genetic patterns

The brain does much more than recollect. It compares, synthesizes, analyzes, generates abstractions. We must figure out much more than our genes can know. That is why the brain library is some ten thousand times larger than the gene library. Our passion for learning, evident in the behavior of every toddler, is the tool for our survival. Emotions and ritualized behavior patterns are built deeply into us. They are part of our humanity. But they are not characteristically human. Many other animals have feelings. What distinguishes our species is thought. The cerebral cortex is a liberation. We need no longer be trapped in the genetically inherited behavior patterns of lizards and baboons. We are, each of us, largely responsible for what gets put into our brains, for what, as adults, we wind up caring for and knowing about. No longer at the mercy of the reptile brain, we can change ourselves.
—  Carl Sagan
4

That feel when u realize u’ve completely designed and characterized a child for two characters who’ve barely been dating for six months and are practically children themselves. AnyWA Y

anonymous asked:

Wait I don't understand the baldness thing, if we (ftm folks) are genetically to female pattern baldness wouldn't it matter if the ladies in our family had hair problems? I don't really understand

in theory it would be a good indicator to your susceptibility to baldness if any women in your family are prone to baldness because of our genetics as trans men, but i know that doctors/scientists knowledge on the long-term effects of testosterone are pretty limited because we haven’t had access to many studies regarding the effects over time. additionally things like body/facial hair growth in a lot of trans guys i’ve seen have been super similar to their male siblings/parents so your male relatives shouldn’t be overlooked when trying to anticipate what you may experience. 

2

I’m here to prove that Islam is not a race.

From the pictures above, you can see what I look like.  If I choose not to shave people might assume I’m from the “Muslim world” or Muslim-influenced regions of the world. Merely having tannable skin and thick, black hair doesn’t imply that I’m, somehow, going to be similar to the majority of people living in the part of the world that my ancestors are from (West Asia), My ancestors came from the part of the world that, now, has many Muslims. But I am not a Muslim. My father isn’t a Muslim, and neither is his father. I merely have features that would make people think that I’m somehow from this background (because my ancestors lived in that region) even though I’m far from being a Muslim by any means.

The large region known as “Muslim Sphere of Influence”, going from Morocco all the way past Iran, includes the region that many of my ancestors are from. Because of that, I have various genetic patterns affiliated with tribes within that massive region. So basically, I look like people there, but not everyone born in that region is a Muslim…

^This is the Chechen terrorist responsible for the Boston Marathon Bombing. He’s actually very White-Passing. His interest in terrorism has nothing to do with skin-tone. It was his beliefs. He’s a radical Muslim that committed a terrorist attack.

These, in the image above, are Kurds. Today, the majority of Kurds are Sunni Muslim, belonging to the Shafi school. And there are a fair amount who do not wear Muslim clothing. These people have no linguistic relation to the Arabic language.

Tajiks are a nationality related to Persians. They aren’t Arab or speak a language mutually intelligible with Arabic, They don’t look like your Somalian Muslims, and they aren’t identical to Turks. So where is your “race” theory here?

This is Betül Cemre Yildiz, the top female chess player from Turkey. Her language is Turkish - more Oriental than Arabic. Her culture has elements from many Non-Arab cultures. And she also doesn’t look Arabic, either.

^This is what I found when searching “Arab people” on Google.

^This is the President of Yemen, an Arab state,
-Does he look like people from these other ethnicities. Does he have Kurdish or Persian features? Not really.

^Going back to Central Asia, this is the President of Turkmenistan. He’s from a nationality with more genetic features with Turks - Much far from Arabs. Actually, like many ethnic Turkmens, he has Asian-passing features.

^This is the Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan, a nation that is very close to Russia, Mongolia, and China.

Also, ethnically speaking, Kurds aren’t the same as Turks or Arabs. And Kurds and Arabs aren’t even similar to each other. They aren’t even linguistically similar. And Indonesians look nothing like any of the groups I just mentioned. Also, some people in Iraq and Syria have white-passing features.

This is Ma Bufang, a Chinese Muslim Miliary General. He’s the general responsible for China’s assault on Tibet and East-Turkestan. He was also their Ambassador to Saudi Arabia. He’s responsible for a fair amount of state-run terrorism in China.

Currently, Iran is an Islamist state. They accept non-Iranian Shia Muslims. There are many Arab-Shia Muslims in Iran, and the mayor of the Capital of Iran is racially Kurdish but his religion is Shia Islam. 

If you think that Islam is singular “race”, then somehow, you have to imply that this racially Chinese person is somehow identical to Arabs and African Muslims. Even linguistically, since ethnicities are very much drawn by linguistic boundaries, the Chinese Muslims don’t speak a language that resembles, per-say, Farsi, Turkish, Turkmen, or Kurdish, right? That is because these cultures are separated.

Islam is a universalizing religion. In this sense, they aim at converting masses of other tribes to their religion. To say that Islam merely unifies “Arabs” is an understatement. They converted a large portion of the Persian world to Islam. They converted people in the Indian sub-continent to Islam. They converted some Orientals to Islam too. In no way, is the  Islamist ideology an attempt to unify a nation.

Ancient DNA Tells Us Much About Modern Basque's Once-Unknown Origins

The Basques have unique customs and a language - Euskera - that is unrelated to any other spoken in Europe, or indeed the world. Nestled in a mountainous corner of Atlantic Europe, they also show distinct genetic patterns to their neighbours in France and Spain. But their origins have remained an elusive mystery for as long as anthropologists and linguists have been studying the Basque and their Euskera.  Mattias Jakobsson from Uppsala University in Sweden analysed the genomes of eight Stone Age human skeletons from El Portalón in Atapuerca, northern Spain. These individuals lived between 3,500 and 5,500 years ago, after the transition to farming in southwest Europe. The results show that these early Iberian farmers are the closest ancestors to present-day Basques. Jokobsson’s results suggest that the modern Basque are likely descendants of early farmers, possibly mixed with local hunter-gatherers and using their language, who then became isolated for millennia. Read the full BBC article here

Seeking SciNote, Biology: CRISPR

Question:

What do geneticists think will be possible when the the new gene-splicing CRISPR is fully operational on patients?

Answer:

For those of us unfamiliar, CRISPR is a revolutionary new genetic splicing technology. Gene splicing refers to modifications to a gene transcript that can result in different proteins being made from a single gene. Interestingly, CRISPR’s inception began when dairy scientists discovered that bacteria used to create yogurt (by transforming lactose into lactic acid) had incorporated snippets of benign viruses into its genome. To their surprise, the incorporated DNA would create toxic agents to thwart infective viruses. In 2007, dairy scientists realized that they could effectively fortify bacteria by adding spacer DNA, which does not code for any protein sequence, from a virus. Then, five years later, as Time Magazine writer Alice Park skilfully describes, professors Jennifer Doudna and Emanuelle Charpentier noticed “up to 40% of bacteria developed a particular genetic pattern in their genomes. What they found were sequences of genes immediately followed by the same sequence in reverse, known as palindromic sequences. Further, bits of random DNA bases cropped up after each such pairing and right before the next one. After the dairy bacteria transcribed its spacer DNA and palindromic sequence into RNA, it self-spliced those segments into shorter fragments, with an enzyme called CAS9”. As you may be wondering, CRISPR stands for “clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats”.

It is important for us to emphasize the versatility of this method. In the 2007 article, Doudna and Charpentier go into depth regarding the many benefits of the new genetic technology. These include the potential to “systematically analyze gene functions in mammalian cells, study genomic rearrangements and the progression of cancers or other diseases, and potentially correct genetic mutations responsible for inherited disorders”. As you might imagine, this opens up possibilities that were previously science fiction. Currently, painful blood transfusions are commonplace in the treatment of many diseases such as sickle cell anemia. Sickle cell affects red blood cells, which are made by stem cells in bone marrow. Soon, Massachusetts Institute of Technology synthetic biologist Feng Zhang envisions that this will soon no longer be necessary. She predicts that after doctors extract some of the marrow, scientists will splice out the defective fragment of DNA using CRISPR from the removed stem cells, then bathe the cells in a solution containing the non-sickle-cell sequence. As the DNA repairs itself naturally, it picks up the correct sequence and incorporates it into the stem cell genomes. After this one-time procedure, the stem cells would give rise to more red blood cells with the healthy gene. Eventually, the blood system would be repopulated with normal cells.


The treatment of HIV using CRISPR would be very similar. In this potential treatment, “patients would provide a sample of blood stem cells from their bone marrow, which would be treated with CRISPR to remove the CCR5 gene, and these cells would be transplanted back to the patient. Since the bone marrow stem cells populate the entire blood and immune system, the patient would eventually have blood cells that were protected, or “immunized,” against HIV”.


Despite this extraordinary potential, no biological technology comes without serious ethical concerns. As Jennifer Douda says herself, CRISPR “really requires us to careful thought to how we employ such a tool: What are we trying to do with it, what are the appropriate applications, how can we use it safely?”

Check out her book The Stem Cell Hope for learning about the future of stem cell technology.

Sources:
Park, Alice. “A New Gene-Splicing Technique.” 100 New Scientific Discoveries: Fascinating, Unbelievable and Mind-expanding Stories. New York, NY: TIME, 2014. 92-95. Print.

Park, Alice. “It May Be Possible To Prevent HIV Even Without a Vaccine.” Time. Time, 6 Nov. 2014. Web.

Doudna, Jennifer A., and Charpentier, Emmanuelle (2014). The new frontier of genome engineering with CRISPR-Cas9. Science, 346(6213), 1258096–1258096. doi:10.1126/science.1258096

Answered by: Teodora S., Expert Leader and Expert John M.

Edited by: Carrie K.

  • Jay Smooth: We create art just like we create life, by combining my genetic pattern with yours to make a new pattern.
  • Shepard Fairey: The more people that are contributing to the creation of culture, the richer the dialogue is, the better it is.
  • Jay Smooth: Art cannot grow in a vacuum. It can only bloom in an ecosystem of other ideas to draw from.
  • - "HitRecord on TV," S01E08
vimeo

“The brain does much more than recollect. It compares, synthesizes, analyzes, generates abstractions. We must figure out much more than our genes can know. That is why the brain library is some ten thousand times larger than the gene library. Our passion for learning, evident in the behaviour of every toddler, is the tool for our survival. Emotions and ritualized behaviour patterns are built deeply into us. They are part of our humanity. But they are not characteristically human. Many other animals have feelings. What distinguishes our species is thought. The cerebral cortex is a liberation. We need no longer be trapped in the genetically inherited behaviour patterns of lizards and baboons. We are, each of us, largerly responsible for what gets put into our brains, for what, as adults, we wind up caring for and knowing about. No longer at the mercy of the reptile brain, we can change ourselves.”
― Carl Sagan, Cosmos

#mastermindfilm