germanism

anonymous asked:

My headcanon is that Gilbert wasn't as good as big brother has most people believe he is. Not abusive but still not a great brother.

Oh, I can totally see this: I think Gilbert adores his brother a lot (maybe to the point of even thinking of him as more perfect than he is) but I also think he’s got a soldier’s mentality first and foremost.

Gilbert repressed his emotions, he teaches Ludwig to be stoic. Gilbert raises Ludwig the way someone would train to go to war.

They love each other, but Ludwig still hesitates sometimes: to show strong emotion, to show weakness, in his brother’s eyes.

(I do like to think that realizing this makes Gil do some introspection.)

0/10 judgment.

anonymous asked:

"#for sure the most talented actor I’ve ever stanned and that’s saying something because I have excellent taste" ---- this tag... my god, I FEEL you. I'm so used to big american blockbusters and action stars (and that's totally okay) but Luca's talent is on another level. It's almost frightening how versatile he is (like, does he even need to come back for a TOG sequel? no. his career doesn't need it at all: thank god he's a king and loves the character)

Oh it’s just unreal. DOn’t get me wrong I think a lot of the other people I love are super talented actors (Sebastian Stan and Mark Ruffalo in particular I think are just incredibly good) and I wouldn’t love them if they weren’t but there’s just something about Luca.

The range he has, the way he can play these sweet soft wounded characters like Paolo that you just want to wrap in a blanket because they’re so unbelievably vulnerable. The way his character in that German movie where he’s the slutty gay Victorian is so SLIMY like you just hate him, Luca twists his face into this constant smirk that you just wanna punch off his lips. The way Nicky had this incredible FIRE to him underneath that empathetic, gentle exterior, like you wanted to cuddle the heck out of Nicky but also you didn’t want to get on his bad side because he would fuck you up and not even blink (”he thinks you’re a mouse, Nicky,” Joe says, thinking ohhhhh man these guys have no idea who they just pissed off). That multi-faceted kind of character can’t be easy to play and he did it flawlessly. And then can also play inSANE villains like Lo Zingaro. His spectrum is massive, most actors would have more of a wheelhouse and wouldn’t be able to play such radically different things. His talent for physicality, the way the man has such control over his micro-expressions and body language, the way he can transform his posture and his face and the way he moves so he doesn’t even look like the same person from one role to the next. The way he digs into roles and embodies them so completely, I havent seen Martin Eden yet but literally all the critics are saying he’s a revelation and deserves a thousand awards.

And lets be real, there IS something in the fact that he isn’t American and operates outside of Hollywood. Like Lo Zingaro is what every Marvel movie villain WISHES they were but can’t be because those actors all fall into that dumb Hollywood trap of still having to look hot while they play a bad guy so it ends up watered down, whereas Luca just goes fucking FERAL. He’s utterly terrifying but also somehow still endearing, he’s an unhinged trash gremlin but you can’t take your eyes off him. He fully steals that movie. (also ugh the man can SING. That growl in his voice lord have mercy, my loins can only take so much Mr. Marinelli!!!)

Idk I could just go on and on for the rest of time about how talented he is somebody pls stop me before no one wants to follow this blog anymore 

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21.10.2020

Hi! A day without active acne cysts on my face has to be honored with a selfie (doesn’t happen that often, also #normalizeacne) ✨ aaaand how beautiful is this morning view from my boyfriend‘s appartement 😭

my third term is approaching! So you’re gonna get more study input in the future, don’t worry🥰 I’m kinda stoked and kinda sad about how everything turned out to be this year… sending a virtual hug to everyone out there! We’re all in this together (literally the whole world)❤️

day 10 - one thing I wished I could change about studyblr

I’d like to have more conversations, tbh. 😊and I‘d love to see more geography-blogs!! (If you know some, tag them!❤️😂)

hugs, Vera xx

9

Basics Of Germanic warfare


Not many written sources have survived until the 21st century about Germanic warfare. The very few sources that we do have, are written by Roman or Greek authors so you can’t fully 100% rely on these sources to be truthful. Archeological findings can picture an image of the gear used by the Germanic people but it still can’t give us a proper and reliable image of how an average warrior would have exactly looked like.


Basically all clothing has deteriorated, only small patches of fabric still exist, and any possible tattoos or bodypaint have of course also decayed. It is even harder to describe the possible battle tactics that the Germanic tribes used during their conflict with fellow tribes or against the Roman empire. Again we only have Roman sources that contain small descriptions which give us only a tiny glimpse into the structure of Germanic military tactics.


The only thing we can do is to combine both these historical sources with archeological findings in order to paint an image of the Germanic military force and their used tactics. Tactics and military gear also seem to differ from tribe to tribe making things even harder for historians as the Germanic tribes didn’t have one organized military structure like the Romans had. The focus of this post is on Germanic warfare of tribes between 100BC-300AD.


Weapons:

The main weapon used by a Germanic warrior was the spear. A spear was relatively easy to produce because you don’t need as much iron as you would need in order to produce a sword. Iron was a rare resource in Germania so it was only a logical choice to make the spear the chief weapon of a Germanic warrior. A spear was also useful for keeping the enemy at a distance. You could stab the enemy without getting yourself too close to his own reach. Of course spears were also very useful against cavalry. The average Germanic spear was about 180-270cm tall with a spearhead of about 10-20cm.


The axe was another popular weapon that has already been made since the bronze age. Just like the spear, an axe did not require a lot of iron to make so it was relatively cheap to produce. Not only could you use an axe in battle, you can also use it for daily activities like chopping wood for a fire. Yet again axes were quite expensive so not every warrior could afford to get an axe, instead poorer warriors used another weapon which can be considered a bit primitive.


A club. Just an old fashioned wooden club could be effective in battle. Although this weapon wouldn’t have had much effect against armoured opponents like the Roman army or the Celts. Most conflicts were however fought between diferent Germanic tribes so a club would have sufficed just fine for such battles. Some clubs were even modified with iron spikes to make them even more deadly.


Swords were usually reserved for the Germanic elite, even knifes were rare in battle. Tacitus described how only one out of ten warriors seemed to carry a knife into battle. Swords that were used were weaker than their Roman counterparts sinds the iron that the Germanics used, contained less carbon which made their iron softer and more likely to either break or bend. To combat this issue, the Germanics made their swords shorter and the blade was slightly thicker at the upper edge.


You might be familiar with this type of sword called the sax. The sax was not as effective as a regular sword like a gladius or spatha but one big advantage of the sax was that you could use it outside of combat as well for daily tasks.


The Germanic people also used ranged weapons to attack their enemy with. One of such a ranged weapon is an extremely old one and most of you might have played with one before in your childhood, a slinger. A slinger was by far the cheapest weapon available yet very effective. You didn’t need any iron nor did you need to make projectiles, you could just use any old rock. A slinger could throw a rock with quite a force, enough to kill a man if a rock struck his head.


Archery was also used by the Germanic people but slingers seemed to have been more popular. Making a bow and arrows required more resources and skill than a slinger so they were not often used in combat. One advantage of the bow is that the arrows have a sharp iron point which means that you could hit lightly armoured people with it. The bow also has a larger and more accurate range than a slinger. Another ranged weapon used by the Germanics was the throwing spear which was shorter than the regular spear.


The most important equipment of a Germanic warrior was not a weapon but his shield. This is a small description that Tacitus gave on the use of shields by the Germanics:
“The greatest disgrace that can befall them is to have abandoned their shields. A person branded with this ignominy is not permitted to join in their religious rites, or enter their assemblies; so that many, after escaping from battle, have put an end to their infamy by the halter. “ – Tacitus


The shield was the main defensive weapon and it also played a role in Germanic society, if a warrior lost his shield in battle, they were not allowed to partake in rituals or any assemblies so sometimes it was more honourable for a Germanic warrior to end his life than to return without his shield. Early Germanic shields were either oval or rectangle in shape, similar to a Celtic shield, made out of wood and covered with hide. The centre of a shield had a shieldknob, several of which have been discovered by archeologists. The shields were decorated with bright colours and perhaps religious symbols.


The last item I want to mention in this list is the use of horses. The Germanics also used cavalry during battle and they delivered some of the best cavalry units that the Roman army has ever known. One of the most impressive Germanic auxiliary units that used cavalry were from the Batavii tribe. The Romans praised the Batavii warriors, calling them the best and most fierce warriors of all the Germanic tribes, they had excellent horsemanship skills and could even cross rivers on top of their horses.


Armour/clothing:

Early Germanic warriors did not wear any armour at all. They wore no helmets, breastplates, leather braces or a leather gambeson that you so often see in films. In fact some Roman sources describe how the Germanic warriors often fought completely naked but this might only have happened in rare occasions. Germania’s climate is way too cold to fight naked, perhaps this was done during summer but it is completely uncertain.  They most likely wore a woollen tunic with either long or short sleeves. They wore trousers and a belt over their tunics and a mantle around their shoulders which was fastened by a fibula. The clothing was either dyed in all kinds of colours or woven with different patterns like stripes or tartan-like patterns.

The use of bodypaint or tattoos is also still uncertain. We do know that the Celtic warriors were famous for their painted bodies but if the Germanics also adopted this tradition is not 100% sure. The only description we have is Tacitus’ piece on the Harii warriors who dyed their bodies completely black and attacked during the night, making themselves practically invisible. They probably induced terror upon their enemies. Perhaps the Germanics did paint their faces before battle or perhaps they didn’t do this at all, it is unfortunately impossible to verify this.


The Germanics only started using bits of armour after they were introduced to the Roman empire. Of course Germanic warriors in Roman service wore armour, that of the auxiliary soldier. It seems that sometimes warriors scavenged armour from defeated Romans like cavalry helmets and breastplates. These were only used by the absolute Germanic elite however. The late Roman cavalry helmets eventually evolved into the first Germanic helmets but we are now speaking of dates past the second century AD.



Tactics and organisation:

Being a warrior was not a paid profession in ancient Germanic society. In fact there doesn’t really seem to have been barracks for warriors to have lived/stayed in. Virtually all warriors were just simple farmers who were called in whenever there was need for a military force. Only one tribal confederation seemed to have used a form of structured military conscription, the Suebi.
The Suebi settlements always had a force of about a hundred warriors ready to fight at each moment’s notice. These warriors only served for one year before they swapped places with farmers who in turn served one year so that the warriors who already served, could go back to their farms in order to provide for their families.


This is a description made by Tacitus on the possible tactics used by Germanic warriors:

“The cavalry either bear down straight forwards, or wheel once to the right, in so compact a body that none is left behind the rest. Their principal strength, on the whole, consists in their infantry: hence in an engagement these are intermixed with the cavalry, so well accordant with the nature of equestrian combats is the agility of those foot soldiers, whom they select from the whole body of their youth, and place in the front of the line. Their number, too, is determined; a hundred from each canton and they are distinguished at home by a name expressive of this circumstance; so that what at first was only an appellation of number, becomes thenceforth a title of honor. Their line of battle is disposed in wedges. To give ground, provided they rally again, is considered rather as a prudent strategem, than cowardice. They carry off their slain even while the battle remains undecided.”


This description reveals that the Germanic people used a form of hit-and-run tactic by surprising their enemy with first a wave of cavalry which is then supported by an infantry charge. Apparently the use of cavalry and infantry was well-timed so that both types of troops could support each other as effectively as possible. Warriors would charge their enemy in lines with the youngest warriors in the front line. After the initial charge, the line would retreat for the next line to charge and attack. This would repeat until the battle was either won or lost. It’s a great tactic for fighting in woods or small open fields but it was not very effective against the Roman army.


Most of the Roman battles that were won by the Germanics was because they used tactics similar to modern day guerilla tactics. A Roman legion was lured into a surrounding that was unsuitable for classic Roman army tactics, this meant environments like forests, hills, valleys or swamps. It was impossible for the Romans to employ their battle lines and tactics like the testudo. Once a legion was lured into such a surrounding, the (often hidden) Germanics would attack by charging full on into the unprepared legion. This tactic provided some of the most historic victories for the Germanic people like the battle of Baduhenna and Teutoburgerwald. Also the Celts used this tactic effectively. One example of this is the Eburones revolt. The Eburones (a Celtic/Germanic tribe) lured the Romans into a valley, basically trapping them from all sides. The Romans lost one-and-a-half legions that day.


Another tactic that the Germanics employed was psychological warfare. This was done to frighten and impone their enemy and encourage their own numbers. This tactic has also been described by Tacitus:
“They also have the well-known kind of chant that they call baritus. By the rendering of this they not only kindle their courage, but, merely by listening to the sound, they can forecast the issue of an approaching engagement. For they either terrify their foes or themselves become frightened, according to the character of the noise they make upon the battlefield, and they regard it not merely as so many voices chanting together but as a unison of velour. What they particularly aim at is a harsh, intermittent roar and they hold their shields in front of their mouths, so that the sound is amplified into a deeper crescendo by the reverberation.“


Warriors would chant the names of their Gods before battle to induce courage amongst their men and fear into their enemies. They used their shields to amplify the sound of their deep chants. Of course this would have been terrifying to the average Roman soldier, to be confronted with a line of Germanic warriors hidden in the forest, chanting to their Gods with rage. It wasn’t all too surprising that most Roman soldiers were scared to fight the Germanics, they were even so scared that Julius Caesar had to make a motivational speech to his men when he was on campaign in Gaul, his men initially refused to fight the Germanics, having heard about their ferocious strength and length.


There is also of course the legend of the berserkers. Great warriors who painted their skins before battle while fighting almost naked high on some kind of substance in order to feel no fear and no pain. No archeological remains have been found for their actual existence during battles but they wouldn’t leave any noticable traces behind so it is almost impossible to find ‘proof’ for the existence of berserkers outside of written sources.


I am sorry for this incredibly long post and you get a virtual cookie from me if you actually read the whole post. I hope this post gives you a better insight in the military tactics and gear employed by the ancient Germanic people between 100BC-300AD.


Here are photos of:

A Germanic warrior with a club and a stolen Roman gladius, unknown artist,
A Germanic warrior by AMELIANVS,
A Suebi warrior by an unknown artist,

A Germanic cavalry and infantry warrior by an unknown artist,

A representation of a berserker from the game Rome 2 total war,
A Germanic shield knob found in the Netherlands, dated to somewhere between 100-300AD,
A selection of shields discovered in modern day Denmark,
Germanic spearheads found in Castricum, the Netherlands,
Germanic spearmen from the game Rome 2 total war,

Anna of Tyrol (1604). Hans von Aachen (German, 1552-1615). Oil on canvas. Kunsthistorisches Museum.

The painting represents Archduchess Anna of Tyrol, daughter of Archduke Ferdinand II of Tyrol, wife of Emperor Matthias. She was by birth Archduchess of Austria and member of the Tyrolese branch of the House of Habsburg and by marriage Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Bohemia and Queen of Hungary. Hans von Aachen synthesized Italian and Netherlandish influences in his portraits and erudite allegories. His portraits are remarkable for their psychological sensitivity. He executed several portraits for Emperor Matthias.