george c marshall

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75th Anniversary of the Women’s Army Corp (WAC)

Congresswoman Edith Nourse Rogers of Massachusetts proposed a bill in May 1941 with the support of Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall to establish the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corp (WAAC). The bill was passed a year later and the first enlisted auxiliaries arrived for training at Fort Des Moines in July 1942. In July 1943, the Reserves was incorporated into the Regular Army and reestablished as the Women’s Army Corp (WAC). During WWII, about 150,000 women served in the WAAC and WAC.

During the war, Eleanor Roosevelt continued the ceaseless activism that had long marked her as America’s most public First Lady. Mrs. Roosevelt was outspoken in her support for gender equality. She championed women’s entrance into the armed services.

My history crush is General George C. Marshall (1880-1959). This babe was Army Chief of Staff during WWII, Special Envoy to China, Secretary of State, President of the Red Cross, and Secretary of Defense.

He is most famous for his work on the Marshall Plan but he was so much more. He was a true gentleman who led the Allies to victory during WWII, became the first five star general, and loved his family. As a humble, self effacing man, Marshall has been lost behind the shadows of great men like George S. Patton and Dwight D. Eisenhower.

He quietly retired to his home in Leesburg, Virginia, called the Marshall House, in 1951 and, after receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953, died in 1959. As a tour guide there, I walk among the possessions of one of the greatest men of the 20th century. Plus, he looks so good in a uniform.

September 7, 1917 - Pershing Relocates American Headquarters Near the Front

Pictured - The sight of tall, cheery, well-fed American boys getting ready for battle invigorated Allied morale, but the French were concerned that it would be too late by the time American troops were ready for combat deployment.

On September 7 the headquarters of the American Expeditionary Force moved from Paris to Chaumont, near the front-line in the Marne region. This would be the likely sector for American troops once they were deployed. That issue - when the Yanks would be ready - was beginning to strain a little bit otherwise cheerful Franco-American relations.

That day French President Poincaré came to review some of Pershing’s soldiers. Unfortunately the planned parade ground had been chosen at night, in the dark, by Pershing’s chief of staff George C. Marshall. The next day the doughboys failed to impress Poincaré with their muddy maneuvers.

Lurking under the service was tension about American commitment to the war. America’s Secretary of War Newton Baker pledged that now American soldiers would go to the front-line before they had been adequately trained in France. The French believed it was more important to get fresh troops - any troops - to the line. When Poincare’s Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau heard that, he acidly commented that it was less a question of readiness, and instead one of helping France. Pershing feared Clemenceau was right. On September 15th he wrote pessimistically in his diary that even “British morale not as high as two months ago.”

anonymous asked:

i'm not american so this might be a dumb question but is there a vice presidential line of succession or does maybe the next person in the presidential line move up if there's a vp that dies

No, there isn’t a Vice Presidential line of succession. In the case of a Vice Presidential vacancy, the 25th Amendment, ratified in 1967, allows the President to appoint a new VP who must be confirmed by both the House and the Senate. This has happened twice: in 1973 when President Nixon appointed Gerald Ford to fill the vacancy created when Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced to resign the Vice Presidency, and in 1974 when Ford succeeded Nixon as President and appointed Nelson Rockefeller to fill his vacancy.

A mechanism for filling a vacancy in the Vice Presidency was badly needed. I’ve written about it before, but the Vice Presidency has existed since 1789 and in those 228 years there has been a vacancy in the Vice Presidency for nearly 38 years overall. So, for over 16% of our nation’s history, there hasn’t been anybody in the most important position in the Presidential line of succession. And to point out even more explicitly how crazy that is, think of it this way: every time in American history that a President has died in office or been assassinated, the new President who assumed office didn’t have a Vice President of their own.

This is from an older post on this same subject:

7 Vice Presidents died in office:
•George Clinton died April 20, 1812, leaving the office vacant for 318 days
•Elbridge Gerry died November 23, 1814, leaving the office vacant for 2 years, 101 days.
•William Rufus DeVane King died April 18, 1853, leaving the office vacant for 3 years, 320 days.
•Henry Wilson died on November 22, 1875, leaving the office vacant for 1 year, 102 days
•Thomas A. Hendricks died on November 24, 1885, leaving the office vacant for 3 years, 99 days.
•Garret A. Hobart died on November 21, 1899, leaving the office vacant for 1 year, 103 days.
•James S. Sherman died on October 30, 1912, leaving the office vacant for 125 days.

2 Vice Presidents resigned from office:
•John C. Calhoun resigned on December 28, 1832, leaving the office vacant for 66 days.
•Spiro Agnew resigned on October 10, 1973, leaving the office vacant for 57 days.

9 Vice Presidents succeeded to the Presidency:
•John Tyler succeeded to the White House upon President Harrison’s death on April 4, 1841, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 3 years, 333 days.
•Millard Fillmore succeeded to the White House upon President Taylor’s death on July 9, 1850, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 2 years, 238 days.
•Andrew Johnson succeeded to the White House upon President Lincoln’s death on April 15, 1865, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 3 years, 323 days.
•Chester Arthur succeeded to the White House upon President Garfield’s death on September 19, 1881, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 3 years, 166 days.
•Theodore Roosevelt succeeded to the White House upon President McKinley’s death on September 14, 1901, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 3 years, 171 days.
•Calvin Coolidge succeeded to the White House upon President Harding’s death on August 2, 1923, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 1 year, 214 days.
•Harry Truman succeeded to the White House upon President Roosevelt’s death on April 12, 1945, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 3 years, 283 days.
•Lyndon Johnson succeeded to the White House upon President Kennedy’s death on November 22, 1963, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 1 year, 59 days.
•Gerald Ford succeeded to the White House upon President Nixon’s resignation on August 9, 1974, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 132 days.

There was no provision established for filling a vacancy in the Vice Presidency until the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution was ratified in 1967.  The Amendment allows the President to fill a vacancy in the Vice Presidency by appointing a new Vice President who must be confirmed by a majority vote in the House of Representatives and the United States Senate.

Two Vice Presidential vacancies have been filled under the 25th Amendment. Gerald Ford was appointed to the Vice Presidency by President Nixon following Spiro Agnew’s resignation in October 1973 and confirmed by Congress in December.  In August 1974, President Nixon resigned, Gerald Ford succeeded to the Presidency and President Ford appointed Nelson Rockefeller as the new Vice President.  Rockefeller was confirmed as Vice President by Congress on December 19, 1974.

If any of the Vice Presidents who succeeded to the Presidency prior to the ratification of the 25th Amendment had died in office, the first person in the line of succession would have been – depending on the year – an “Officer” chosen by Congress (1789-1792), president pro tempore of the U.S. Senate (1792-1886), Secretary of State (1886-1947), or Speaker of the House of Representatives (1947-present).

Here are the people who were first in the line of succession to the Presidency due to a Vice Presidential vacancy prior to the ratification of the 25th Amendment:

Presidency of James Madison (Mar. 4, 1809-Mar. 4, 1817)
(Vacancy from April 20, 1812-March 4, 1813 due to the death of Vice President George Clinton. Vacancy from November 23, 1814-March 4, 1817 due to the death of Vice President Elbridge Gerry) 
•Apr. 20, 1812-Mar. 4, 1813: William H. Crawford, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Nov. 23, 1814-Nov. 25, 1814: Langdon Cheves, Speaker of the House
•Nov. 25, 1814-Mar. 4, 1817: John Gaillard, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of Andrew Jackson (Mar. 4, 1829-Mar. 4, 1837)
(Vacancy from December 28, 1832-Mar. 4, 1833 due to the resignation of Vice President John C. Calhoun)
•Dec. 28, 1832-Mar. 4, 1833: Hugh Lawson White, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of John Tyler (Apr. 4, 1841-Mar. 4, 1845)
•Apr. 4, 1841-May 31, 1842: Samuel L. Southard, president pro tempore of the Senate
•May 31, 1842-Mar. 4, 1845: Willie Person Mangum, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of Millard Fillmore (July 9, 1850-Mar. 4, 1853)
•July 9, 1850-July 11, 1850: Howell Cobb, as Speaker of the House, was next in line to the Presidency for the two days following President Taylor’s death since there was no president pro tempore of the Senate, but Cobb was Constitutionally ineligible to be President as he was only 34 years of age.
•July 11, 1850-Dec. 20, 1852: William Rufus DeVane King, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Dec. 20, 1852-Mar. 4, 1853, David Rice Atchison, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of Franklin Pierce (Mar. 4, 1853-Mar. 4, 1857)
(Vacancy from April 18, 1853-March 4, 1857 due to the death of Vice President William R. D. King)
•Apr. 18, 1853-Dec. 4, 1854: David Rice Atchison, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Dec. 4, 1854-Dec. 5, 1854: Lewis Cass, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Dec. 5, 1854-June 9, 1856: Jesse D. Bright, president pro tempore of the Senate
•June 9, 1856-June 10, 1856: Charles E. Stuart, president pro tempore of the Senate
•June 10, 1856-Jan. 6, 1857: Jesse D. Bright, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Jan. 6, 1857-Mar. 4, 1857: James Murray Mason, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of Andrew Johnson (Apr. 15, 1865-Mar. 4, 1869)
•Apr. 15, 1865-Mar. 2, 1867: Lafayette Sabine Foster, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Mar. 2, 1867-Mar. 4, 1869: Benjamin Franklin Wade, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant (Mar. 4, 1869-Mar. 4, 1877)
(Vacancy from Nov. 22, 1875-Mar. 4, 1877 due to the death of Vice President Henry Wilson)
•Nov. 22, 1875-Mar. 4, 1877: Thomas W. Ferry, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of Chester Arthur (Sept. 19, 1881-Mar. 4, 1885)
•Sept. 19, 1881-Oct. 10, 1881: There was literally NO ONE in the Presidential line of succession until a special session of the Senate nearly a month after President Garfield’s assassination. At the time of Garfield’s death and Arthur’s succession creating a vacancy in the Vice Presidency there were also vacancies in the offices of Speaker of the House and president pro tempore of the Senate.
•Oct. 10, 1881-Oct. 13, 1881: Thomas Francis Bayard, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Oct. 13, 1881-Mar. 3, 1883: David Davis, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Mar. 3, 1883-Mar. 4, 1885: George Franklin Edmunds, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of Grover Cleveland (Mar. 4, 1885-Mar. 4, 1889)
(Vacancy from November 25, 1885-December 7, 1885 due to the death of Vice President Thomas A. Hendricks)
•Nov. 25, 1885-Dec. 7, 1885: At the time of Vice President Hendricks’s death creating a vacancy in the Vice Presidency there were also vacancies in the offices of Speaker of the House and president pro tempore of the Senate. For twelve days nobody was in the Presidential line of succession.
•Dec. 7, 1885-Jan. 19, 1886: John Sherman, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Jan. 19, 1886-Mar. 4, 1889: Thomas F. Bayard, Secretary of State

Presidency of William McKinley (Mar. 4, 1897-Sept. 14, 1901)
(Vacancy from November 21, 1899-March 4, 1901 due to the death of Vice President Garret A. Hobart)
•Nov. 21, 1899-Mar. 4, 1901: John Hay, Secretary of State

Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt (Sept. 14, 1901-Mar. 4, 1905)
•Sept. 14, 1901-Mar. 4, 1905: John Hay, Secretary of State

Presidency of William Howard Taft (Mar. 4, 1909-Mar. 4, 1913)
(Vacancy from October 30, 1912-March 4, 1913 due to the death of Vice President James Schoolcraft Sherman)
•Oct. 30, 1912-Mar. 4, 1913: Philander C. Knox, Secretary of State

Presidency of Calvin Coolidge (Aug. 2, 1923-Mar. 4, 1925)
•Aug. 2, 1923-Mar. 4, 1925: Charles Evans Hughes, Secretary of State

Presidency of Harry Truman (Apr. 12, 1945-Jan. 20, 1949)
•Apr. 12, 1945-June 27, 1945: Edward R. Stettinius, Secretary of State
•June 27, 1947-July 3, 1945: Henry Morgenthau, Secretary of the Treaury
•July 3, 1945-Jan. 21, 1947: James F. Byrnes, Secretary of State
•Jan. 21, 1947-July 17, 1947: George C. Marshall, Secretary of State
•July 17, 1947-Jan. 3, 1949: Joseph W. Martin, Speaker of the House
•Jan. 3, 1949-Jan. 20, 1949: Sam Rayburn, Speaker of the House

Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson (Nov. 22, 1963-Jan. 20, 1965)
•Nov. 22, 1963-Jan. 20, 1965: John W. McCormack, Speaker of the House

Presidency of Richard Nixon (Jan. 20, 1969-Aug. 9, 1974)
(Vacancy between the resignation of Vice President Spiro Agnew on October 10, 1973 and the confirmation of Vice Presidential nominee Gerald Ford on December 6, 1973.)
•Oct. 10, 1973-Dec. 6, 1973: Carl Albert, Speaker of the House

Presidency of Gerald Ford (Aug. 9, 1974-Jan. 20, 1977)
(Vacancy between Vice President Gerald Ford’s succession to the Presidency on August 9, 1974 and the confirmation of Vice Presidential nominee Nelson Rockefeller on December 19, 1974.)
•Aug. 9, 1974-Dec. 19, 1974: Carl Albert, Speaker of the House

“A B-29 Superfortress of the 20th Air Force with a captured Japanese anti-aircraft gun.

Printed caption on reverse: ‘SYMBOL OF JAPANESE DEFEAT ON SAIPAN. In June 1944, this camouflaged Japanese anti-aircraft gun on Saipan Island in the central Pacific Marianas was sending shells at US invasion planes. Today, a dozen yards away, B-29 Superfortress of the US Army Air Forces are loaded with bombs for a mission against industrial targets in the Japanese homeland, while unfired anti-aircraft shells still litter the wood-clogged encampment. Daily 1,000 plane blows against Japan during the following year were predicted by US Army Chief of Staff George C Marshall in statements to a US Congressional committee in June 1945. General of the Army Marshall said these daily blows would mean dropping 2,700,000 tons of bombs in the ensuing 12 months. The total tonnage of bombs which smashed down Europe in the three years from 1942 to 1945 was only 1,555,000 tons.'”

(IWM: FRE 11914)

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The Eisenhower Jacket

General Dwight D. Eisenhower considered the Army’s World War II military uniform to be restricting and poorly suited for combat. Instead he had a standard issue wool field jacket tailored to be “very short, very comfortable, and very natty looking.” The resulting “Eisenhower jacket” or “Ike jacket,” as it came to be known, was standard issue to American troops after November 1944.

This “Ike jacket” was worn by Eisenhower, seen here in this photograph.

Ike urged theater-wide adoption of the shorter jacket in a May 5, 1943, letter to General George C. Marshall, the Army Chief of Staff.

http://usnatarchives.tumblr.com/post/102363960117/in-honor-of-veterans-day-heres-the-story-behind
The things I saw beggar description…The visual evidence and the verbal testimony of starvation, cruelty and bestiality were…overpowering…I made the visit deliberately in order to be in a position to give first-hand evidence of these things if ever, in the future, there develops a tendency to charge these allegations merely to ‘propaganda.’
— 

— General Dwight D. Eisenhower, April 15, 1945, letter to General George C. Marshall following the liberation of Ohrdruf, a subcamp of Buchenwald

Eisenhower, who saw the camps first-hand, predicted Holocaust denial. He ordered as much documented as possible… which it WAS. Holocaust denial is not a matter of historical revisionism. It’s an act of historical destruction, of conscious denial of meticulously collected evidence. It is an act of hate.

anonymous asked:

which general turned president was had the highest rank of all generals turned prez? ike?

No, it’s George Washington. As American History progressed and the United States fought more wars, other Generals were eventually promoted to a rank equivalent to that held by Washington upon Washington’s death in 1799 – and, two of those Generals, were elected President: Ulysses S. Grant and Dwight D. Eisenhower.

After World War I, General John J. Pershing had been promoted to “General of the Armies”, which was a senior rank to “General of the Army” (previously held by Grant, then William Tecumseh Sherman, and then, briefly, Philip Sheridan). They were considered four-star Generals, as was Pershing when he was made General of the Armies, as that was the highest rank in the U.S. military at the time.

During World War II, the U.S. created a five-star rank as “General of the Army” as well as “Admiral of the Navy” and “General of the Air Force” to recognize the leading military commanders and boost them to the same status as the leading British commanders who held five-star ranks. The five-star “Generals of the Army” promoted during World War II were Eisenhower, George C. Marshall, Douglas MacArthur, Omar Bradley, and Hap Arnold. Arnold was later promoted to “General of the Air Force”, which meant he held a five-star rank in two different branches of the military. The five-star “Admirals of the Navy” promoted during World War II were William Leahy, Chester Nimitz, Ernest King, and William F. Halsey, Jr. However, General Pershing was still living during World War II, so it was made clear that Pershing, as “General of the Armies” outranked all of the five-star officers promoted after him.

As the nation’s Bicentennial approached in 1976, there was a push to posthumously recognize George Washington as the top military commander in U.S. history. Congress passed legislation to make Washington the “General of the Armies of the United States” with eternal seniority in rank to all American commanders. President Ford approved the promotion and the Army eventually made it official, retroactively effective on the day of the Bicentennial itself, July 4, 1976, so General Washington is the highest-ranking General ever elected President of the United States and will always be the highest-ranking military commander in U.S. history. Washington is basically considered the equivalent of the six-star General, and no American will ever outrank him.

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In honor of Veterans Day, here’s the story behind the famous wool jacket (a style worn by many veterans during their time of service) now in display in “Making Their Mark: Stories Through Signatures.”

General Dwight D. Eisenhower considered the Army’s World War II military uniform to be restricting and poorly suited for combat. Instead he had a standard issue wool field jacket tailored to be “very short, very comfortable, and very natty looking.” The resulting “Eisenhower jacket” or “Ike jacket,” as it came to be known, was standard issue to American troops after November 1944.

This “Ike jacket” was worn by Eisenhower, seen here in this photograph.

Ike urged theater-wide adoption of the shorter jacket in a May 5, 1943, letter to General George C. Marshall, the Army Chief of Staff:

“I have no doubt that you have been impressed by the virtual impossibility of appearing neat and snappy in our field uniform. Given a uniform which tends to look a bit tough, and the natural proclivities of the American soldier quickly create a general impression of a disorderly mob. From this standpoint alone, the matter is bad enough; but a worse effect is the inevitable result upon the general discipline This matter of discipline is not only the most important of our internal military problems, it is the most difficult. In support of all other applicable methods for the development of satisfactory methods we should have a neater and smarter uniform. I suggest the Quartermaster begin now serious work to design a better woolen uniform for next winter’s wear.”

Ike’s argument won the day, and the “Wool Field Jacket, M-1944” debuted in the European Theater of Operations in November 1944. The iconic jacket continued to be issued to American troops until 1956, when a general phase out begin. The Ike jacket was gone from the Army inventory by October 1960, according to the US Army Center of Military History.

Buried in a plain Army casket and adorned in his namesake jacket, Eisenhower rests in peace in the Place of Meditation on the grounds of the Eisenhower Presidential Library in Abilene, Kansas.

Image: Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum National Archives (63-92)

DOCUMENTING WORLD WAR II: HOLLYWOOD SUPPORTS THE WAR EFFORT

As America plunged into World War II following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, members of the motion picture community rushed to assist in the war effort. Many of these highly-skilled film industry professionals lent their talents to the Army Pictorial Service (APS), a division of the U.S. Army Signal Corps. Established in 1942 by George C. Marshall, the APS counted among its most important tasks the visual documentation of the war.

In January 1943, director George Stevens joined the Army and was later selected to head the Special Motion Picture Coverage Unit (SPECOU) of the Allied Expeditionary Force. Working under the auspices of the Army Pictorial Service, the SPECOU group was responsible for capturing some of the war’s most enduring images. Stevens’ unit was involved in pivotal moments in the European Theater such as D-Day and the liberation of Paris, and was commended for its efforts by General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Stevens is depicted below at work in France with several members of his company, which included cinematographer Joseph Biroc, screenwriters Ivan Moffat and Irwin Shaw and dramatist William Saroyan.

   

In the spring of 1945, Stevens and his crew were among the first to arrive at the newly-liberated Dachau concentration camp. As shown here, each day they would create caption sheets to describe the footage they shot so that news stories could be transmitted around the globe. Their riveting images introduced the world to the atrocities that had taken place there and have served to educate subsequent generations about this dark moment in history.  The photographs and documents showing the extraordinary work of the Special Motion Picture Coverage Unit form part of the George Stevens papers, which are housed in Special Collections at the Academy’s Margaret Herrick Library.


Help us build the world’s premier motion picture museum.

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ENTERPRISE: THE FIRST SPACE SHUTTLE 

The space shuttle orbiter prototype was commissioned by NASA in 1972 and built at the Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility in Palmdale, California, in 1974-76. Its original name, Constitution, was changed to Enterprise by President Gerald Ford in response to a letter writing campaign undertaken by Star Trek fans. On 17 September 1976, Enterprise, rolled out of the Palmdale manufacturing facilities and was greeted by NASA officials and cast members from the Star Trek television series.

From left to right they are: NASA Administrator Dr. James D. Fletcher; DeForest Kelley, who portrayed Dr. “Bones” McCoy on the series; George Takei (Mr. Sulu); James Doohan (Chief Engineer Montgomery “Scotty” Scott); Nichelle Nichols (Lt. Uhura); Leonard Nimoy (Mr. Spock); series creator Gene Roddenberry;  U.S. Rep. Don Fuqua (D.-Fla.); and, Walter Koenig (Ensign Pavel Chekov).

Enterprise was designed to perform test flights in the atmosphere.  It was constructed without engines or a functional heat shield, and was therefore not capable of spaceflight.

On January 31, 1977, the shuttle was taken by road to Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, to begin operational testing. It was lifted into flight on the back of a modified Boeing 747, from which it then decoupled.

Placed in Dynamic Test Stand at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, on 13 March 1978, the shuttle orbiter underwent the Mated Vertical Ground Vibration test. The test marked the first time that the entire Space Shuttle-an orbiter, an external tank and two solid rocket boosters-were mated together. The purpose of the vibration tests was to verify whether the shuttle performed its launch configuration as predicted.