genetic variations

Dear non-autistics,

Just because we complain about the difficulties that come with being autistic doesn’t mean we want a “cure”. 

Do you complain about how light skin burns so easily because you want a cure for being white? Do you complain about police brutality against people of colour because you want a cure for being darker-skinned?


So why would you assume we complain about autism because we want to “cure” a part of who we are? 

Being autistic is just a much a part of who someone is as their skin colour.

Of course we bitch about it. We’re human

Whining is humanity’s unofficial universal pastime. If it’s summer, we whine about the heat. As soon as it gets cold we whine about that too. 

It’s like when you wish your skin was lighter so you were less discriminated  against or wish your skin was darker so you didn’t burn as much; you might say that it’s what you want, but if you were to actually wake up tomorrow with a different skin shade I’ll bet you’d feel like part of your identity was taken from you.

Then there’s the reason why we complain. 

We don’t bemoan the trials of being autistic because autism makes our life hard. 

We complain about the trials of being autistic because non-autistic society makes our life hard.

We live in a world designed solely for non-autistics and which is unwilling to make even minor adjustments to accommodate us.

There’s tons of tiny little things that can be done that has little to no effect on you but to us makes a world of difference, but society just can’t be bothered.

Y’all have nearly unanimously decided that we’re not worth caring about. And that’s what we’re complaining about.

When we complain about autism the problem we’re complaining about isn’t us

It’s you.

* Some examples of simple things you could do:

- Not telling an autistic person that they’re using their autism “as an excuse” for not being able to do something or for doing something you don’t like (e.g. being overly clumsy, fidgeting, stimming, not making eye contact, etc)

- Not judging us for quietly stimming when we need to (playing with fidget/stress toys, biting our chewy jewelry, playing with our fingers, etc)

- Not calling us “broken” because we’re different than you and we don’t meet your expectations.

- Not calling people who murder their autistic kids a “guardian angel” and “good parent”

- Not giving a parent who has murdered their kid a platform on tv to argue about how killing their perfectly healthy kid was “euthanasia”.

- Not treating non-verbal autistics like they’re dumb and  incapable of functioning.

- Not saying “I sometimes think about killing my child” near your child. We all can hear and understand everything you’re saying, regardless of whether we can vocalize a response. When you say “sometimes I think about killing my child” near your kid you just told your kid that you fantasize about killing them.

- Not treating autism like a disease. It’s a harmless genetic variation. We don’t  “suffer” from autism and we’re don’t “have” autism. We ARE autistic. That’s like saying we “have whiteness”.

- Listening to autistics when they say that groups like Autism Speaks are hate groups and that they don’t speak for us.

- Supporting autism societies run by autistics.

- Not firing us for being autistic.

- Not placing fully capable 30 year old adults in a home for seniors with dementia just because they have autism.

- Not calling autism an “epidemic”. It’s not a disease. It’s been around for millennia, the rise in diagnoses is because we’re starting to understand more about it.

I could go on, but I think you catch my drift.

Breeds VS Species PSA

Guys, please don’t use the word ‘breed’ interchangeably with the word ‘species’.

Those are not even remotely the same thing!

Dogs have breeds.
There are breeds of cat.
There are breeds of bunny.
Breeds of cow, breeds of horse, breeds of goat, breeds of sheep, breeds of pig, breeds of chicken, breeds of duck, breeds of pigeons, breeds of goldfish…

All of which are distinct genetic variations atrificially selected from their respective single species.

All breeds of dog from st bernard to chihuahua are the species Canis lupis familiaris, for example, with the Wolf, Canis lupus, being the wild type from which the domesticated breeds derived.

There are not different breeds of parrot.
With the exception of the budgerigar (which comes in Wild Type and English which have significantly different skull structures), those are all completely separate species.

With the exception of the Goldfish (which has at least twenty distinct breeds) and possibly the betta?, there are only species and color or fin varients of fish.
(I hesitate to include betta, guppies, and platys as breeds rather than mutations because only their color and fins are altered, where as the different breeds of goldfish have drastically different skeletal and body shapes from the wild type.)

Calling different species of parrots ‘breeds’ is like lumping foxes and dogs together as the same species because they are both canidae.

When pet shops claim to sell many “breeds” of fish, it’s about equivalent to lumping land mammals all under the same species because they have fur and four legs.

It also makes things really confusing when discussing a species like the domestic pigeon that has many different actual breeds with in it if the other person doesn’t know the difference between “species” and “breed”. You guys have no idea how many times I have had to explain that yes, two different breeds of pigeon will generally get along if housed together and can successfully interbreed because they are the same species. You just get mix breed offspring from two different breeds of pigeon, same as you would from mating two different breeds of dog.

☣️ Dystopian AU Starters ☣️

Send a symbol to see how our characters suffer. 👌

📺  Nineteen Eighty-Four - Our characters live in a world where their every move and every thought is watched by the government. Informants and spies known as the Thought Police are everywhere, and dissenters are taken to the horrifying Room 101. There is no escape. You can only survive.

🔥 Fahrenheit 451 - Our characters live in a world where books are banned, and those who are not “normal” seem to vanish. Any books found will be burned by the “firemen”, armed with gasoline and flamethrowers, and dissenters are tracked down by the fearsome mechanical Hound.

🍊 A Clockwork Orange - Our characters live in a world where young people form oddly-dressed gangs and engage in horrific violence, committing crimes unhindered by adults. 

👩 The Handmaid’s Tale - Our characters live in a world where a religious military dictatorship has been enforced. Fertile women are forced to become Handmaids, and made to conceive for the continuation of the dying human race. They are forbidden from reading and conversation in this world is strictly controlled by a set script. Spies known as Eyes are everywhere, and those who do not conform are sent to die in the irradiated Colonies.

🛒 The Road - Our characters live in a world where an apocalypse event has occurred, barely anyone is left alive, and the environment around them is barren and bleak. Their only hope is travelling to a location they hope still exists. Everyone and everything is a threat, and they must scavenge what they can to survive.

🏃 The Running Man - Our characters live in a world where a totalitarian society has taken over, and a violent game show known as The Running Man exists. A contestant is declared an enemy of the state, and given a 12-hour head start before the Hunters, an elite team of hitmen, are sent to kill them. They can travel anywhere in the world, but viewers earn money for revealing their whereabouts. They earn $100 for every hour they stay alive, extra for killing law enforcement or Hunters, and win a grand prize of $1 billion for surviving for 30 days. Nobody has ever won it.

💭 The Chrysalids - Our characters live in a world where people who are “different” are branded as “blasphemies” and killed without mercy. Any visible variation in genetics can be grounds for being eliminated. However, some have an invisible mutation - they have telepathic abilities.

❌ Harrison Bergeron - Our characters live in a world where everyone is expected to be perfectly equal. People are given “handicaps”. Strong people are made to wear heavy weights. Beautiful people must wear masks. Intelligent people must wear ear radios, which play sounds to stop one’s thoughts. Everyone is equal, but at what cost?

The Machinery of Evil: Angband

In comparison to the more ragtag, disorganized orc led armies of the later Ages, Angband is an impressively effective force that is strong enough to withstand centuries of near isolation and self-sufficiency under constant siege. This suggests to me an extremely organized and structured system acting as its backbone.

I don’t think there were the modern kind of taxes or wages because I doubt there was a free market economy that needed those things to drive it. Angband is essentially a state built to fuel an army and I doubt that dark lords care much about the desire of their minions for luxury goods. So I think the most likely system was a command economy, where central planning makes all the economic decisions about how to use and distribute resources. For example, your orc will never have to worry about the cost of his helmet, because the dark lords arrange the production and delivery of all his equipment in exchange for labor at mining, farming, soldiering etc. as a specialist. Higher ranking orcs or beings probably get a bigger share of the resources and better stuff as an incentive to move up the ranks as much a possible. So there’s still a definite status system and ‘wealthier’ orcs.

Of course this opens up a host of problems too. This system takes an incredible amount of knowledge and planning to carry out, and if you don’t get the right number of helmets or chickens you need, you may end up executing rioters or having poorly equipped soldiers who lose battles. Not to mention you have to police the system rigorously for graft, theft, cheating, corruption, misreporting surplus, plain incompetence etc. Having a command economy also requires the creation of an enormous entrenched bureaucracy to organize and implement decisions made at the top.

Naturally this means that no currency is necessary, eliminating the cost in wasted metals and labor. I think that they might have created a currency later on for the sole purpose of trade with the Evil Men of the East, but I find it equally likely that Angband adopted one of their Eastern allies’ currency as long as the standard was valuable metal weights. Their chief trade goods were probably knowledge and high quality processed goods rather than raw materials anyway. This eliminates the problem of inflation internally, but not of scarcity.

Now, if you’re an orc and want a bit more than your regular rations or a nice present for your mother’s birthday, you’re going to have to barter for it.  Your options for getting trade goods are limited. You can steal a little extra from what you produce as a farmer, smith, miner etc. but this might get your head chopped off. You can save some of your rations and trade that, but this can be dangerous if you don’t have enough left for yourself or trade away vital items like armor, underwear etc. You can trade services for goods like ‘I’ll sharpen your knives if you give me your shiny stone.’ But your best option for getting trade-able items is loot taken from enemies. Angband didn’t have taxes, but you probably had to tithe a portion of your plunder to the dark lords and possibly your commander. I’m thinking that a footsoldier got to keep one-tenth, a general one-third or some kind of system like that was in place but there was probably a lot of fighting over the best items between individual orcs too.

How do you keep a vast underground army supplied with food and materials? I think Angband’s production and food problems are solvable with a truly ridiculous amount of forethought and planning, pinpoint precise control of workers and a healthy amount of magic. The dark lords would need a huge amount of food, far more than could be gained through raiding; somehow crops had to be grown to feed armies, and animals had to be raised for meat and goods. Angband must have had enormous underground farms for surface plants created through the laborious process of building plant beds, bringing in soil, and creating light and air shafts. But they also might have cultivated fungi, mushrooms, moss, roots and other edible plants that naturally grow in or near caves. Pre-siege they might have had some small scale agriculture on mountain terraces and foothills and pastured sheep or goats on the side of mountains.

Post siege they had to rely on animals that could be raised underground. Orcs probably ate little meat. Those animals would have been far more valuable for the other products they could provide, like hides, fat, or horn. Eggs or milk would be more likely, depending on availability. Bats, bugs, worms, larva, spiders, proteus salamanders, and cave crabs are natural cave creatures that might be deliberately raised as food. Fish in underground lakes would yield the double benefit of food and vital water reservoirs. Their primary meat animal would probably be pigs because they eat anything and can be intensively farmed. Dogs are also scavengers so they might also be eaten for food or raised for fur. Chickens can be cage-raised in battery farms, and they also eat almost anything, so they seem likely. Sheep and goats come from wild mountain dwelling ancestors, and would have been valuable for wool and hair and milk, but I’m doubtful they could be fed enough from Angband’s resources to be worthwhile to keep. Cows are a definite no; they just are too big for underground living and not efficient enough to be regular food animals. Horses are valuable as riding animals and it is seems likely a small number were kept for commanders, messengers and scouts.

Outbreaks of disease and contamination have an easy answer: never ever ever keep all of your animals/crops/drinking water in one place/field/reservoir. If you loose one herd to disease you can isolate it and save the rest; the more separate herds you have the smaller the loss. Potential disease vectors, like corpses, have to be disposed of immediately. Genetic bottleneck is no problem if you carefully manage your herds; scientists estimate the entire population of founding taurine (non-humped) cattle was around eighty for example; low genetic variation does not necessarily mean low fitness. If stores dropped catastrophically low, trade with Evil Men or raiding could have filled the shortfall until production could be restored.

Waste management and containment would have been vital for the health of Angband’s occupants and the viability of its economy. Mines and farms are kept running though forced labor by prisoners; no one lives who does not work. Everything has to be recycled - food and metals especially. Even the corpses of prisoners and orcs are eaten. Water supplies may not have been easy to find and would have to be kept clean and uncontaminated by mineral leeching. They would have to find ways to get rid of toxic trash that couldn’t be recycled. Environmental contamination would have been a real problem, given the volcanic atmosphere and the amount of volatile metals around. Some types of environmental contamination could have been avoided through good, ruthlessly enforced waste containment measures as well.  Magic may also be a good option here.

Were Angband’s ore deposits rich enough to support centuries of war? I’m honestly a little fuzzy on the geologic requirements for the creation of metals, but I’m going to handwave this one. If Melkor can make entire mountain ranges, then I’m going to guess he can guarantee an ample supply of minerals and metals for Angband’s forges. (Plus volcanic soils are incredibly fertile which helps with the food problem. The Polynesian islands are capable of supporting agriculture only because of soils made of volcanic ash deposited by wind, fun fact.)

My general explanation for the ability of Melkor’s war machine to support itself actually relies on a bit of headcanon. Sauron managed to escape the ruin of Utumno because of an extensive underground tunnel system that existed underneath it. I like to think that this is something Melkor and Sauron continued and expanded in their next stronghold once they saw how useful it was. However tall the mountains towered above the plain, below them Angband lay many times greater and deeper. Perhaps not just the entire plain, but whole mountain ranges were honeycombed with tunnels that stretched their fingers all the way back to Utumno’s vaults.

They may be evil, but Melkor and Sauron must have been terrifyingly competent.

This is what happens when Tessa and Clary fight over who is more attractive
  • <p> <b>Clary:</b> Jace is the offspring of Will which makes him more attractive<p/><b>Tessa:</b> But Will is the original face of the Herondale linage<p/><b>Clary:</b> That's why he does not have the multiple genetic variation.<p/><b>Tessa:</b> That genetic variation is what destroyed the perfect Herondale look<p/><b>Clary:</b> HOW DARE YOU, MY GOLDEN BOY IS PERFECT<p/><b>Tessa:</b> MY BLUE-EYED "MAN" IS MORE THAN PERFECT<p/><b>Will:</b> That's my girl<p/><b>Jace:</b> Clary, please, don't let me down<p/></p>

For anyone who has parents who say that being gay isn’t natural or that biology always involves heterosexuality: I do research on a yeast that causes meningitis and one of the key things about is that it has the option to mate with the same-sex yeast and same-sex mating offers greater genetic variation and more often than not, ensures a longer lifespan.

So there’s that.

friendb0t  asked:

How many zorua will a zoroark yield on average?

Strangely, location seems to be very influential. Unova Zoroark typically only have litters of two or three Zorua, while Kalos foxes usually have five or six per season. Theories about the influence of space, competition, and genetic variation abound, but no definite cause has been identified.

Rhythm and variation

So I’m refining my aspect definitions and everyone agrees Time is related to music. I have variation marked down for Space and so I though repetition fit for Time

Space- uniqueness and variability
Time- repetition and repeatability

Dave weaponized repetition and rhythm, syncing in and out of Time when fighting. Here one second and gone the next, his time clones would naturally pick it up in time.
Dave also said you can’t think about Time too much, you just have to roll with it. In other words, get into the flow and rhythm of things.

Aradia as a Maid created repetition. She created swarms of Aradiabots, making the same thing enmasse.
When she became more skilled she could make repetition for others, effectively time locking them.

Lord English sets up the timeline his way and only his way. He can only be summoned in a specific way every time. When on his rampage he was doing the same thing over and over again, slaughtering ghosts and nothing else.

Calliope on the other hand shook everything up with destruction of the Green Sun.
She kept making new things. New art, new stories, she was practically obsessed with originality that she cosplayed as a way to escape her and her brother’s mutual body.

Kanaya was into fashion and design.
She was a rainbow drinker, an ability only unlocked by her blood caste when drinking multiple blood colors.
In other words, a unique genetic variation unlocked through drinking a variety of blood colors from across the spectrum.

Jade had 12 fetch modi, an incredibly high amount.
Jade is also notoriously quirky, silly, and scatterbrained. Due to her isolated island and odd grandfather and Bec, she isn’t exactly the most down to Earth person.
Witches will go on to affect their aspect in a large and semi-permanent way. Jade did something totally unique, crossing to another session and bringing new planets to it so the session would be viable.

And Space and Time are required for a successful session and frog breeding.
This would wrap in how genetic variation is important, but how DNA is only made of 4 chemical bases!

Isoka is 1 of the Safari Park’s Cheetah Run stars. He came to us in 2014 with his brother Okubi. Their mother is a King cheetah, which is a rare genetic variation giving cheetahs a larger stature and stripes. Since Isoka and Okubi are only half King cheetah, they don’t have stripes but they are large and have interesting markings. 

Photo: Mike Wilson

Genetic Discovery Provides New Insight into Cognitive Disorders

An international team of scientists, led by Todd Lencz, PhD, professor at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research at Northwell Health and Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, have unlocked some of the genes responsible for cognitive ability.

Dr. Lencz and fellow researchers studied the genes of 35,000 people and discovered new genetic variations related to cognitive ability. The findings bring scientists a step closer to developing new – and potentially better – treatments for cognitive disorders of the brain, such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The findings were published online in Molecular Psychiatry.

The team of 60 international scientists is called the Cognitive Genomics Consortium (COGENT). COGENT researchers measured brain function of the participants through tests of learning, memory and other components of cognitive function. In addition to zeroing in on a few specific genes related to cognitive ability, the team also showed a significant genetic overlap between risk for several psychiatric disorders and reduction in cognitive ability. Impairments in general cognitive ability, such as reasoning, problems solving, learning, and memory, are critical components for a number of serious mental illnesses, including schizophrenia.

“This research provides new clues into how the brain works at the molecular level,” said Dr. Lencz. “Our long-term goal is to identify potential new targets for treatments of cognitive disorders of the brain, such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).”

COGENT scientists also discovered for the first time a molecular genetic overlap between cognitive ability and personality. Specifically, they found that a genetic predisposition towards higher cognitive ability was associated with greater “openness to experience.” This means that some of the genes that make people more likely to be curious about new ideas and trying new experiences are the same as those that enhance cognitive function.

Dr. Lencz and the COGENT team are currently working with partners in Europe to expand the collaborative team. Their goal is to increase the size of the study to more than 100,000 DNA samples. Dr. Lencz notes, “Today, we know of hundreds of genes related to traits such as height and weight, but only a few related to cognitive ability. We have a lot of work to do if we want to understand the molecular basis of brain function.”

I was trying to to sort Star Trek characters into Hogwarts houses, but lost my train of thought when I started thinking about Bones learning Apparition.

“It’s not natural, Jim. Less natural than even transfiguration, which is a horror unto itself. Why in the blue blazes would someone want to scatter their body from one place to the next? Sure it’s fast, but is it really worth it when you leave an eyeball behind or maybe your large intestine? Or better yet, having a bird caught in your ribcage because you Apparated around it.”

“I… don’t think that’s possible, Bones.”

“Isn’t it? Because everything else darn well seems to be. Magic is a spreading disease, and it’s incurable.”

“Your claim is inaccurate. Magic seems to have no transferable properties other than from parent to child. Additionally, magical attributes are not associated with any disorder found within the body. Rather it appears to be merely a genetic variation as one would find in the color of ones’ eyes for insta-”

“Shut up, Spock. It’s a metaphor. And I’m not taking that damn class. I’ll walk places like humans beings should.”

anonymous asked:

I am not trying to imply any bulls*t about vaccines causing autism, I'm just wondering: if you have autism, are you necessarily born with it, even if you only develop symptoms later as a child? Is there any evidence at all for something on the "nurture" side of "nature vs. nurture" being correlated with autism? I'm so sorry if this is horrendously ignorant - frankly I AM horrendously ignorant. But I've come to trust you over anything I Google. Thanks and cheers

It is okay to be ignorant on this topic, especially with all the misinformation going around.

The simple answers is that if you are not born with the genetics for autism, you will never be autistic. Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that is the result of a complex interaction of a multitude of genetic variations rather than one single genetic change.

This means that yes, nature is absolutely the root source of autism. BUT - and this is a big but! - there is a lot of science to suggest that some aspects of autism, while genetic, are genetic predispositions, not pre-determined guarantees. What this means is that some traits may be environmentally triggered, even though they have a genetic component.

Like many things, it is not as simple as just nature or just nurture. It is a little bit of both. In the case of autism, whether or not you are autistic is going to be nature, but some aspects of how it presents as traits in each individual person are going to be nature. Some aspects may - and it is only just may, it is not a proven fact - may only be environmentally triggered. But whether or not you are autistic is a genetic fact of nature, determined before you are born.

To my knowledge there are no causative links to environmental triggers only correlative. Every single study I have read that people claim is causation has ended up being a correlation, and the person not understanding what causation and correlation actually mean.

anonymous asked:

Companio,s react to someone saying something sexist to Sole! Example: you can't lift that sledgehammer you're a girl and girls are weak OR You're a guy, guys aren't supposed to know how to sow/knit that's a girls thing

Given the harsh nature of the Commonwealth, gender roles and expectations are a little different from Pre-War attitudes. As long as you’ve got a big enough gun and the mind to defend your beliefs, your life is your business. No one gets any say in the clothes you wear or the people you spend your life with. But in every society there’s always a few assholes waiting to ruin someone’s day. Sole receives some ignorant insults from a few such people, and it’s up to the companions to stick up for their partner.

Cait: She’d be over there in half a second, fists curled into their collar as she wrenches them off their feet and stares them dead in the eye. Cait been through some goddamn shit, and ain’t nobody about to tell her or Sole how people are supposed to live their lives. Depending on how much of an asshole the person is, she might start a brawl right then and there, because Cait doesn’t put up with bullshit.

Codsworth: If they were still in the Old World, Codsworth might agree. He’s an old-fashioned bot, what can he say? He liked it when everyone had a place, when they knew what they were supposed to do. But now, even he admits that things have changed, and everybody ought to know how to defend themselves and stitch up some clothes. He’ll scoff, and give the person a few cutting remarks, but he’s too polite to really start a fight about it.

Curie: Her first reaction is the scientific one. “Oh! Well, but actually, you see, though there are some innate biological differences that separate the sexes, by and large there’s enough genetic variation that with enough effort, either gender could… Where are you going?” She’s confused when the jerk rolls their eyes and wanders off, grumbling under their breath. It’s only later that the intended cruelty of their words occurs to her.

Danse: Danse, being a soldier, knows perfectly well that women can hold their own in a fight to the equal of any man. He also admits, reluctantly, that men can be just as proficient in… child-rearing, or other civilian female activities. So he tells the person as much. “I find, that in battle, the gender of your companions matter less than the quality of their character. And I advise you to hold your tongue in future, civilian, or you might see the consequences.”

Deacon: As someone who likes to wear dresses and make-up from time to time, he’s well aware of the assholes who like insult people. He also knows that it’s his gun-given right to wear what he wants. Deacon prefers to avoid confrontation, so he’ll endure the insults, sure. But afterwards? When the person goes home? They may or may not find themselves being assaulted by a gang of angry wastelanders. All because one bald guy spread a few rumors.

Dogmeat: He’s not too picky on who his owner is, and he doesn’t know any better about their habits. Whatever Sole wants to do is great, because Sole is great, and he loves Sole. Sole is the best. Sole gives him pets and bits of brahmin meats. So this asshole comes up and starts talking shit? They better be careful, or they’re gonna find themselves missing a chunk of their leg or arm.

Hancock: Oh, hell, no. Nobody talks to Sole like that. Nobody talks to him like that, either. Hancock’s a firm believer in people being able to do whatever the fuck they want, so long as it doesn’t fuck with anybody else. So he pulls out his favorite shanking knife and gives the asshole a big ol’ toothy grin, just to give them the chance to run. Whether he follows or not depends on how much of a jerk the person was, but he’ll still give ‘em a good scare.

Nick Valentine: Now, Nick might have a lot of nostalgia for the past, looking back fondly on curvy dames in tight red dresses and stoic police detectives in battered trench coats. But nobody’s got any right pushing their nose in everyone else’s business. So he lights his cigarette and gives the person his best golden-eyed glare. “Why don’t you go take your dogma elsewhere, pal? Because we sure don’t want to hear it.”

MacCready: He’s a bit of a straight-laced guy, himself. He likes cold drinks, pretty girls, a clean gun… But even he knows everybody’s got a right to their own thing. “Right back at you, asshole. Don’t you have better things to do than be talking crap to people? Maybe a job, or something?” He gives them a glare, standing just behind Sole with fingers twitching for his rifle. If Sole asked him to give this person an extra hole in their head, he wouldn’t mind.

Piper: Word of advice: never make the hot-headed journalist feel like she’s being oppressed. In an instant she’s up in the person’s face, dark eyes all alight with anger as she waves her hands at them. “What did you just say to them? What did you say? Because what you just implied, buddy, you’ll have to take up with me. Oh, oh, oh, I should write an article on you! Tell the world about everything wrong with beliefs like yours. In fact…” And so on.

Preston: His eyes harden, jaw tightens. He doesn’t like anybody talking to Sole like that. He knows very well that anybody can do anything they put their minds to. But he doesn’t want to just start a fight, either. He’ll move to stand in front of Sole, and put his hands up, and try to calm the person down. “Hey, we’re all friends here. No need to judge anyone’s choices. We’re all just trying to get by, do the best we can.”

Strong: For the record, Super Mutants do not have genders. Whether you’re male, female, old, young, whenever you’re infected with the FEV virus, you turn into a mutant. And he doesn’t register gender much in humans, either. They’re all just different degrees of ugly. But he’s more than happy to beat the snot out of anybody who looks at Sole funny.

X6-88: Why should he care what this person thinks? He knows what he’s capable of. He knows what Sole’s capable of. Wasteland prejudices don’t matter to him. He doesn’t care about genders or traditions or anything else. He is assigned to Sole, and he will protect them. Unless this person begins causing problems, he will continue to ignore them. They are beneath his notice. If they become a threat, however…

Most dogs throughout history and even today are not breed dogs in any sense, but are free-breeding human commensals. The population history of these village dogs is potentially much richer than that of modern breeds, which largely reflect genetic variation present in a few dogs in Europe several centuries ago. Village dogs have a nearly global distribution, with most continental populations first established millennia ago. Notably, these village dogs reflect the ancestral stock for all dog breeds, and may represent an important genetic resource for reinvigorating some purebred lineages using some outbred individuals related to the breed founders.

Like many modern breeds, some populations of village dogs are also genetic mixtures of several modern European breed dogs that were relatively recently imported to those areas (e.g. Puerto Rican and central Namibian village dogs). These dogs resumed a scavenging, free-breeding existence (they are ‘secondarily free-breeding’), but they retain little or no localizable genetic signature and do not contain unique genes resulting from local adaptation over millennia.

Other village dog populations, however, have much more ancient roots and are likely to be very informative for deciphering the origin of dogs and the movement of early dog populations across the globe (e.g. Ugandan village dogs). These indigenous village dogs also represent unique genetic resources for understanding local adaptation, and may provide unique services to the humans that live with them.


Ryan Boyko and Adam Boyko, Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation (2014) p. 189

Lost in the Common Room

Charles Xavier x Reader 
Warnings: rien (none)
WC: 841

Request: sunfirestrike ;  I was wondering if you could do a Charles Xavier xreader set in first class where it’s like there day off and everyone is just set calmly in the living room doing mundane things and Charles starts reading there minds you know for science and discovers the readers HUGE crush on him despite her trying not to have a crush on him and then maybe a little fluffy kissing 

Notes: Forgive me, children, for I have sinned. :( Kidding! My name is Darcy. This is my first fanfic that I write on request by a fellow X-Men fan. So, forgive me if it vacuums or if its too cheesy. Enjoy and feedback would be greatly appreciated :D -Darcy


The noise radiating from the fire engulfed the entirety of the common room. The spit and crackle calmed all beings present down after the ruthless, exhaustive practice endured over the past week. Alex sat on the overlong sofa reading a novel by the late Ernest Hemingway, whom had died the year before. Raven and Hank were a different case entirely. Their backs resting on a bookshelf, they pretended to fight over the next installment of a series of books. What they actually found themselves doing on that idle day was flirting with one another. The rest of the party were either spending their time running up and down the house grounds or flying, as in Angel’s case. Charles pondered on the location of Erik but need not dwell on it for longer. He was sure Erik was still exercising his mind to lift excruciatingly heavy objects. Charles would’ve gone up to abet him in the act, but rather felt at ease for the moment.

           Sitting in his Victorian chair, he began to lose interest of the crown moldings of the room. Instead, he began to dwell on the basic principles of the genetic variations that undergo to create the beautiful specimen inhabiting the room.  His own genetic mutation was just as astounding. So to pass the time, he focused on scientific properties of the mutant mind. He thought that perhaps by releasing that threshold that blocked all those thoughts bouncing on the common room walls, he could thereby find clarity and dissect the youngsters’ minds to track the core of the neuronal cells, which transmit messages. As soon as the shield went down, he was flooded with thoughts. In that particular moment, you walked in lusting for another great read. Your mind wandered from the books to the people in the room, your eyes instantly finding Charles sitting in his favorite armchair. You flushed and turned away as fast as you could. Charles swirled around to look at you while your gaze traveled from spine to spine.

           ‘God, I hope he didn’t notice me staring.’ Charles smirked and continued to listen to you.

           ‘ Good book, good book, good book, where are you so I can escape this handsome man’s presence.’ Charles’ eyes opened wide with bewilderment. He always thought you beautiful and would’ve made an approach if he knew you reciprocated his feelings for you. He grinned at the fact that you were still complimenting his good features. His eyes a favorite subject.

           ‘ I’m sorry to intrude, but you are very distracting.’ Charles spoke telepathically.

           You jumped in surprise and responded mentally and furiously. ‘ I was fairly certain that I was being quite silent and discrete.’


           ‘ Well, internally you are very loud.’ Charles chuckled.

           ‘ Perhaps, it would help if you exited my mind, Charles.’


           ‘ But it’s extremely entertaining. Tell me, how is my handsome face treating you this fine evening?’


           “Charles!!” you stared at him, your fists clenched at your sides. You only realized you had literally screamed out his name when Alex raised his eyebrows at you. Xavier then stood up and walked over to you with a big smile on his face. “(y/n), yes? You called, or rather screamed.”

           “I thought you never rummaged in our brains.”

           “Forgive me but yours caught my attention.”

           “However, so? Is it because I just so happened to be fiddling around with the likes of you?” you blushed furiously but stood your ground as Charles looked over you. “Yes,” Charles smiled sweetly, “I find your concealed fancy towards me very satisfying. And I’m sorry to have utilized my telepathy to my advantage but as soon as I heard you I could not keep quiet. (y/n), I have been a great fool to have not seen it before.

           You gasped as you realized what he was trying to say. Charles kept staring at you, his eyes infinitely searing into your own. The sea-foam blue chasms of his eyes were enchanting, gluing you to the spot. And as he broke the last few inches separating you from him, you began to lose yourself. He in turn was also lost in the effervescent (y/eye color) bundle of your eyes.

           “(y/n),” Charles whispered intimately, while all you could muster was a groan. You melted into him as his lips met yours. As he deepened the kiss, forever etching his sweetness unto your lips, his hands clasped your waist and you broke. You broke into a million pieces as you were irrevocably lost in the reality of a fantasy. Charles gripped you closer for fear that he would collapse from the intensity of the kiss. The both of enveloped in a preamble of which you did not wish to find your way out.

            With great difficulty, Charles pulled away. While one hand remained stroking your bottom lip, the other was pushing a square volume into your hands. Charles breathlessly said, “(y/n), I’ll find you’ll enjoy this novel but not as much as I enjoyed this.”

“mixed breeds are healthier than purebreds” is the most ignorant statement ever (after “adopt don’t shop”). It perpetuates the assumption than any mixed breed is automatically healthy and free of inbreeding and that all shelter dogs are a perfect fit for any family because they’re better than their pedigree counterparts, when it’s definitely not the case. 

While I’m a huge advocate for genetic variation and outcrossing, it is very important to understand that crossbreeding must be done extremely carefully by someone with an adept understanding of canine genetics, because mixed breed dogs are NOT always healthy. Mix breeding a German Shepherd with a huge risk of hip dysplasia and a Golden Retriever with a genetic history of both hip dysplasia AND cancer is not automatically going to give you healthy puppies. Those puppies are going to be prone to the diseases of their ancestors regardless of whether they’re mixed or purebred. 

The goal of every responsible breeder is to health test and make sure the parents are free of diseases so that the pups have a much lesser chance of getting sick later on. Regardless of whether the parents are purebred companion dogs bred to be family dogs, or whether they’re mixed breed working dogs specifically bred for a specific function. Health testing is VITAL.

There is no guarantee every puppy will be healthy, as nature takes its course whether we like it or not, but there’s a much bigger chance of a dog living a healthy life if it’s parents were carefully bred and health tested. I’ve never had a purebred dog, and my mixed breed dogs have lived long and health lives, but just because my dogs were lucky does not mean it’s the case for every single dog. This savior-complex and attitude of elitism with shelter dogs in the United States needs to stop and people need to learn to do their research before bringing a dog into their home that they weren’t prepared for, just because someone told them that “shelter dogs are always healthier and better tempered than purebred dogs”.