frans Luycx
  • Jacob Levecq
  • Nicolaes Maes
  • Pieter Meert
  • Michel Jansz van Mierevelt
  • Jan van Mieris
  • Daniel Mytens the Elder
  • Caspar Netscher
  • David van der Plas
  • Pieter van der Plas
  • Hendrick Gerritsz Pot
  • Jan Antonisz. van Ravesteyn
  • Arnold van Ravesteyn
  • Jan Albertsz. Rotius
  • Dirck van Santvoort
  • Godfried Schalcken
  • Anthoon Schoonjans
  • Paul Van Somer
  • Pieter Claesz Soutman
  • Justus Sustermans
  • Wallerant Vaillant
  • Johanna Vergouwen
  • Jan Verkolje
  • Johannes Cornelisz. Verspronck
  • Jacob Ferdinand Voet
  • Ary de Vois
  • Cornelis de Vos
  • Willem Wissing

Genre, scenes of daily life, music

  • Cornelis Pietersz Bega
  • Charles Emmanuel Biset
  • Peter van Bloemen
  • Balthasar van den Bossche
  • Andries Both
  • Esaias Boursse
  • Adriaen Brouwer
  • Hendrick van der Burgh
  • Willem Pieterszoon Buytewech
  • Pieter Codde
  • Joos van Craesbeeck
  • Gerrit Dou
  • Joost Cornelisz Droochsloot
  • Jacob Duck
  • Willem Cornelisz Duyster
  • Dirck Hals
  • Pieter de Hooch
  • Pieter van Laer
  • Judith Leyster
  • Gabriel Metsu
  • Jan Miel
  • Jan Miense Molenaer
  • Frans van Mieris the Elder
  • Willem van Mieris
  • Adriaen vam Ostade
  • Anthonie Palamedesz
  • Theodoor Rombouts
  • Michael Sweerts
  • Jan Steen
  • Johannes Vermeer
  • Sebastian Vrancx
  • Thomas Wyck

Landscape, seascape, city scape, winter, night

  • Lucas Achtschellinck
  • Jacques d'Arthois
  • Jan Asselijn
  • Jan Abrahamsz Beerstraaten
  • Nicolaes Pietersz. Berchem
  • Paul and Mattheus Brill
  • Anthonie van Borssom
  • Jan Dirksz Both
  • Abraham Van Calraet
  • Gillis van Coninxloo
  • Albert Cuyp
  • Dirck Dalens the Elder
  • Guillam Dubois
  • Pieter Janssens Elinga
  • Allaert van Everdingen
  • Abraham Genoels
  • Jan van Goyen
  • Abel Grimmer
  • Joris van der Haagen
  • Jan Hackaert
  • Dirck Helmbreker
  • Jacob de Heusch
  • Willem de Heusch
  • Meindert Hobbema
  • Gillis d'Hondecoeter
  • Cornelis Huysmans
  • Philips Augustijn Immenraet
  • François van Knibbergen
  • Philip de Koninck
  • Govert van der Leeuw
  • Jean-François Millet (I)
  • Pieter de Molijn
  • Frederick de Moucheron
  • Isaac de Moucheron
  • Aert van der Neer
  • Pieter de Neyn
  • Jan van Nickelen
  • Bonaventura Peeters
  • Egbert Van Der Poel
  • Frans Post
  • Adam Pynacker
  • Roelant Roghman
  • Jacob Van Ruisdael
  • Salomon van Ruysdael
  • Marten Rijckaert
  • Pieter Rijsbraeck
  • Herman Saftleven
  • Jacob Savery the Elder
  • Willem Schellinks
  • Hercules Seghers
  • Adriaen van Stalbemt
  • Lucas van Uden
  • Lodewijk de Vadder
  • Adriaen van de Velde
  • Jan Vermeer of Haarlem
  • Daniel Vosmaer
  • Jan Wijnants
  • Jan Wildens
  • Matthias Withoos
  • Gaspar van Wittel
  • Pieter Wouwerman

Cityscapes

  • Gerrit Berckheyde
  • Thomas Heeremans
  • Jan van der Heyden
  • Jan van Kessel of Amsterdam

Seascapes

  • Aert Anthonisz
  • Hendrick van Anthonissen
  • Ludolf Bakhuizen
  • Jan Theunisz Blanckerhoff
  • Jan van Capelle
  • Jeronymus van Diest
  • Willem van Diest
  • Andries van Eertvelt
  • Hendrik van Minderhout
  • Pieter Mulier the Elder
  • Reinier Nooms
  • Bonaventura Peeters
  • Jan Peeters I
  • Jan Porcellis
  • Julius Porcellis
  • Isaac Sailmaker
  • Willem van de Velde the Elder
  • Willem van de Velde the Younger
  • Lieve Pieterszoon Verschuier
  • Abraham de Verwer
  • Simon de Vlieger
  • Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom
  • Cornelis Claesz van Wieringen
  • Adam Willaerts

Animals, hunting

  • Jan Fyt
  • Melchior d’Hondecoeter
  • Paulus Potter
  • Roelant Savery
  • Paul de Vos

Still life, flowers, food, vanitas, Trompe l’oeil

  • Willem van Aelst
  • Balthasar van der Ast
  • Jan Anton van der Baren
  • Osias Beert
  • Martin Boelema de Stomme
  • Hans Bollongier
  • Ambrosius Bosschaert the Elder
  • Ambrosius Bosschaert II
  • Abraham Bosschaert
  • Johannes Bosschaert
  • Joseph de Bray
  • Elias van den Broeck
  • Pieter Claesz
  • Evert Collier
  • Adriaan Coorte
  • Alexander Coosemans
  • Andries Daniels
  • Cornelis Jacobsz. Delff
  • Isaac van Duynen
  • Floris van Dyck
  • Jan Baptist van Fornenburgh
  • Willem Gabron
  • Pieter Gallis
  • Jan Pauwel Gillemans
  • Nicolaes Gillis
  • Gerrit Willemsz Heda
  • Willem Claeszoon Heda
  • Cornelis de Heem
  • Jan Davidsz. de Heem
  • Jan Janszoon de Heem
  • Jacob van Hulsdonck
  • Willem Kalf
  • Jan van Kessel
  • Cornelis Kick
  • Roelof Koets
  • Nicolaes Lachtropius
  • Simon Luttichuys
  • Cornelis van der Meulen
  • Abraham Mignon
  • Maria van Oosterwijck
  • Clara Peeters
  • Pieter Gerritsz van Roestraten
  • Rachel Ruysch
  • Floris van Schooten
  • Otto Marseus van Schrieck
  • Harmen Steenwijck
  • Pieter Steenwijk
  • Christiaen Striep
  • Jan Philips van Thielen
  • Johannes Torrentius
  • Jan Jansz. Treck
  • Jan Jansz. den Uyl
  • Adriaen van Utrecht
  • Jan Jansz. van de Velde
  • Vincent Laurensz van der Vinne
  • Matthias Withoos
  • Catarina Ykens-Floquet
  • Frans Ykens

Others, interiors, skating

  • Hendrick Avercamp
  • Bartholomeus van Bassen
  • Job Berckheyde
  • Abraham Blooteling
  • Dirck van Delen
  • Pieter Janssens Elinga
  • Wilhelm Schubert van Ehrenberg
  • Jacob de Gheyn II
  • Gerard Houckgeest
  • Cornelis de Man
  • Pieter Neefs the Elder
  • Peeter Neeffs (II)
  • Pieter Jansz Saenredam
  • Jacobus Ferdinandus Saey
  • Hendrick van Steenwyck (II)
  • Hendrick Cornelisz van Vliet
  • Paul Vredeman de Vries
  • Isac Vromans
  • Emanuel de Witte

The enormous success of 17th-century Dutch painting overpowered the work of subsequent generations, and no Dutch painter of the 18th century—nor, arguably, a 19th-century one before Van Gogh—is well known outside the Netherlands. Already by the end of the period artists were complaining that buyers were more interested in dead than living artists.

If only because of the enormous quantities produced, Dutch Golden Age painting has always formed a significant part of collections of Old Master paintings, itself a term invented in the 18th century to describe Dutch Golden Age artists. Taking only Wouwerman paintings in old royal collections, there are more than 60 in Dresden and over 50 in the Hermitage. But the reputation of the period has shown many changes and shifts of emphasis. One nearly constant factor has been admiration for Rembrandt, especially since the Romantic period. Other artists have shown drastic shifts in critical fortune and market price; at the end of the period some of the active Leiden fijnschilders had enormous reputations, but since the mid-19th century realist works in various genres have been far more appreciated.

Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger - Queen Elizabeth I (‘The Ditchley portrait’)

circa 1592

oil on canvas

National Portrait Gallery, London