genetic differences

Andres Rodriguez shot this creature dead on January 1st, 1986, in Sinaloa, Mexico out of fear that the animal would attack him. Rodriguez expected the big cat to be either a puma or a jaguar - the two large cat species in Mexico. He brought the body to a naturalist who examined it. The creature was the color of a puma, yes, but the limbs are too long and the body is too slim. This naturalist claimed that the cat is Mexico’s legendary large cat - the Onza. The Onza has been reported for centuries as a tawny colored cat with oddly long limbs. 

The body was sent to a lab and was subject to many tests that revealed that the feline was not just a malnourished puma - in fact, it had a perfect amount of body fat. It was not a crossbreed of two different species either. But the genetic tests did tell that it had no genetic difference from a normal puma. It is thought that the Onza is just a puma with a slight appearance change from normal. 

Race science is not salvageable for any decent purposes and its very existence is a threat to the safety of marginalized communities, and included under the category (I am aware that “race science” is a loaded term and should remain one) are such innocuous things as DNA heritage tests, other biological tests to establish genetic differences between races as if those are naturally existing, and so on. Drop them all. Not only are they not even scientifically sound but they are actively dangerous both ideologically inasmuch as they present their own case that the races are naturally different (an obviously ideological claim when heard from white nationalists but somehow not so clearly noted from anyone else) and in terms of real safety because they also present, in the hands of powerful groups, their own justification for racial separation and, almost inevitably, stratification.

Many non-Jews have a weird fascination with us, because they believe we are unusually intelligent and successful. But here’s the thing:

1) It’s often ableist af and sorta dehumanizing, reducing us and our contributions to society to a supposed genetic difference. Ick!

2) This idea, that Jews are all very intelligent (read: cunning, calculating), or over represented in academia, is an age old antisemitic idea, even when it appears to be spun in a positive light.

i cant fucking believe SU made its only good desi character a fucking love interest prop. Sworn To The Sword really seals the deal on how connie is nothing more than fusion fodder and her strength is only there to benefit steven. i know the end of the episode is all like “oh well that’s wrong she’s her own person” but the crew never actually….executed tht moral

and the fact the only notably strong human is a brown-skinned girl seems kind of playing into the whole “oh she’s just so ~exotic~ and that’s how she overpowers the whites” like fuck off it’s a real issue in nepal tht white ppl want to downplay the accomplishments of sherpas by saying theyre genetically different

So today in my biology class we were getting the genetic material from two different parents and making four offspring. Now this was all good and fun until the late bell rings and my teacher walks in and says “Let’s make babies. Whoever has the ugliest wins.”

Submission from @lion-of-woe

anonymous asked:

Whats the difference between dilute and rececive? Are dilutes a recessive gene or are they not? Like, would black mask blue? Or no. Sorry im so confused.

ok so dilute colors are the “toned down” version of a dominant color. 

Black -> Blue 

Red -> Cream. 

It’s like a basic punnett square aka AA vs aa. If a dominant cat (AA or Aa) breeds with a non-dominant cat (aa), their kits can be either dominant or dilute. If 2 dominant cats breed, they still have a possibility of having a dilute kit because they could be Aa. However, 2 dilute parents cannot produce a dominant colored kit (aka 2 black cats can have a gray kit, but 2 gray cats can’t have a black kit)

(¾ are dominant while only ¼ is dilute - a perfect punnett square)

Recessive colors are also different shades of their dominant color, but different because these genes can be hidden and carried for several generations without being seen.

Black -> Chocolate -> Cinnamon

Blue -> Lilac -> Fawn 

in order for a cat to be a recessive color, both parents need to carry the recessive gene. 1 black carrier + 1 black non-carrier WON’T give you a chocolate kit. It’s much harder to get recessive color kits because both parents need to have the gene, and unless you have a pedigree/can look at a family tree it’s near impossible to breed. Even if you breed 2 black cats with the chocolate gene, you’re still going to get mainly black kits with a small chance for a recessive color. Colors like Fawn & Cinnamon are extremely rare

(black kit + chocolate kit. black kit carries the chocolate gene and could pass it on to their kits)

Dear parents...

I am not you. We are not the same people. We don’t look at the world the same way. We choose different words. We take different steps. I can not and do not want to be you. You’re beautiful as individuals, as people, and God knows I love you to death, but I am beautiful too. And that beauty is not defined by the things we do similarly. It is defined by our differences. My beauty and it’s definition lies in myself, and it can not be framed by your norms. My beauty is mine. The words I choose are only mine. Some I share with the world, some I don’t. But the ones I do are mine to pick, and it’s not your job to pick me apart for choosing them. After all, they are doing no harm. Though they sometimes may be uncomfortable for you, they are still words worth saying. They are still an expression of the very person I am. And shouldn’t you get excited at the very thought of me wanting to express who I am? Aren’t you the ones who molded me? Shouldn’t you be happy that I’m growing and spreading outside your lines? Learning more about who it is that I am to myself and to the world? Shouldn’t you be jumping for joy every time you hear me sing my songs and not analyze and pick apart the words that make them? Shouldn’t you feel at ease for giving me roots like you did?

And shouldn’t you let me spread my branches?

Me and you are not „a we“. You say „this isn’t exactly our style“ but our style doesn’t exist. There’s mine and yours. There’s me and you. There’s loving each other for what isn’t the same in us as well as what is. You can’t fix me. I needn’t be fixed. I need to be loved. The only thing any of us essentially need is to be loved. Not for what we can agree on, but for what we can disagree on.

anonymous asked:

I found out that a pet store crushed up dog food and shoved it down a ball pythons throat because they could not get it to eat ? This is toxic to ball pythons? I bread my own ball pythons of many different genetic and I am absolutely outraged. Am I correct about dog food being toxic to ball pythons in my 6 years of breeding heard of this .

I’ve never heard of dog food being used on ball pythons either.  :/  On the single occasion I forcefed a ball python, it was a mouse. 

I haven’t heard anything about dog food being toxic to ball pythons either.  It’s just not an appropriate diet.  @wheremyscalesslither, do you know more?

anonymous asked:

I'm 36 too and I've been told I look younger, so I'm really excited about your Chara! People like that totally exist. It's true, after a certain age people stop looking the same and seemingly age at different speeds. Genetics play a role, but lifestyle and circumstances are at least just as important. It's not a steady pace, either (just look how much Obama has aged during his presidency). So, take good care of yourself, everyone!

Yes! I was secretly hoping we’d have a precisely Chara-aged reader out there! I totally agree with all of this. Take care of your body and your mind, and it will be reflected in your appearance too!

The Signs as Eye Colours

Based on @aistrology’s awesome findings!

*I know that everybody’s genetics are different, but I’m taking that into account while trying to capture each sign with the description!

Aries: Dark and bold, the brown of charred bark mixed with the green of singed treetops, the cardinal energy charging your eyes with life force. Deep colours are your signature, the rusty remnants of mars stitching themselves into your irises.

Taurus: Tranquil hues of blue and hazel light up your face, calming those who look at you. Those who gaze into your eyes long enough feel as though they’re meditating, your stare takes them back to nature, to home. Your eyes are the colour of trees, of the sky, of the water. Everyone who looks at you recognizes you from the days we used to run free with no worries.

Gemini: Your eyes are pale and light, greens and blues brighten your gaze and remind everyone who looks at you of a happier, simpler time. Your eyes are the colour of laughter, of fun. There’s gold woven into your irises, and they almost change colour with the light. For all the storms raging in your mind, your eyes bring peace.

Cancer: Your eyes search for the wounded with the neutral colours of fall, new beginnings of old traditions bring traces of red and gold into your dark eyes. You are the moon, you reflect what you see, you are the mirror of the hurting. You heal by bringing others back to earth with your deep stare.

Leo: Your eyes are brown sugar, the colour of bracken and brambles, or the colour of the night sky. Your eyes say “stay calm, I’m here and I know what to do”. They are guidance for the unsure, solace for the unappreciated, comraderie for the untamed. They are the colour of the wild.

Virgo: Your eyes burn with warm hues, reds and oranges are your hallmark. You seer purpose into others, your mutable tendancies scorching a thousand different colours into your irises. In your gaze others find purpose and comfort. Your eyes seem lighter than they are, and no one can say for sure exactly which colour. Your eyes are the colour of intrigue.

Libra: Your eyes, unlike most, encourage contact. Once someone catches your eye, they will continue trying to do so until it’s too late, and they’re pulled into the dark embrace. Your eyes are brown or blue, woven with red and silver. Your eyes are the most calming colours, magnetic. You capture and entrance with your sure and graceful stare.

Scorpio: Your eyes are dark and unafraid, a solid colour. There is no confusion when you hold the gaze of another, you won’t be the first to look away. Whether the colour of earth or ice, there is no question that your stare won’t be forgotten. You may be hard to pin down, but your irises give away all your secrets.

Sagittarius: Your eyes are filled with blue and green, staring into them is a vacation. Your irises sparkle with humour and wisdom, creating nostalgia for a place not visited yet.

Capricorn: Your eyes are brown or green, forcing anyone who meets them to focus. Your eyes inspire and scold within minutes, reminding all who looks into them of earth and fire. They say “steady now, I’ve got you”.

Aquarius: The two poles are at work in your eyes, either black and endless or icy and immediate. Your solid irises are cause for double takes and inquisitive glances everywhere, until it seems everyone is scanning you, trying to figure out where that colour came from. There is no questioning the ideas that shine within them.

Pisces: Your eyes glimmer with every colour, pearly hues seeping into the soul. Your gaze tells a story of gods and infinity, and your golden heart is visible beneath the swirling colours of the cosmic ocean.

*check sun, moon, and rising!!


A Brief Explanation Of Why Species Are Made Up And Genera Don’t Matter

actually this post is just on species but I can do one on genera later if the people want

So, in elementary school biology you were taught “A species is an organism and all of the other organisms it can breed with and produce fertile offspring”, or something along those lines.

But that’s actually BS. 

Imagine a population of turtles, stretching from one end of a continent to the other. For simplicity’s sake, we’ll say that the continent looks like this:

Turtles in A will interbreed with turtles in B, so they’re the same species. Turtles in B and C will similarly interbreed, so A, B, and C are all the same species. Turtles in C and D interbreed, turtles in D and E interbreed, and turtles in E and F interbreed. So they’re all one species, right?

Except turtles from A and F can’t produce viable offspring. They’re too genetically different.

So where does the cutoff happen? Where does one species become another species?

The answer is that it doesn’t. It’s a grade of genetic diversity.

Let’s look at another example: Lizards.

Many “species” of whiptail lizards are all female. There are no males. As such, they can reproduce only through parthenogenesis - a form of asexual reproduction. 

“A species is an organism and all of the other organisms it can breed with and produce fertile offspring”

Well, none of these asexual lesbian lizards lizbians for short can reproduce with any other organisms. Does that mean that they’re each their own species? 

“…introversion and extroversion are not actually related to how outgoing or shy we are, but rather how our brains recharge… Research has actually found that there is a difference in the brains of extroverted and introverted people in terms of how we process rewards and how our genetic makeup differs. The difference comes from how introverts and extroverts process stimuli. For extroverts, the pathway is much shorter. It runs through an area where taste, touch, visual, and auditory sensory processing takes place. For introverts, stimuli runs through a long, complicated pathway in areas of the brain associated with remembering, planning, and solving problems.”


So, here’s the thing about the Ryder twins: unless one of them is trans/NB (which could be a thing! but I’m not skilled enough to write it) then they’re fraternal twins, not identical. Which means they potentially have some very different genetics, and that their appearances could be VASTLY DIFFERENT from one another because one happened to get more traits from a given parent than the other, or one has a few mutations and the other doesn’t, or whatever.

Like, guys. Genetics is weird. So take this as permission from Andy to go nuts on your designs. Even if the game gives you Twin B’s appearance and name, don’t let it tell you what to do.

PS: she still doesn’t have a name set in stone yet. She’s a do-over of one of my GF’s characters and the name “Cirridwen” doesn’t exactly mesh well with “Theodore”. We’ve played them together before though, so we at least know their respective chessmaster personalities tend to mesh well.

anonymous asked:

Thank you for answering my question about disabilities last night! I agree that magic could probably take care of most injury-based disabilities, but what about congenital, developmental, and genetic disabilities? Were different neurotypes (like autism) celebrated? or considered a punishment from the gods?

That is an excellent question - I can tell you my assumptions on the subject but please note that I feel like I don’t have the proper knowledge to answer with any authority.

I would assume that in my setting those on the autistic spectrum would mostly just be thought of as thinking differently than others. I don’t think there would be a negative or positive connotation for the most part as I am not sure people would actually understand what autism was or even that many individuals were experiencing the same thing.

Let me read up on this a bit and get more informed before I make any decisions for the world, but that would be my initial instinct.

- DM Aram

anonymous asked:

Would you mind elaborating on the differences between race and ethnicity? I'm sorry if this is really stupid. Google wasn't particularly helpful either

It’s not stupid, nonnie. This sums it up pretty well:

Race is associated with biology, whereas ethnicity is associated with culture.

In biology, races are genetically distinct populations within the same species; they typically have relatively minor morphological and genetic differences. Though all humans belong to the same species (Homo sapiens), and even to the same sub-species (Homo sapiens sapiens), there are small genetic variations across the globe that engender diverse physical appearances, such as variations in skin color.

Although humans are sometimes divided into races, the morphological variation between races is not indicative of major differences in DNA. For example, recent genetic studies show skin color may drastically change in as few as 100 generations, spanning 2,500 years, as a result of environmental influences. Furthermore, the DNA of two humans chosen at random generally varies by less than 0.1 percent. This is less genetic variation than other types of hominids (such as chimpanzees and orangutans), leading some scientists to describe all humans as belong to the same race — the human race.

Ethnicity is the term for the culture of people in a given geographic region, including their language, heritage, religion and customs. To be a member of an ethnic group is to conform to some or all of those practices.

Race and ethnicity can obviously overlap, but they are distinct.


Evolving Different Skin Tone

@iamnotoneofthem asked:

I don’t know if this is a question you can answer (with it being more of a biology-related one), but maybe a follower can help! In my fantasy world, a (humanoid) species migrated to a different continent about ten to five thousand years ago. They came from a continent where skin colour varied greatly, resulting in diversity, and the group I’m asking about settled down in a desert. They each live for about 400-500 years. Would their skin colour adapt over twenty-two generations (max.) or not?

I’m pretty sure my dad is wondering why I didn’t go into hard sciences right now, for all I end up researching biology. Anyway! This is a topic I know a little about, so I will attempt to at least give you factors to consider.

Your question actually has a lot of layers in it, to the point I can’t really give a solid answer. My instinct is “maybe to no”, but my answer depends, based on how your species actually works.

First is why humans evolved diverse skin tones in the first place: sun protection. Dark skin means less vitamin D and ultraviolet light gets into the skin, which in turn lowers the risk of cancer and vitamin D poisoning (among others, but those are off the top of my head) when you get a lot of sun; this is why you find darker skin in populations in hot regions with minimal tree cover. Meanwhile, light skin lets in a lot of vitamin D, which is an advantage in northern regions that have weaker sun; they have a lower risk of cancer and don’t receive as much vitamin D because of their environment. If your humanoid group doesn’t need sun protection and/or doesn’t rely on vitamin D, then asking if they’ll evolve lighter or darker skin is completely moot.

Second is how evolution works. The basic principle is “evolution favours those who can pass on their genes more easily and more often.” As a result, people who hit age of maturity are favoured, and those who live in their age of maturity for an extended period of time and reproduce frequently are really favoured. You have a very long lived species, here, and we don’t know anything about how long it takes for them to be able to reach maturity and have a second generation (or how many kids they can produce), so ask yourself questions along those lines. Is there anything about their skin tone that would make it they struggle (or thrive) in their environment? Do they blend in better/worse so predators do/don’t find them, feel better/worse so they have/don’t have many children, don’t/do develop cancer so they die young or after a small amount of kids? All of those are valid reasons.

Third, you have to consider how quickly their genes mutate. As a general rule, long lived species are either really adaptable, really simple, or have a lot of advantages against shorter lived species from the gate, just because if they’re not one of the three then they struggle to survive if a major change hits. Really adaptable opens up the possibility they will mutate to fit their environment more quickly, which can either mean “body changes while alive” or “body has ways of making sure offspring get everything good I have,” so evolution happens faster. And having a lot of advantages means there just plain old isn’t much that kills them naturally, but it also means they don’t need to evolve much if at all.

Fourth, desert environments actually favour those who cover up. Take a look at those who live in the Sahara, and you’ll find they are a lot paler than you’d expect for being in the sun all day because their cultural clothing is billowy to trap cool air and make it they don’t get sandblasted in wind.

All that said, five to ten thousand years is actually the blink of an eye in evolutionary standards. The Inuit traveled to Canada’s North from Asia about that long ago, and their skin hasn’t changed at all. However, it is very important to note that their diet is extremely heavy in fish— which means they’re getting all the vitamin D they need through diet instead of their skin, so have had no genetic incentive to get naturally paler. 

So, really, it depends! If they don’t need dark skin as a species because they don’t rely on vitamin D and/or are immune to cancer (long lived species usually are, or at least have quite the resistance— cancer comes from a mutation of a cell’s replicators, and the older you get the more your cells replicate, so the more likely it is they will scramble; cancer is basically another name for ‘broken cell replication that causes them to duplicate way too fast’. Certain lives-over-100 species of whales don’t get cancer, for example, so it’s more than plausible your species doesn’t), then they end up not having any incentive to change their skin tone. Also, if they end up with environmental factors that allow them to sustain whatever skin tone they had previous, such as diet or clothing, then it’s also moot.

But in general, 22 generations really is not that long. We’ve seen some level of extreme change in the past 3 generations, where we are getting significantly taller, but that is mostly medicinal and diet factors (both “we are eating better quality food thanks to genetic modification of food, and we are using growth hormones in food that in turn impact us”). I would say they’re more likely to have changed body shape and height based on environmental factors, but, it’s still really not a long time for anything to happen. There might be some beginnings of noticeable change in the newer generation, but nothing super drastic. 

Of course, if any more biologically inclined followers have input, please feel free to chime in!

~Mod Lesya

anonymous asked:

science stating that the races are different via genetics is not racist, it's just like saying irish people have different genetics than british people. what is racists is deciding to treat other human beings like shit for being different.

I know, trust me. The google definition of racism, though, would disagree, sadly..

Honestly it’s a little bit too vague for me; the one with the bullet point I mean.

I could honestly never shut up about genetic differences between yordles, and the different types there are. From the Ultra Fluffy yordles of the Freljord to the borderline hairless yordles of Shurima. 

Kled’s heritage is all over the place. His ancestors came from the Freljord, but his parents were Shurimans, who fled after the collapse of its empire. They made their home in the Pre-Noxian plains, where Kled was born and subsequently abandoned. 

olivertheheathen  asked:

What are your thoughts on race and IQ? Do you think IQ is an accurate measure of intelligence, and if it is, do you think it could be a reason why certain genetic groups behave differently(as a collective) and have different cultures.

IQ tests are bullshit.  Always have been.  Their applicability has always been in question and there are reports that they were never actually intended to measure intelligence at all, and he certainly hated how people were using his test.

“Some recent philosophers seem to have given their moral approval to these deplorable verdicts that affirm that the intelligence of an individual is a fixed quantity, a quantity that cannot be augmented. We must protest and react against this brutal pessimism; we will try to demonstrate that it is founded on nothing.”