german kultur

Art History Resource List: Early European Art to Late 20th Century

To Request a resource list for your discipline, you can request HERE. My resource list for classics can be found HERE or anthropology HERE. 

See disclaimer at base for sources. This is an extensive list of the thousands of resources available to Art History Students, please add to it if something is missing. is a valuable resource list for students. It is very thorough, and my list is based heavily off this list. I have altered many sources for the sake of space and convenience. I do not take credit for this list, it is the property of Dr. Christopher L.C.E. Witcombe!

Useful Links: 

  • Art webgraphie
  • Lita Annenberg Hazen and Joseph H. Hazen Center for Electronic Information Resources 
  • ArtSource 
  • Voice of the Shuttle 
  • Mother of All Art History Links Pages 
  • Art on the Web 
  • CODART list of museums 
  • Art History Index, through World Wide Art Resources
  • Art History
  • Chinese and Japanese Art History WWW Virtual Library
  • Architecture and Building Web Resources 
  • Architecture Web Sites 
  • Aesthetics and Visual Culture 

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July 9, 1916 - Russian Hospital Ship Torpedoed in the Black Sea

Pictured - Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare did not spare hospital ships carrying the wounded, as depicted in a British propaganda poster from 1918.

The Hague Convention of 1907 addressed the rules and conduct of warfare.  Among the treaty provisions agreed upon by the Great Powers was Article Four of the Convention, which established laws for hospital ships in a conflict.  By Article Four, hospital ships carrying wounded soldiers could not be targeted by another military so long as they did not interfere with enemy ships, or, more vaguely, “served no military purpose”.

The ambiguity of that second clause encouraged the German government to flout the ban on hospital ship attacks in the First World War during their campaign of submarine warfare.  German submariners alleged that Allied hospital ships were being used to carry men to battle zones as well as out of them.  More cynically, hospital ships simply made easy targets for U-boat captains. 

Among the victims was HS Vpered, a Russian hospital ship sunk off the Turkish coast by German submarine U-38 on July 9, 1916.  The Allies sank only a few hospital ships during the war, mostly in the Mediterranean and due to naval mines.  The sinking of hospital ships was used in Entente propaganda to depict the Central Powers as barbaric and refute claims of German kultur.


I just finished watching Good Bye, Lenin! I’ve been meaning to watch it for some time now, but I didn’t expect it to affect me quite this much. Simply put, it’s absolutely beautiful. For those of you who don’t know the premise, the film is set in East Berlin right before the fall of the Wall. The protagonist’s mother is a dedicated patriot of the “socialist fatherland,” and shortly before the Wall comes down, she experiences a heart attack and goes into a coma, only to awake eight months later. Because of her delicate condition, her son decides to try to recreate the world that she once knew in order to shield her from potentially fatal shock.

Perhaps part of what made Good Bye, Lenin! so mesmerizing for me is the nuanced pose that it strikes toward East-German history and culture. The deception around which the film revolves – the reconstruction of the GDR down to the minutest detail – avoids the standard clichés and oversimplifications. The abuses aren’t ignored or forgotten, but neither is the meaning which the GDR had for so many Germans in the aftermath of the Second World War. The film does not rush to extol the virtues of capitalism (the gaudiness and rampant unemployment brought on by Westernization are masterfully treated) and thus fall into what Nietzsche famously called the misguided “faith in opposite values,” but it doesn’t attempt to absolve really-existing socialism either. Instead, it finds a way to celebrate, through its human voices, the ideals of freedom and solidarity which both the GDR and later unified German Republic failed to fully embody in their own ways. In that regard alone, it accomplishes something truly remarkable.

All that said, I feel that this is one of those films that everyone should see at least once in their lifetime, and if you haven’t already, I highly encourage you to do so.