Am I anywhere near fluent in spanish? No. Have I ever completely read a lotr book or watched a movie till the end? Also no. Am I still gonna try reading The Hobbit in spanish because its one of the only books my library had in that language? Yes. 📚
January 17, 1917 - Germans Place Order for Tank Development
Pictured - A design for the AV7 tank, the chosen prototype vehicle.
The German army had a mixed reaction to Britain’s deployment of armored tanks in 1916. Most generals believed that artillery and specialized rifles could defeat the behemoths. They had also witnessed the amount of mechanical issues and breakdowns that prevented Britain’s tank force from being a decisive weapon. The tank’s failures had to be weighed against its significant morale impact on German infantrymen, however, who feared the slow-moving but invincible-seeing tanks. Therefore, orders were placed in early 1917 for development of a German tank.
Many projects went to committee in early 1917, most using the Holt tractor as the chassis, as the British had done. The design chosen for further development was worked by Joseph Vollmer. Using a lenghtened Holt chassis, Vollmer added on a twin engine that remained under the requirement of 30 tons. A wooden mock-up underwent tests in the spring, then an unarmored example. Armor and weaponry came later, using a single plate of soft steel that gave up to 30mm of protection in the front of the tank, and a Belgian-made, quick-firing Nordenfelt gun. The AV7 underwent further tests in March, where it gained a further two machine-guns and a (sluggish) top speed of 12/km per hour.
Constructing a sentence in Afrikaans is relatively simply since one needn’t worry about cases, conjugations or even gender agreement. All that matters is syntax (or word order).
I’ve attempted to cover quite a lot in this post– briefly. Feel free to send an ask for a more detailed explanation of a specific aspect
► Normal sentences
► most importantly, Afrikaans is a V2 language, which means the verb is always the 2nd element in the sentence. Keep an eye out for this because it’s always true (in main clauses).
► All other elements are pretty flexible. The general word order rule is STOMPI which stands for: Subject – Time – Object – Manner – Place – Infinitives and participles(although sometimes the object can go after the adverb of manner). Together with the V2-rule, that gives you SvTOMPI — you needn’t follow it too rigidly, but it’s a good guideline.
For example, some basic sentences:
My naam is Sam (My name is Sam)
Ek eet soggens ŉ appel (I eat an apple in the mornings)
Ek wil môre biblioteek toe gaan (I want to go to the library tomorrow)
Here is a longer sentence :
Ek skryf elke dag ŉ artikel stilletjies by die werk om te blog (I write an article quietly at work every day, to post on my blog)
for emphasis, you can start the sentence with almost any of the elements. But remember, no matter what you start with, the verb will be in the 2nd position and everything else follows the pattern :
Ek skryf elke dag ŉ artikel stilletjies by die werk om te blog
Notice in the following sentences that the subject comes after the verb! This is different from English!
Elke dag, skryf ek ŉ artikel stilletjies by die werk om te blog
Stilletjiesskryf ek elke dag ŉ artikel by die werk om te blog [*poetic]
By die werk skryf ek elke dag ŉ artikel stilletjies om te blog
Starting with the infinitive adds the nuance of : “In order to …”
Om te blog, skryf ek elke dag ŉ artikel stilletjies by die werk
And starting with the object only works in the passive voice:
ŉ Artikelword elke dag deur my stilletjies by die werk geskryf om te blog
Similarly, questions start with a question word, the verb follows in the 2nd position, and then STOMPI
Hoe gaan dit vandag met jou? (How are you today?)
Waarvoor wil jy môre biblioteek toe gaan? (Why do you want to go to the library tomorrow?)
Other questions simply invert the subject and the verb. In these instances, the verb will be in the 1st position:
Gaan jy môre biblioteek toe? (Are you going to the library tomorrow?)
the same rules apply to the past and future tenses. Just remember that participles go at the end with the infinitives.
Present: Ek skryf ŉ artikel by die werk (I write an article at work)
Past: Ek het ŉ artikel by die werk geskryf
Future: Ek sal ŉ artikel by die werk skryf
You should also be aware of separable verbs. These are best left for a post specifically about verbs, but since it influences word order, this is how it works:
Present: Ek gooi die rommel weg (I throw the rubbish/trash away)
Past: Ek het die rommel weggegooi
Future: Ek sal die rommel weggooi
Above, were the word-order rules for a single sentence. Now, when joining two sentences together, they type of conjunction used will have an effect on the word order in the subordinate clauses (the second sentence)
Ek gaan biblioteek toe (I’m going to the library)
My boek is reeds laat (My book is already late)
► GROUP 1 consists of maar (but), en (and), of (or), want (because). The word order of both clauses stays the same. For example:
► GROUP 2 consists of dan (then), daarna (thereafter), dus, daarom (therefore), toe (then), anders (otherwise), al (although). Here the verb come directly after the conjunction :
► GROUP 3 consists of dat (that), omdat (because), totdat (until), nadat (after), sodat (so that), wat (who, what), alhoewel (although), toe (when), terwyl (while), sedert (since), as, of (if), tensy (unless). After Group 3 conjunctions, the verb goes to the end of the 2nd clause:
german and sentence order, and why it’s a train wreck
fun fact german can take every sentence order, just in different situations.
SVO: standard order. example: Der Hund beißt einen Mann.
OVS: used for emphasis. example: Einen Mann beißt der Hund.
SOV: used in clauses/Nebensätzen other than relative clauses. example: Ich wusste nicht, dass der Hund einen Mann beißt.
OSV: can be used as a substitute for SOV where the object is a pronoun, especially a reflexive pronoun. example: Ich hoffe, dass sich die Gästen vergnügen. also it could be argued that a relative clause is an example of OSV. example: Ich werde morgen mit dem Mann reden, den der Hund beißt.
VSO: interrogative form. example: Beißt der Hund einen Mann?
VOS: can be used as a substitute for VSO when the object is a pronoun. example: Gefällt dir diese Farbe?
Common wisdom tells us that modern artillery and military aviation made use of stone fortifications obsolete. However, the German Flaktürme are a remnant of WWII that looks more like something from the time of the Crusades then age of the Blitzkrieg.
These monumental concrete fortresses served as platforms for batteries of anti-aircraft guns. In order to boost the air defense of German cities, Hitler ordered the building of a series of immense towers throughout the country. Three of these towers were built in Berlin, an additional two in Hamburg and six more in Vienna.
The towers were heavily armed, usually housing eight (four twin) 128 mm guns and thirty-two (eight quad) 20 mm guns. With these guns the towers were capable of rates of fire up to 8000 rounds per minute, with a range of up to 14 km in a full 360-degree field of fire. Each tower complex consisted of two separate towers, one G or gun towers and an L-tower which served as command center. In addition, the towers served as air raid shelters for up to 10,000 people.
The tower walls were 3.5m (!) of reinforced concrete, enough to survive an attack by conventional bombs carried by Allied bombers of the age. Soviet 203mm howitzers merely chipped away the concrete and could never actually penetrate the walls. It was only when supplies and ammo ran out that these towers were surrendered.
The majority of flakturms still stand today. They are too big to effectively dismantle or demolish, plus the space they occupy is worth less than the cost of demolition.
German Captain Violates Orders, Strikes Out on Own in East Africa
February 18 1917, Tandala–In 1916, the Germans had lost most of German East Africa to the Allies, and now occupied the inhospitable southwestern third of the colony. For unclear reasons, Capt. Max Wintgens, in charge of around 700 askaris and 13 machine guns, decided to disobey orders to move south with other detachments, and instead struck north. Although the reason for the explicit break with the rest of the German forces is unclear, it appears he thought he could do more damage (and have more reliable sources of food) as a mobile force raiding in territories the Allies thought secure, rather than being increasingly hemmed in by the Allies in the south of the colony.
Breaking through Allied columns, on February 18 he besieged a King’s African Rifles company at Tandala. The siege would be broken off within a few days, and then Wintgens would strike north in earnest, quickly losing his pursuers and denuding the area of food and supplies, making pursuit even more difficult. The Allies would chase Wintgens and his men for the next eight months.
this day in 1945, Chancellor of Germany Adolf Hitler issued his
‘Demolitions on Reich Territory Decree’. This action came towards the
end of World War Two as the Allied forces led by the Soviet Union,
United States and United Kingdom, made further advances into Germany.
One of the last actions of his dictatorship, this decree called for the
destruction of German infrastructure in order to impede the Allied
advance; Hitler intended for the enemy to find only 'scorched earth’.
Due to Hitler’s readiness to sacrifice Germany in order to put up
obstacles for the Allies, this action was compared to the infamous Roman
Emperor Nero who supposedly orchestrated the Great Fire of Rome in 64
AD. Some have suggested Hitler intended for the German population to be
destroyed as punishment for losing the war, and to ensure there would be
no Germany after National Socialism. The decree was, luckily for
Germany, not implemented by his disillusioned subordinates. Hitler was
unable to enforce it, as he was soon confined to his bunker and killed
himself just 42 days after issuing the Nero Decree. It represents
Hitler’s last desperate actions, and his willingness to destroy the
Germany he supposedly loved.
German watchdog tells parents to destroy Wi-Fi-connected doll over surveillance fears
A German government watchdog has ordered parents to “destroy” an internet-connected doll for fear it could be used as a surveillance device. According to a report from BBC News, the German Federal Network Agency said the doll (which contains a microphone and speaker) was equivalent to a “concealed transmitting device” and therefore prohibited under German telecom law. The doll in question is “My Friend Cayla,” a toy which has already been the target of consumer complaints in the EU and US. Read more