germ-theory

The ancient Romans were obsessed with both water and cleanliness. They “brought aqueducts, heated public baths, flushing toilets, sewers and piped water. They even had multiseat public bathrooms decked out with contour toilet seats, a sea sponge version of toilet paper and hand-washing stations.” You might think that this would have helped overall health in this ancient civilization– but not so!

“With all their body oils and bath rituals, [Piers Mitchell, a paleopathologist at the University of Cambridge] says, “they would have smelled clean, but they would have had infectious disease nonetheless.”

Mitchell focused his research on many reports that have tested for disease-causing microbes at Roman sites–– in mummies, fossilized feces, latrines, etc.

“’I thought we’d see a drop in the intestinal parasites that are spread by feces and poor sanitation compared with the Iron Age, when there weren’t any toilets. But, in fact, I didn’t see a drop at all,’ says Mitchell.”

The types of microbes and parasites that frequently cropped up in his research include: whipworm, roundworm, fleas, bedbugs, three varieties of lice, hookworm, pinworm, and and a single-celled parasite that causes dysentery. “Mitchell also posits that the Romans may have spread a humongous tapeworm from northern Europe as they carted their favorite condiment, fermented fish sauce, around the empire.”

Be sure to read more of this NPR story, “Friends, Romans, Countrymen, Lend Us Your Toilets (Without Parasites)” to find out the current hypotheses behind these prevalent Roman microbes.

anonymous asked:

So I have a fantasy society with very roughly 1830s technology. I'm fine with that, and I know how their medicine works. The thing is they're in contact with a much more modern society that's convinced them to start trials runs of aseptic technique and anesthesia instead of relying on the will of the gods to keep surgery patients alive. I need to know what can be done without an electrical grid, and what equipment can and can't fit through a five foot diameter magical portal.

This is VERY cool. I like this ask. You get a star.

Originally posted by imnotcoolenough4you

So there are a few ways you could run some anesthesia between worlds.

Things that require no power, ever, except possibly to make:

  • Disposable materials including scalpels
  • Antiseptics
  • Drapes
  • Actual literal doctors to do the training
  • Concepts like germ theory, surgical time-outs, etc.
  • Diagrams, textbooks, charts, journals, data
  • Airway equipment (laryngoscopes, ET tubes, etc.)
  • IV supplies
  • Medications (not those that need refrigerated though)
  • Non-powered beds for positioning

Things that require power but can be run on batteries:

  • Cardiac monitors / defibrillators
  • Ventilators
  • IV Pumps

Things that can power things that require power but can be run on batteries:

  • Batteries

Things that would be nice but require power:

  • Anesthesia machine
  • Powered beds

They’ll want to do surgery in a room with a high window that faces the sun (light is a Big Deal™ during surgery). They’ll also want that room to be clean (and easy-TO-clean), equipment for washing hands, and more.

Also remember that it’s not just tools and technology that your advanced society brings with them. Surgical techniques have improved A LOT. They’ll have a great deal to teach.

Just don’t forget that this kind of thing can breed some significant arrogance in the more modern side, too, and not everyone is willing to meet people where they are. I can see a HUGE fight going on over something as simple as handwashing.

Best of luck withy our story!!

xoxo, Aunt Scripty

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5

Representations of, what I think are, the greatest scientific theories of all time.

5) Electromagnetism: the first image shows an electromagnetic wave, with Maxwell’s equation below it. James Maxwell receives most of the credit for the unification of electricity and magnetism, but he relied on the work done by Gauss, Faraday and Ampere.

4) The Pathogenic Theory of Medicine: the image shows pathogens (bacteria) during their reproduction, and the general molecular structure of penicillin; since antibiotics are arguably the most influential consequence of Germ Theory. The theory developed gradually due to the work of many historical physicians. And primarily by the first Microbiologist Anton van Leeuwenhoek, and also Robert Koch who designed the first clear criteria to establish a causal relationship between a microbe and a disease. Alexander Fleming is credited, as well, for discovering Penicillin.

3) The Theory of Relativity: there’s a two-dimensional illustration of a curved three dimensional space-time, due to the presence of mass. The assumption that space-time can be curved comes from General relativity, and is deduced from the equivalence principle. The image also shows a light cone, representing the limit of causality between events, as a consequence of the speed of light limit. Also, I added the main relationship between Energy and Momentum in relativistic mechanics (the relationship from which E=mc^2 can be derived). Albert Einstein receives most of the credit for Relativity theory, though his theory is based on other physicists’ work, most notably Lorentz transformation.

2) The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection: the image shows a drawing of four evolving organisms, which resembles the evolution of amphibians from lobe-finned fish. (I actually evolved the organisms by taking the previous one and changing it slightly while drawing them :D).The image also shows a Phylogenetic tree of a species splitting into two (cladogenisis), and evolving in different branches afterwards. Natural selection was proposed by Charles Darwin. Alfred Russel Wallace is sometimes credited for independently developing a similar theory.

1) Quantum Mechanics: the image represents quantum theory by showing the mathematical formula for Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Schrodinger’s equation, and also a Feynman diagram of beta(-) decay. Quantum theory is arguably the greatest scientific achievement of man-kind. The credit goes to many physicists for founding and improving Quantum Mechanics, most importantly: Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Luise De Broglie, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrodinger, Max Born, Wolfgang Pauli, Paul Dirac and Richard Feynman.

Currently Reading: Susan Sontag - Illness as Metaphor

I picked up this slim (90 pages and pocket-sized) essay from a used bookstore this weekend, and it is absolutely fascinating. I’ve only just started it, but so far the rough shape it takes is a comparison between metaphorical perceptions about tuberculosis in the 19th century and perceptions of cancer in contemporary society. We can still see the TB trope in adaptations of 19th century works–the sensitive artist who coughs weakly and surreptitiously into a handkerchief on which we catch a glimpse of a smattering of blood. Even as germ theory became a mainstream belief, the idea of “disease” being linked to the psyche and the character still hadn’t completely shaken loose. Sontag contrasts this perception with the modern perception of cancer, which is often seen in a more negative light.

What I can’t help thinking about is that Sontag wrote it in 1978–just 10 years later it would become more relevant than she could have imagined as the AIDS crisis exploded. The 20th century quickly proved it was no better than the 19th–AIDS is still seen as a disease that is solely the domain of gay men and drug abusers, and mainstream reactions to Charlie Sheen’s admission of his HIV positive status are a testament to that. If you’re looking for a fast but revelatory read that links the past painfully to the present, this is a text for you.

an option (speaking in absolutes because it’s easier, not intending to infringe on other Shade headcanons): since Shade is a magic parasite, a Shade presence in a dragon presents as a lessening of magic, and since dragons basically run on magical energy, this looks more like an autoimmune deficiency than a rise in an alternate “dark” form of corrupted magic. if everyone is being told that the Shade was defeated, (which i love because it opens up the possibilities that the deities are either being sneaky or don’t know something) this would basically be a mystery ailment (just like all illness was before germ theory). all responses to medical maladies throughout human history are up for grabs, culturally. 

according to the encyclopedia, the first time the gods fought off the Shade it was by fighting back using their own refined elemental energy. this kind of implies that while the Shade snacks on environmental magic without any trouble, elemental magic is too strong for it. so an actual cure (happened upon through trial and error by dragon doctors) for a magic-deficient (Shade-touched, but not called that) patient would be the focused application of an elemental magic, presumably something delicate and specialized for the purpose, (but it is kind of fun imagining desperate dragon doctors dipping patients into lava or lashing them to a kite in the Twisting Crescendo before coming up with something less… fatal-ish.) And of course there’s all the doctors that guess wrong and bleed patients, feed them weird stuff, etc. 

ironically a purely religious tactic would work in this world – if the deity deigned to get the Shade out they would definitely know HOW. (the original eight at least). And then you’d have the fringe scientists with the theories that it actually IS Shade, and they get denounced by the religious because the deities said the Shade was defeated, it can’t be Shade!!! heretic!! 

also re:Beastclans, they didn’t really have to deal with this problem during their time on the planet pre-dragons since the Shade really was gone during that time. It’s only the unchecked, wispy stuff after the Pillar shattered that has started sneaking around. Beastclans that practice magic are the only ones truly susceptible to this “disease”, which could lead to a bit of suspicion surrounding magical professions and activities, but since they don’t run on magic it’d be less of a fatal thing for them. Actually it’s probably pretty rare in Beastclans since there are giant magic-radiating behemoths wandering around that are way more appealing to a wayward Shade tendril looking for a host. Maybe Beastclans can be passive carriers though. 

Character Headcanons: Head Colds

Because a lot of my friends seem to be sick lately. Have some DAI-themed sympathy.

For purposes of this headcanon, I am assuming that head colds exist in Thedas, that magic and potions can alleviate symptoms but not cure them outright, and that, while people don’t have a full-fledged germ theory they are aware of contagion and contamination as contributing factors to disease outbreak.

To the surprise of some members of the Inquisition, Blackwall is extremely reasonable about colds. While he’s still functional, he’ll power through, but once he’s fuzzy-brained or short-breathed enough that he’s no longer operating at peak performance he’ll remove himself from the situation. His favorite cold cure is a particularly nasty Fereldan whisky in hot water with honey and Rivaini lemon, although as far south as they are, usually all the lemon he can get his hands on is dried. (Sometimes Cole will come to visit him and then, as if by magic, there will be fresh slices of lemon instead of dried in his toddy.)

Cassandra is the worst illness patient ever. She considers herself not to have the time nor the patience for colds… and the fact that she nevertheless contracts them from time to time doesn’t disabuse her of this. It is sadly clear that being sick offends her dignity, and so she denies it for as long as possible. She persists in attempting to go about her duties as normal even with the cold, and sulks when someone finally sends her to bed, and then she’s crabby about it. Her favorite cold cure–once she has finally admitted to being ill at all–is chicken soup spiked with vinegar, with a side of trashy romance novels. (When she is feverish and tired and crabby, Cole will come and read to her. Or… not so much read: he holds the book, thumbs the pages, but the words he’s speaking are reflected out of her head, her memory of the book she wishes most to have read to her at that moment.)

Having spent so much time in various Circles, Cullen knows just how fast disease can spread in an isolated location. (While it is certainly not the most traumatic thing that happened at the Kirkwall Circle, Cullen still vividly remembers the Great Gallows Stomach Bug Incident of 9:35 Dragon.) So at the first feverish morning or sign of a sniffle, he is meticulous about isolating himself from the healthy: keeping at least a desk’s-width between them at first, and when the illness finally manifests in full, wrapping himself in blankets in his room and not coming out. His favorite cold cure is elfroot tea with plenty of honey. (When he is on his third day of self-imposed isolation and is bored and lonely out of his mind, Cole comes to visit, bringing nigh-incomprehensible scraps of gossip from around Skyhold.)

Dorian’s coping mechanism for illness is to be at least as annoying to the people around him as the cold is annoying to him. Suffering in silence is not in his nature–or, rather, it is, but only for serious issues. The trivial ones, he will complain about loud and long, and get some measure of satisfaction out of the snorts and eyerolls it inspires. Dorian swears by a particular herbal brew–a trade secret from a particular potion shop in Tevinter, that must be imported at considerable cost–made from sixteen special herbs and spices, bitter as the Maker’s wrath and cloying as Andraste’s smile. He magnanimously offers it to his suffering fellows, but none of them trust the stinking herbaceous brew. (When Dorian is feverish and uncomfortable enough that even complaining can’t make him feel better, there will be cool hands on his brow, though he won’t easily remember that it is Cole responsible.)

Qunari are nothing if not pragmatic, including about illness. Iron Bull prides himself on being tough, but he has no qualms about taking himself off to bed as soon as an illness takes effect. “The sooner you start taking care of yourself, the faster it runs its course–you can’t fight Vints and a sickness at the same time, that’s like taking on one enemy when another’s already flanking you.“ (He’s often the one most vociferously attempting to send a sniffling Cassandra off to bed–not that she listens.) His favorite thing when he’s sick is a drink made from the juice of bitter oranges, with or without a shot of strong spirits. (Once Bull is asleep, and only then, Cole slips in and hums the same songs the Tamassrans used to sing to him, until the wrinkles ease on his sleeping brow.)

Josephine much dislikes the inconvenience of illness, almost more than the discomfort itself. She has a vast collection of dainty handkerchiefs–embroidered, lace-trimmed, so pure and pristine a white that they look out of place in such a ramshackle location as Skyhold–and goes through them at a rapid pace while insisting that she is quite all right, don’t mind me, please forgive me for not shaking your hand–it is just a little thing, but I would not wish to give it to you!  When she is finally forced to hole up in her room under her counterpane, she drinks a lemon honey tea with a heaping spoonful of crushed garlic (and takes care not to breathe on anyone; it is more pungent, in its way, than Dorian’s Tevinter medicine–although Josephine would tell you that it is the offensive strength of the garlic that makes it so effective), and still brings all of her scrolls and letters to bed with her so she can at least keep up on her correspondence. (Cole slips the half-read letter from her hand, caps her inkwell and sets it aside, and pulls the blanket up over her.)

For Leliana, a cold is not as much inconvenience as it is for many others. She does not often travel, and she can continue to write letters and send out agents even when quite ill–but that doesn’t mean she has to like it. As far as anyone outside Skyhold knows, the Nightingale of the Inquisition is never indisposed. Within Skyhold, people know to keep out of her way when she’s looking red-eyed and unusually murderous. When her head is congested, Leliana craves a basin of hot water filled with dried lavender blossoms; she tents a towel over her head and breathes the steam, lets it draw away both illness and tension. (When Leliana is sick, Cole slips not only honey but also steeped thyme into her wine. Sweet and sharp to clear both her head and her heart.)

When Sera gets sick, she’s no stoic about it: she bitches and moans from moment one all the way through when the cold has run her course. But she doesn’t let it stop her–as she will tell you with a snort, normal people don’t get to just stop doing stuff when they’re ill, not if they want to keep eating. It takes one of her friends ordering her to bed to get her the rest she needs. At whatever stage of her illness, she swears by an old peasant remedy: mugs of stout, to shore you up (and with enough mugs, to make you forget how bad you feel). (Cole never lets Sera know he’s there–he knows that he upsets her–but he makes sure that the tavern waitress knows to bring her ale when she wants it, and he piles up the blankets at night since she insists on keeping the windows open.)

It is rare that Solas falls ill, and when he does, he treats himself with tinctures and potions of his own, of a startling efficacy. (He is not stingy with them, but for some reason they never seem to be quite as effective on others.) Quite often his companions aren’t even aware that he was sick to begin with. More often than not he uses it as an excuse to contemplate the mysteries of the Fade: how sickness and spirits interact, whether a Spirit of Illness could be convinced to work on your behalf rather than against you. (Cole sits on the table next to his bedside, elbows on knees, and listens, listens, listens with infinite patience. That is more important to Solas than tea or soup: being listened to.)

Varric is almost as crabby about becoming ill as Cassandra, although he hides it better–or perhaps differently. While Cassandra is in snappish denial about it, Varric makes increasingly-bitter jokes about the rotten timing of this cold or the discomfort of that cough. Dwarves don’t fall sick very often, and Varric seems to treat it as a personal affront whenever he does–and as with all personal affronts, he faces it with snarly humor. His preferred method of treatment is a camphor salve to clear his sinuses (an Orzammaran dwarf treatment, but one his parents brought with them to the surface) and a shot of strong liquor to dull him to the tedium of sickness. He eats soup, too,  but only under the steely eye of one of his friends. (Cole’s eyes are never steely, but he provides the soup nonetheless, and sits by Varric’s bedside listening to him complain as he eats it–feeling the strange way Varric’s mood lifts even as his complaints become more and more poisonous.)

It is a sure thing that Vivienne is far too dignified to ever have a stuffy nose or a cough or a fever. Vivienne is purity and perfection, too far above mere mortals to ever catch their diseases. …At least, so she would prefer people believe. So at the first sign of any disease, she shuts herself up; she could not possibly honk noisily into a handkerchief, darling, that’s absolutely common. She continues her work via correspondence, borrowing Leliana’s messenger-birds without leaving her rooms. Her preferred remedy is a strong Orlesian herbal soup, which she drinks by the bucketful while holding a handkerchief to her nose and plotting refined vengeance on the world in general and illnesses in particular. (Cole ensures that her pot of soup–kept warm over an array of tallow candles–does not run short, refreshing it with potent herbs and soothing broth at regular intervals.)

Cole doesn’t get sick–at least, not at first. For Cole, sickness is something that happens to other people. And, somewhat guiltily… he rather likes it. Sickness is a straightforward hurt, and it is not usually difficult to find out what someone needs to soothe it, whether it’s lemons for Blackwall or lavender for Leliana or a fresh set of handkerchiefs for Josephine. And it is a hurt that almost always runs its course, leaving its sufferer better in the end. It is nice, after so many tangled-tormented-thoughtbound-tremulous pains, to see a pain that he can soothe so easily with a cool hand or a warm cup of tea. 

If and when he becomes human enough to catch a cold, Cole finds the tables turned. There is Cassandra reading at his bedside, Varric pouring him a mug of soup, Blackwall with whisky and lemon, Leliana leaving branches of lavender by his bedside, Bull with juice and spirits. Spirits for a spirit–but not all spirit, not all, not anymore, human enough to be sick, human enough to be cared for.

paradoxicalgentleman  asked:

Do you think that the traditional Universal monsters could still work as horror stories for modern audiences, or are the fear they represent too outdated? For example, Dracula was scary in Victorian England because of the nascent study of the germ theory and the forbidden allure of physical contact and sex; but we're not really scared of those anymore, certainly not as much as we were back then.

I think they could work if people remembered that their stories worked because we cared about the people they were threatening.  The stories those monsters are based on still resonate because, unlike most of their adaptations, the characters within them are likable.

Dracula is a monster that can look like a man, hiding in plain sight before he traps people and rips their throats open - often leaving them as a new parasitic monster living a wretched un-life devoted to killing the ones they love in the process.  The problem is him or what he represents - it’s that no one fucking tries with him anymore.  They assume the name is enough to make the story appealing and never give him anyone appropriate to menace.  The same with Frankenstein, the Wolf Man, and so on.

Monsters are timeless, we’ve just forgotten how to use them.

There’s a lot of post-holiday quality shitposting and Star Wars thirst on my dash, and that’s awesome.

My trash self wants to know what the state of non-magical medicine is in Thedas, whether they believe in germ theory (I am not the first to wonder this), how far they have come in surgical advances, and whether the discipline is affected by rampant misogyny and racism.

Thus is my contribution to late December shitposting completed.

original annotation: ebury argues for the reading of a portrait of the artist as a young man in conjunction with scientific texts of the time, and creates a parallel between such texts and the novel by identifying scientific aspects of the novel. her focus is on astronomical terms such as entropy.
annotation after i spent 5 mins trying to lengthen it: ebury argues for the reading of a portrait of the artist as a young man in conjunction with scientific texts of the time, and creates a parallel between such texts and the novel by identifying scientific aspects of the novel. her focus is on astronomical terms such as entropy. in this way this paper related to germ theory and the general fascination joyce had with decay, as entropy refers to [definition of entropy]. entropy is considered a major aspect of modern and postmodern literature, [definition of modern and postmodern literature]. james joyce was writing in the modernist era, so [definition of modernist author]

Things That Interest Me: How memes align really well with germ theory and infectious diseases. Like okay some memes are the more virulent kind, like, for example, the breadsticks meme. 

ok you have the patient zero, or this post; it remains relatively benign until June, where it gets its first contact with a high risk post. From there, the number of outbreaks grow exponentially; ravaging through the fandom communities, with each group getting at least a dozen smaller variations. Then, the meme enters its final, most virulent stages, dubbed the “surreal meme stages;” takes on the meme itself. this is the signal that the meme is being analyzed and is therefore on its way out. the movement from the Fandom to the Surreal stage is usually rapid, within a day. The rapid death of the meme means that it can’t infect other people so quickly, which means it dies out, with only small bursts of activity in isolated incidents.

This is compared to memes like Pepe, which are more benign, and therefore have more staying power, much like the common cold.

flower-thorns replied to your photo “well, according to wikipedia, string theory wasn’t really a thing til…”

He’s gotta get ahead of the game in his science field right? Lol

yeah i know this is just an anachronistic mistake from klei (at least i think it is) (unless it’s supposed to be something maxwell beamed into his head)

but imagine if wilson really is secretly brilliant and 40 yrs ahead of his time? Why is he an unsuccessful scientist? What is going on in his life that his career is such crap that he feels he has to let a creepy radio tell him what to do

is he just so ahead of his time that the other scientists think he’s creepy/crazy 

is he like the people who tried to go ‘people wouldn’t die of infections in the hospitals so often if we washed our hands’ decades before germ theory was accepted and just got kicked out of science club

Discoveries by scientists like Antonie van Leeuwenhoek and Robert Koch connected microbes to infectious disease. These discoveries formed a way of thinking called “germ theory” that said a specific microbe caused a specific disease. With widespread use of antibiotics beginning in the 1940s, people zealously tried to rid their lives of any and all microbes, spreading the anti-microbial mindset to personal and household cleaning.

But today, scientists are starting to reevaluate germ theory. Using antibiotics to treat bad germs will remain an essential, life-saving part of medicine. But repeated or unnecessary use of antibiotics prevents our bodies from establishing the community of microbes it needs. Scientists now suggest that we look at microbes in context, understanding that microbes (Helicobacter pylori, for example) can be both beneficial and harmful

Overusing antibiotics has pushed microbes to evolve resistance, making them less available for general health care or surgical procedures. Clostridium difficile (pictured) is an example of a strongly antibiotic-resistant microbe. Successful treatment of C. diff. happens when a patient’s gut community comes back into balance, often by introducing a new microbial community from the stool of a healthy donor.

Learn much more about this topic in the Museum’s newest exhibition, The Secret World Inside You, now open. 

Worst Tragedy in Human History...

In my history class discussion, my TA said that the “Native American Genocide” was the greatest tragedy in all human history. Look, I’m not happy over 50  million people died in about three hundred years. That was devastating. But, the reason I feel that calling it a genocide is wrong is that the definition of genocide is the, “deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation.” The key word is deliberate. Of course the Europeans wanted the Native Americans to roll over and just give them the land, but to make the argument that the Europeans purposely murdered over 50 million Native Americans is just historically inaccurate. There was no accepted germ theory at that time. Germ theory was first proposed in the early 1500s with absolutely no evidence to back it up. Only in the 18th and 19th century do we begin to see some real substantive evidence for germ theory and the acceptance of it. The death of all those Native Americans was a result of people having bad immunities due to the lack of domestication of animals and complete isolation. That’s it. And to call it a genocide is absolutely false.

Also, to say that it is the greatest tragedy of all of human history is just false. Have we forgotten what happened in the last freaking century? Communism killed over 100 million people, deliberately, in less than 100 years. It wreaked havoc in places all over the earth. It plunged people into poverty. How intellectually dishonest can the leftists who run the university be?

Canon History Help, Please?

What was cleanliness like in the mid-1800s?
The setting for Frozen predates the germ theory of disease. But I assume, perhaps wrongly, that people were still washing dishes, washing their hands, taking baths more than once a year, mopping floors. What was their working theory of cleanliness? Would a dirty plate be gross, or simply unaesthetic, or low class, or did they already have a sense that it could make you sick? Was dirt associated with disease?
It certainly wasn’t in hospitals. Surgeons would brag about how blood soaked their clothes would get. Was that male “washing is for girls” machismo or a reflection of common “knowledge”?
And how would things differ between the castle and a farmhouse kitchen?

This is what happens when you write an OC and say, “Oh, I’ll make her a chambermaid.” A few chapters later it bites you in the ass.

And by “you” I mean “me”.

Thanks in advance.

Germs Rule the World

In 1882, Robert Koch discovered that a bacterium was behind the world’s leading cause of death: tuberculosis (TB). This brilliant combination of investigative logic and savvy microscopy refuted the conventional wisdom that TB was an inherited disease, or some form of cancer. Rather, TB was caused by a particularly wily and insatiable germ. This finding didn’t just accurately identify the agent behind the world’s leading cause of death. It also established an essential new paradigm for medicine.

There are those diseases that are caused by bacteria (and later, viruses), such as tuberculosis, typhoid and typhus fevers, and diphtheria; and those diseases caused by the body’s own failures, such as heart disease and cancer. For more than a century, this distinction has served as a sharp and clear line in our understanding of disease. But it is a distinction that may be on the verge of being itself replaced. Germs, it seems, may be at the root of more disease than we have given them credit for.

Read more. [Image: Alfred Eisenstaedt/AP]

youtube

Deprogramming the Medical Fraud Matrix Part II
All roads lead to Rome.  To be more specific: The Vatican.

This interview, exposes the flawed foundational matrix that the current conventional medical system in the western world is based upon, the germ theory.  Pasteur and the Vatican are at the center of it.  If you don’t have a good understanding of the history and the horrendous ramifications of this insidious theory, you will NEVER break free from the drugs and surgery mindframe that is so rampant in this sick world.    This psy-op is the reason why people use incredibly toxic disinfectants to kill germs, justify using chemical warfare poisons as chemotherapy for the already extremely toxic cancer patients, Lysol-ing everything and everywhere, Chlorox-ing this and that.   The  "as-long-as-germs-are dead, we-win" mentality is killing humanity, plants, animals, insects, microbial life.  Basically all life in general on this planet is getting obliterated due to this false indoctrination.