genetic differences

anonymous asked:

Why everyone seems to be absolutely sure Renesmee will stay with Jacob? OK, I know she will, because it's Stephenie Meyer who's writing this (and her romantic endings are very previsible), but I think it would be more cool if Nessie just decided stay with Nahuel (or even stay alone) and Jacob's impriting shaped into friendship only.

I think the fundamental reason for assuming that Jacob and Nessie will marry is their biological compatibility. Canon makes a big deal of pointing out that Jacob and Nessie both have 24 chromosome pairs, and that Nessie has some of the properties of a werewolf: an unusually high temperature, considering her father is a vampire, and an accelerated growth rate. For a lot of readers, this felt like groundwork for an eventual, “They can reproduce!” reveal. 

(An aside: you know what else has 24 chromosome pairs? Potatoes. I’m still convinced that hybrids and wolves are too genetically different, chromosomes aside, to have kids, but I know I’m wrong.)

Personally, I’m with you: I’d much rather have Nessie date Nahuel, or one of his sisters, or a vampire, or some random human. Pairing off a tiny baby with a werewolf guardian who will become her boyfriend is not a fantasy I particularly enjoy. 

Humans are Weird: Genetic Diversity

What if aliens have very little genetic diversity and they all look the same and then they meet humans. Where we can look extremely different, have extremely different personalities. 

Alien Scientist, S’chern, was quite young for her age; she was barely 21 sols on her marine home planet. But the job was a new position and it came with proper accommodations. S’chern she was among the first Sapienologists in the universe and was tasked with discovering how humans worked. 

Humans, as they called themselves, were eyed warily by most of the galaxy. They had all heard the stories about their ferocity and endurance. Unless you were amongst the few exploring the uncolonized space, aliens didn’t interact with humans much. 

There were treaties and laws and visas, as the humans called them, allowing interplanetary travel, but very few took up on the offer. Younglings just barely out of their last metamorphosis, sporting shiny black shells,  would dare each other to go to Earth. Most would chicken out just as they were about to board the shuttle, refund their ticket, and walk back ashamed. Some, however, were daring enough to go through with it. 

Most of the travelers on the shuttle-pod to earth were explorers looking to hire humans for their crew. They were clad in bulky, gleaming red carapaces, indicating their command status. They were usually accompanied by soldiers who never left their side. 

The final group on the shuttle were scientists. Eager to study the planet and the humans and all forms of life. Unlike the recruiters, who stared stoically straight ahead, or the dared who whispered with another excitedly, S’chern reviewed her notes on humans. 

Reports varied with contradictions that seemed impossible. Captain Kirnik explorer of the frontier reported his humans as determined, capable, and surprisingly ruthless. 

Others said their humans were lazy, and bonded with all life forms, refusing to leave crew-mates behind. 

S’chern resolved to talk about the inconsistencies between reports to determine who was correct. 

After instructions were announced, passengers were placed into cryogenic sleep and were instructed they would be awoken on entry to the human’s solar system. 

Upon entering the solar system, S’chern retrieved her recording cube from its storage and examined it to make sure it was in working order. The others were still stirring from sleep. 

They arrived on Earth two hours after entry and the passengers were ushered off the shuttle. Despite the promises of a quiet entrance, a veritable sea of humans flooded the exit. They carried devices flashing lights that agitated their eyes and she hissed. Instead of discouraging them, it only seemed to make them want to take more pictures. And Hurried whispers ensued containing fragments of English she couldn’t understand. 

The humans wore colors of many types on their hair: Brown, Black, and even Red. S’chern had been told it was a human custom to change their hair color unnaturally. It seemed to be a common thing now. There were the reported pinks and blues, but mostly the aforementioned colors. 

They scattered by quickly into a quieter room that was mostly human free. There was a young human there with shiny black hair and her teeth were bared unnaturally the whole time. 

“It’s called a smile,” One of the more experienced recruiters whispered to her,  seeing S’chern’s horrified look, “It means they’re friendly.” 
She nodded wondering what creature bared their teeth to show friendliness. 

As she was a Sapienologist, S'chern was taken into a chamber where she would meet with a human scientist. There were a few preliminary questions, that she answered in halting English. 

“Greetings,” A human spoke in a mutilation of her original language, “I am Bill." 

"Hello human-Bill,” S'chern bowed her head in an indication of respect, “ I am S'chern." 
human Bill’s features were much different than the human with the terrifying ‘smile’ who had welcomed them. 

"Have you altered your features,” S'chern asked. 

“What?” Human-Bill seemed confused, “No,”
“But you look different from the other human,” S'chern said. 

“Goodness wait until they see dogs,” he remarked to no one in particular. 

“Dogs?” S'chern questioned, “Are these the canine companions you call pets?" 

"Yes. And to answer your earlier question, humans can look quite different. Different hair and eye color, as well as many other features, can vary.” He paused, “I take it your…species has little genetic variation." 

"No,” S'chern clicked her pincers, “ We shed our shells when we reach maturity and change them once more when we are around fifty Sols." 

"Interesting,” The human jotted something down on a device. 

“Now, for curiosities sake, let me show you some dogs." 
After typing something on the device he flipped it around to show an average canine. 

"That is a husky, a breed of dog.” He said. He then typed in something and showed another furred mammal significantly smaller. 

“That is also a dog,’ He said. 

"But they are so different; this has short fur and is much smaller. The other one was huge and had long fur.” S'chern was baffled. How could they both be the same species? 

Perhaps the differing opinions were right, the humans could be both. But How could you expect different ones to react in the same situation?  

After a few more dog identification games, S'chern just gave up. How could they hope to classify humans if they varied this much?  Humans were most definitely weird. 

3

“Chimera” Kitten

This is Quimera, a gorgeous gata from Argentina.Quimera may be what’s known as a Genetic chimera, a rare natural occurrence whereby an individual is made up of cells from at least two different original eggs. They fuse together to become a single organism, whose DNA is from two completely different individuals.

However she may be also be a mosaic, much more common in felines, which is only one individual egg that just happens to have different active genetic expressions in its cells. Only DNA testing would give the answer.

Either way, she’s just gorgeous! Her blue eye especially appears like some kind of precious stone, bright and beautiful and an utter contrast to her other eye. The colour split continues down her chest to her front legs, with the sides reversed.

Via BoredPanda/Ivea

fake fake fake
  • the clip starts with eva talking about causeries: humorous written piece that, in english, can be referred to as “talk of the town”. eva says she’s not good at it while noora says she doesn’t even know what it is. 👀👀👀
  • even before sana starts focusing on the carrot munching, from the very first second of the clip, the audio has a slight echo to it. which could just be the staircase in which they’re in but i’d think that the team would fix it in post-prod. i feel like they left it because it gives a daydreaming quality to the scene and sana’s pov. from the start, she’s not really listening.
  • carrot munching from the trailer
  • i’ve seen people comment that noora is eating too loudly, that’s not what it is.
    firstly: have you ever managed to eat a carrot silently? and secondly: the shot is to show how much sana is annoyed by noora now. when you hate someone, you tend to find every single thing they do annoying. suddenly, they breathe too loud, eat too loud, are just generally gross.
  • in my attempt to find out if there was a word for this phenomenon other than misophonia (as i understand it, misophonia is when you’re hypersensitive to certain sounds regardless of the context or person…i was looking for a word for when it happens only when you hate someone), i discovered a video of 5mn of carrot munching noises. here it is if you want to die.
  • the mcdonald’s discourse
  • sana looks outside at sara, vilde, and laila and…
  • …i’ll come back to this image later.
  • as sana focuses on noora and eva joining the group, she tunes out the noise around her just as when in prayer or when she was looking at yousef’s facebook profile. it seems that the music from sigur rós is used here as it was used in the other focusing scenes.
  • isak literally gets his nose into other people’s business (and i feel that almost everyone noticed immediately, despite how little of the frame it takes, because of the reading sense)
  • again, we have isak trying to reach sana and he says exactly what’s on sana’s mind: “has sara stolen all your friends?”

[cont. after the “read more”]

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Okay, I’ve had it

I see people posting videos of clown-mime and clown-jester hybrids and cooing about how “pretty” and “cool” they are, but this is NOT HEALTHY OR SAFE CLOWN HUSBANDRY! In fact, it’s downright dangerous for both you and your clown!

Clowns, Mimes and Jesters may be related, yes, but their genetics are quite different and mixing their genes together have an adverse effect on your clown when they come at odds with one another, causing a host of genetic health problems like giganticism, heart problems, higher rates of cancer, organ failure, bone degradation and neurological defects.

They’re also more aggressive, territorial, unfriendly and destructive than non clown hybrids. You’re super cool clown x mime hybrid is gonna more satisfied with attacking you than making invisible balloon animals.

Not to mention the process of making a clown hybrid in the first place, considering that Clowns, Mimes and Jesters are natural enemies of each other! Your clowns/mimes/jesters are more likely to maul each other than fuck each other!

SKAM S04E06 Clip 3 - Fake Fake Fake

EVA: I wanted to write a causerie, but I’m not funny at all. I think it’s really difficult.

NOORA: I don’t even get what a causerie is.

EVA: I was really struggling. It’s like.. It doesn’t even matter whether I have a good day when we have a mock exam. I feel like it’s..

[DIALOGUE FADES OUT]

EVA: Are you joining us? Sana!

SANA: Huh?

EVA: Are you joining us for McDonalds?

SANA: No, I’m reading for my mock exam.

NOORA: Okay. Should we buy you something?

SANA: No, no thanks.

EVA: Yes.. Talk to you later.

NOORA: Bye.

EVA: I’m sooo hungry.

NOORA: Me too!

ISAK: Have Sara stolen your friends or something?

SANA: Huh? No!

ISAK: No? Okay, I’m kidding. Fake, fake, fake, fake. Ugh, girls. Sara doesn’t even like Vilde.

SANA: How do you know?

ISAK: Because she talks shit about her.

SANA: To you?

ISAK: Mhm.

SANA: Are you and Sara friends or something?

ISAK: We were in a relationship.

SANA: That’s true. How could you even stand dating her?

ISAK: No, good question.. It wasn’t a very sexual relationship, to put it that way. We mostly chatted. Looking back on that relationship, I was more of an online therapist than a boyfriend. I would’ve loved some payment for all that time I spent reading shit talk about russ friends and stuff. I couldn’t give more of a fuck. Hey! Sister species are species which are determined morphologically?

SANA: No. Sister species are species which are similar in exterior traits, but which can be completely different genetically.

ISAK: I’m gonna go hang myself.

anonymous asked:

What the fuck are mushrooms what are they I have no clue please help

fruit but like. fungus fruit

like i wish i was making this up but like???? the reason they exist is for the same reasons fruit exists. like

fruit (meaning fruiting structures in this case, not fruits and veggies): 

-made by plonts

-basically just the expanded ovary of the plant after the plant has sexy times

-holds seeds, which are baby plants that are genetically different from the mother. when the fruit falls the babies use the food in the fruit to grow into new plants

mushrooms: 

-happen when two or more fungus living in the ground, in the wood, in whatever substrate the mushroom is growing on, have sexy times

-they dont really have typical sexy times?? like they just smash themselves together until they fuse and make a special arm thing made of cells with nuclei from all the fungi involved in the sexy fungus time

-the weird arm thing eventually grows up to above ground and develops into a mushroom with help from all the fungi parents underground

-the mushroom spits out spores. all the spores have recombined versions of the parents’ genes and are basically baby fungi cells. the mushroom pumps these out in the millions and they drift on the wind or whatever until they find a nice spot where they can live their happy fungus lives in peace. think about spores as seeds without the food for survival if it helps you???

-also a single mushroom can have up to 9 different parents

-and funguses can have literally 20k+ biological sexes so just smash that together and u prob have a baby one way or another 

-basically mushrooms exist so the fungi can reproduce spores in a way that can better get picked up and spread around. if they stayed underground, the babies wouldn’t be able to get anywhere; when the spores are pumped out above ground somehow, they can get picked up by the wind, rain, animals, whatever and can go find a better place to live. mushrooms are distribution organs. 

a good diagram (x): 

-also fun side fact scientists have learned that lightning strikes in some fungus patches greatly accelerate the rate of mushroom production in certain species, to the point where commercial mushroom farms shock some of their fungus patches to promote growth. we think this is an evolutionary thing that some species have developed in response to trees getting struck by lightning. like if a tree gets struck, the funguses around it are like guys we’re gonna get so much food omg and start reproducing because they can afford to if they’re about to get a giant dead tree to eat

fungi are weird man

Andres Rodriguez shot this creature dead on January 1st, 1986, in Sinaloa, Mexico out of fear that the animal would attack him. Rodriguez expected the big cat to be either a puma or a jaguar - the two large cat species in Mexico. He brought the body to a naturalist who examined it. The creature was the color of a puma, yes, but the limbs are too long and the body is too slim. This naturalist claimed that the cat is Mexico’s legendary large cat - the Onza. The Onza has been reported for centuries as a tawny colored cat with oddly long limbs. 

The body was sent to a lab and was subject to many tests that revealed that the feline was not just a malnourished puma - in fact, it had a perfect amount of body fat. It was not a crossbreed of two different species either. But the genetic tests did tell that it had no genetic difference from a normal puma. It is thought that the Onza is just a puma with a slight appearance change from normal. 

anonymous asked:

Are commercially bred fish (such as goldfish and bettas, who have been altered by humans for their pretty tails/colors/patterns) considered domesticated? Wikipedia classed them as such but I'd like a professionals opinion in conjunction with that.

Yes, they’re considered domesticated. Humans have kept them for multiple, multiple generations and selectively bred them to an extent that they are now very different genetically and phenotypically from their wild ancestors.

For example, the Prussian Carp

(Source)

Was eventually turned into multiple varieties of goldfish.

(Examples from here)

That’s the result of a long period of selective breeding. There’s some pretty strange shapes we’ve bred into those fish, several of them making me downright uncomfortable. Some of these fish can’t see in front of their face, they can’t see what they’re eating. They’re pretty, but I wish people would remember these things are alive too.

I was very keen on Bettas in my adolescence. I think the most I had was twelve at one point. I would classify them as domesticated as well, because we took a fish like this:

and bred them into these:

They’re genetically and phenotypically different from the wild type betta. It shows, too. Breeding half-moons and over half-moons is very challenging, especially if you’re using a ‘quality’ male. The volume of finnage they have to drag around is huge, and they breed by wrapping their body around a female and squeezing her. The female is lucky enough to have much shorter fins.

They are very pretty and I like them a lot, these little fish to actually have personality and attitude, but I also feel like going beyond super delta is too far.

The welfare aspects of breeding fish to such extreme shapes s generally overlooked, and will probably remain that was because fish are often viewed more like ornaments than like animals. I hope that changes, but I doubt it will happen very soon.

And I’d like to take a moment to indulge a pet peeve. Someone, somewhere, had the bright idea of taking my favorite species of fish, the beautiful pearl gourami…

… and inbreeding it to the point where we end up with creatures like this…

I mean, WHY did you have to do this? It just saddens me like you wouldn’t believe.

Just because we can do these things, doesn’t always mean we should.

10

Springhare

The South African springhare (Pedetes capensis), or springhaas in Afrikaans, is not actually a hare, but a rodent. It is one of two living species in the genus Pedetes, and is native to southern Africa. The East African springhare (Pedetes surdaster) was recognised by Matthee and Robinson in 1997 as a species distinct from the southern African springhare (P. capensis) based on genetic, morphological, and ethological differences. P. capensis from South Africa has fewer chromosomes (2n= 38) than does P. surdaster which has (2n = 40) and some other genetic variations. The East African springhare is found in central and southern Kenya and most of Tanzania.

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2

Sociable Celery//A recolour

the bad ombres are baack

  • don’t ask anout the name idk either
  • i’ve been pumping out content like mAd
  • it’s weird
  • requires this mesh by @ivo-sims :^)
  • 16 swatches
  • custom thumbnail (i think?)
  • tag me if you use this !!

::Download::

Human DNA: A history

DNA is an important part of modern crime evidence, but it is important to know when DNA is actually used in history, and the experiments it took to actually get DNA to be the robust science it is today. Hopefully this is helpful for your writing needs!


DNA Timeline

1866 – Gregor Mendel determines the principles of genetic inheritance

1902 – Sir Archibald Edward Garrod associated Mendel’s theories with human disease alkaptonuria (black urine or black bone disease, genetic disorder where the body cannot process the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine)

1944 – Oswald Avery, working with MacLeod and McCarty determines DNA as the “transforming principle”, while working with Streptococcus pneumoniae (bacteria causing pneumonia), it was determined that dead/heat-killed S-strain (which is lethal) can “transform” living R-strain (which is non-lethal) into lethal bacteria

1950 - Chargaff’s rules was developed by Edwin Chargaff, it basically states that there is a 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases, that adenine = thymine, and guanine = cytosine, an important rule for base pairings and the DNA double helix structure

1952 – Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase experimented with T2 phage and elemental isotopes; phosphorus-32 labelled DNA while sulfur-35 labelled the proteins; the progeny infected unlabelled bacteria, and since phosphorus-32 showed up, it confirmed that DNA is the genetic material

1952 – Rosalind Franklin uses X-ray crystallography to photograph DNA fibres

1953 – James Watson and Francis Crick uses Franklin’s crystallography and previous research material to determine the double helix structure of DNA

1959 – an extra chromosome 21 is linked to Down’s syndrome

1965 – Marshall Nirenberg worked with E.coli bacteria cells to determine how DNA is involved with RNA and protein expressions, he helped decipher the codons of the genetic code

1977 – Frederick Sanger develops a technique for rapid DNA sequencing, the Sanger sequencing is also known as chain termination method based on selectively incorporating chain-terminating dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs)

1984 – Sir Alec Jeffreys developed the multi-locus RFLP probes, a method to compare the variations in DNA of different individuals, leading way to genetic fingerprinting

1986 – The first use of DNA testing in a forensic case, using Jeffreys’ multi-locus RFLP probes for DNA typing to catch Colin Pitchfork, who sexually assaulted and murdered Lunda Mann in 1983 and Dawn Ashworth in 1986

1990 – the Human Genome Project begins, with the goal of mapping all of the 3.3 billion bases of the human genome, and the genome of other organisms, this project costed about $2.7 billion (this amount wasn’t calculated for inflation) and took almost 15 years to complete, compare that to now where it will take about $1000 to sequence the human genome and it will take about a day to do so

2013 – it was discovered that identical (monozygotic) twins actually have differences in their genetic make-up, with differences/mutations called Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs)

Things I used to believe about theatre and singing...

And why I don’t believe them anymore.

  1. The myth: I’m going to go to college and rapidly go to Broadway and live out my days performing in NYC.  The reality: Man, I have so much to learn.  Broadway is not the only goal, and only a very, very small number of actors ever get to perform there.  I can still have that as a goal (although my goals are very different now!) but I should stop expecting that it’s somehow the logical path that I will find myself on.  This career is way, way harder than I ever expected, and that level of theatre is one most of us only get to watch from afar.
  2. The myth: The people on Broadway are just particularly spectacular and special.  The reality : Everyone is spectacular.  The people on Broadway are there because they’re great, they know the right people, they were lucky, they worked their butts off…But they’re not unique.  There are thousands of other people who are at the same level as them who didn’t have the connection, who didn’t get lucky, and will never be on Broadway because of that.  
  3. The myth: When I watch people who are really, really skilled, it’s because they are just naturally better than me.  The reality: They worked their butts off and put so many hours into their craft, and that’s why they are so good.  It’s not a mystery.  You put in the work, you get the result.  No shortcuts.
  4. The myth: If I drink milk before I sing I will perish in a thousand singing hells.  The reality: Man, I’m not impacted by dairy when I sing, and I don’t need to be scared of consuming it.  Some people are very impacted by it.  It’s a personal thing and people’s different genetics will play into how much different substances impact their singing!
  5. The myth: I have to choose between belting and legit singing.  I can’t do both.  The reality: Heh, yeah, no.  I have to pick a technique that embraces both styles in a healthy, safe way.  I can have it all, but I have to be wise about how I choose my technique in order to have it all. 
  6. The myth: If I’m not on Broadway by the time I’m 21, I’m a failure.  The reality: See truth number one, but also…The people on Broadway are, on average, much older than you think they are.  ‘Nuff said.
  7. The myth: I won’t need a side job in order to sustain myself.  The reality: There are times my theatre can sustain me by myself, but even the best of us need secondary income for when we’re in-between gigs.  Even Broadway performers are not employed 100% of the year.  That side job doesn’t have to be waiting tables or retail, but it’s unwise to think I don’t have to do anything other than perform. 
  8. The myth: If I don’t like super obscure musicals, then I’m not a real musical theatre fan.  The reality: Wicked rocks.  I love Phantom of the Opera.  I’m allowed to like whatever I want.  
  9. The myth: According to almost every educator I ever encountered…”If you can do anything else other than theatre for a career, do it.”  The reality: This is asinine.  Actors are multi-faceted, intuitive, witty, smart people…  All of us could do other things with our lives.  There’s not a single one of us who couldn’t succeed in another field.  Not all of us will be mathematicians, no, but to say that the only way we should pursue theatre is if we can literally do nothing else?  Well that’s silly, because actors are badass and can do a lot of things.
  10. The myth: I will always have two months to rehearse all my shows.  The reality: Hahahahahaha, nope.
  11. The myth: I will love every single show I do, and every role will be fulfilling. The reality: Honestly, those are the special ones. Those are the ones that we go through all of this for.  But the reality is, I do lots of shows that I have no emotional connection to.  Where I don’t get sad when it’s done.  That doesn’t mean I work any less hard on it, or value it any less.  But not every gig is fulfilling artistically.  
  12. The myth: I can’t have a family, a pet, or a home if I’m an actor.  The reality: It’s true that if I went on a tour for a year, I couldn’t have a cat.  But if you want to prioritize those things, you can absolutely have them.  You can’t have everything, but if those things are important to you, you can make it happen by sacrificing some opportunities.
  13. The myth: I will always have an understudy for when I’m sick.  The reality: I’ve never had an understudy in my entire life.  
  14. The myth: If I just work hard enough, I will get the role.  The reality: There are way, way more facets to casting decisions than I will ever understand, so there is no reason to be hard on myself when I don’t get a role.  If I did my best, that’s all I can ask for–the rest is up to them, and I’m not a worse actor because I didn’t fit exactly what they were looking for, or someone fit it better.  
  15. The myth: Every cast will be as close as they were when I was in high school.  The reality: It’s a job, and while I do make friends doing my job, it’s very, very different than it was in high school.  You come together for a handful of weeks, work really hard and trust each other a lot, but often you then go off to your own life and don’t see them again until the next show.  And that’s okay!  If every cast was as close as some of my high school casts were and we were all as attached as we were back then, it’d be awfully exhausting and depressing every couple of weeks when a show ended.  So it’s really for the best.  
  16. The myth: I will never be able to sustain myself as a performer and I’m probably just kidding myself by trying to do this.  The reality: Bam, 18 year old Christine, what were you thinking.  You’ve got this, and you are exceeding your wildest dreams.  


What myths did you have in theatre that have been dispelled at one point or another?  I’d love to hear them!

Kenshi Yonezu's Monster Encyclopedia (Text Translation)

Kenshi Yonezu released his first book, Monster Encyclopedia, on December 10th, 2016. It’s a collection and expansion of a monthly series he did for the magazine ROCKIN'ON JAPAN, where he drew monsters and gave a short description of their ecology. Here are translations of all the descriptions from the book.

(Amazon.co.jp)

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#SkinCareGate?

I’m all about sharing notes with others especially when I find things that work and that’s what I’m finna do right about now. I wanna thank Zendaya, firstly, who did the lord’s work by spilling her skincare routine which is something I do as well. Y’all it’s crazy how simple this is and how fast it works. Let’s break it down with instructions and costs bc i know we’re all living on a budget (and if ur not, u can hmu)

DISCLAIMER: we all got different genetic makeup that makes us react differently to products. Always test things with a small amount to see how your skin handles it. What works for me might not work for you. But life is all about trial and errors, right?

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nature.com
Mummy DNA unravels ancient Egyptians’ ancestry
Genetic analysis reveals a close relationship with Middle Easterners, not central Africans.

“The tombs of ancient Egypt have yielded golden collars and ivory bracelets, but another treasure — human DNA — has proved elusive. Now, scientists have captured sweeping genomic information from Egyptian mummies. It reveals that mummies were closely related to ancient Middle Easterners, hinting that northern Africans might have different genetic roots from people south of the Sahara desert.

The study, published on 30 May in Nature Communications1, includes data from 90 mummies buried between 1380 bc, during Egypt’s New Kingdom, and ad 425, in the Roman era. The findings show that the mummies’ closest kin were ancient farmers from a region that includes present-day Israel and Jordan. Modern Egyptians, by contrast, have inherited more of their DNA from central Africans.

Archaeological discoveries and historical documents suggest close ties between Egypt and the Middle East, but “it is very nice that this study has now provided empirical evidence for this at the genetic level”, says evolutionary anthropologist Omer Gokcumen of the State University of New York at Buffalo.

The scientists obtained information about variations in mitochondrial DNA, which is passed from mother to child, from 90 mummies. Because of contamination, the team was able to acquire detailed nuclear DNA, which is inherited from both parents, from only three mummies.

Both types of genomic material showed that ancient Egyptians shared little DNA with modern sub-Saharan Africans. Instead, their closest relatives were people living during the Neolithic and Bronze ages in an area known as the Levant. Strikingly, the mummies were more closely related to ancient Europeans and Anatolians than to modern Egyptians.


Well this is fascinating