Hello, my favorite brainy people of the internet!
We’ll be talking about some brain tumors today.
All of the mnemonics might not work for you, so take only what you need :)
It is the most common malignant CNS tumor in adults. It has a butterfly appearance as it commonly crosses the corpus callosum. Areas of necrosis and hemorrhage are present. (This was asked as a MCQ in my exam!) GFAP positive.
Glioblastoma Multiforme mnemonic:
G for Glioblastoma, G for GFAP.
G for gangrene (Lame way to remember about the hemorrhage and necrosis!)
A whorled appearance is seen, histopathologically. It commonly presents in women and expresses estrogen receptors. It can calcify resulting in psammoma bodies.
M flipped upside down looks like a W for whorled, women.
Psammoma body mnemonic:
Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
Papillary renal cell carcinoma
Serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary
Fired egg appearance or chicken wire capillary pattern seen on histology. It commonly involves the white matter of frontal lobe resulting in seizures.
Eggs look like O.. OligOdendrOgliOma. Fried eggs leads to a fried brain. Fried brains cause seizures.
It’s a benign tumor of astrocytes, most common tumor in children. It involves the cerebellum (below the tentorium). Rosenthal fibers are eosinophilic, corkscrew fibers found in pilocytic astrocytoma. Pilocytic astrocytomas generally form sacs of fluid (cysts).
Pilocytic astrocytoma mnemonic:
AstROSEcyte. ROSEnthal fibres!
Often localized to CN VIII, found in cerebellopontine angle, S-100 postitive. Histologically, shows cellular Antoni A area and paucicellular Antoni B area.
For Schwannomas I remember the bird, “SWAN”
Acoustic Schwannomas are common (More common than Trigeminal Schwannomas!)
ANtoni A and ANtoni B
Neurofibromatosis type 2 has bilateral Schwannomas.
It’s a prolactinoma, most often. Derived from Rathke’s pouch. Can cause bitemporal hemianopia.
Pituitary adenoma mnemonic:
P for Prolactinoma!
Is a benign childhood tumor, derived from remnants of Rathke’s pouch. It is the most common childhood supratentorial tumor (Infratentorial is pilocytic astrocytoma, remember?) Tooth enamel like calcification is seen. Can cause bitemporal hemianopia.
C for Children, Calcification.
R for Rathkes pouch!
Ependymal cell tumors most commonly found in 4th ventricle and thus can cause hydrocephalus. Characteristic perivascular pseudorosettes seen on histology. Rod-shaped blepharoplasts (basal ciliary bodies) found near nucleus.
Epic Ependymoma. (Sounds similar, yaay!)
E for ependymal cells.
P for pseudorosettes.
I for inside the cavities of the brain (How I remember involvement of the ventricles!)
C for ciliary bodies.
Most often cerebellar, associated with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, can produce erythropoeitin causing secondary polycythemia.
HEmangioblastoma! H for Hippel. E for EPO.
This post was requested by Kay =)
I covered most of them for you, lemme know which else do you need!