genetic differences

anonymous asked:

I read that north welsh and south welsh are more genetically different than English people are to Scottish people, cause welsh are the original britons 🙌

omg no way wtf 

fake fake fake
  • the clip starts with eva talking about causeries: humorous written piece that, in english, can be referred to as “talk of the town”. eva says she’s not good at it while noora says she doesn’t even know what it is. 👀👀👀
  • even before sana starts focusing on the carrot munching, from the very first second of the clip, the audio has a slight echo to it. which could just be the staircase in which they’re in but i’d think that the team would fix it in post-prod. i feel like they left it because it gives a daydreaming quality to the scene and sana’s pov. from the start, she’s not really listening.
  • carrot munching from the trailer
  • i’ve seen people comment that noora is eating too loudly, that’s not what it is.
    firstly: have you ever managed to eat a carrot silently? and secondly: the shot is to show how much sana is annoyed by noora now. when you hate someone, you tend to find every single thing they do annoying. suddenly, they breathe too loud, eat too loud, are just generally gross.
  • in my attempt to find out if there was a word for this phenomenon other than misophonia (as i understand it, misophonia is when you’re hypersensitive to certain sounds regardless of the context or person…i was looking for a word for when it happens only when you hate someone), i discovered a video of 5mn of carrot munching noises. here it is if you want to die.
  • the mcdonald’s discourse
  • sana looks outside at sara, vilde, and laila and…
  • …i’ll come back to this image later.
  • as sana focuses on noora and eva joining the group, she tunes out the noise around her just as when in prayer or when she was looking at yousef’s facebook profile. it seems that the music from sigur rós is used here as it was used in the other focusing scenes.
  • isak literally gets his nose into other people’s business (and i feel that almost everyone noticed immediately, despite how little of the frame it takes, because of the reading sense)
  • again, we have isak trying to reach sana and he says exactly what’s on sana’s mind: “has sara stolen all your friends?”

[cont. after the “read more”]

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SKAM S04E06 Clip 3 - Fake Fake Fake

EVA: I wanted to write a causerie, but I’m not funny at all. I think it’s really difficult.

NOORA: I don’t even get what a causerie is.

EVA: I was really struggling. It’s like.. It doesn’t even matter whether I have a good day when we have a mock exam. I feel like it’s..

[DIALOGUE FADES OUT]

EVA: Are you joining us? Sana!

SANA: Huh?

EVA: Are you joining us for McDonalds?

SANA: No, I’m reading for my mock exam.

NOORA: Okay. Should we buy you something?

SANA: No, no thanks.

EVA: Yes.. Talk to you later.

NOORA: Bye.

EVA: I’m sooo hungry.

NOORA: Me too!

ISAK: Have Sara stolen your friends or something?

SANA: Huh? No!

ISAK: No? Okay, I’m kidding. Fake, fake, fake, fake. Ugh, girls. Sara doesn’t even like Vilde.

SANA: How do you know?

ISAK: Because she talks shit about her.

SANA: To you?

ISAK: Mhm.

SANA: Are you and Sara friends or something?

ISAK: We were in a relationship.

SANA: That’s true. How could you even stand dating her?

ISAK: No, good question.. It wasn’t a very sexual relationship, to put it that way. We mostly chatted. Looking back on that relationship, I was more of an online therapist than a boyfriend. I would’ve loved some payment for all that time I spent reading shit talk about russ friends and stuff. I couldn’t give more of a fuck. Hey! Sister species are species which are determined morphologically?

SANA: No. Sister species are species which are similar in exterior traits, but which can be completely different genetically.

ISAK: I’m gonna go hang myself.

Andres Rodriguez shot this creature dead on January 1st, 1986, in Sinaloa, Mexico out of fear that the animal would attack him. Rodriguez expected the big cat to be either a puma or a jaguar - the two large cat species in Mexico. He brought the body to a naturalist who examined it. The creature was the color of a puma, yes, but the limbs are too long and the body is too slim. This naturalist claimed that the cat is Mexico’s legendary large cat - the Onza. The Onza has been reported for centuries as a tawny colored cat with oddly long limbs. 

The body was sent to a lab and was subject to many tests that revealed that the feline was not just a malnourished puma - in fact, it had a perfect amount of body fat. It was not a crossbreed of two different species either. But the genetic tests did tell that it had no genetic difference from a normal puma. It is thought that the Onza is just a puma with a slight appearance change from normal. 

anonymous asked:

Are commercially bred fish (such as goldfish and bettas, who have been altered by humans for their pretty tails/colors/patterns) considered domesticated? Wikipedia classed them as such but I'd like a professionals opinion in conjunction with that.

Yes, they’re considered domesticated. Humans have kept them for multiple, multiple generations and selectively bred them to an extent that they are now very different genetically and phenotypically from their wild ancestors.

For example, the Prussian Carp

(Source)

Was eventually turned into multiple varieties of goldfish.

(Examples from here)

That’s the result of a long period of selective breeding. There’s some pretty strange shapes we’ve bred into those fish, several of them making me downright uncomfortable. Some of these fish can’t see in front of their face, they can’t see what they’re eating. They’re pretty, but I wish people would remember these things are alive too.

I was very keen on Bettas in my adolescence. I think the most I had was twelve at one point. I would classify them as domesticated as well, because we took a fish like this:

and bred them into these:

They’re genetically and phenotypically different from the wild type betta. It shows, too. Breeding half-moons and over half-moons is very challenging, especially if you’re using a ‘quality’ male. The volume of finnage they have to drag around is huge, and they breed by wrapping their body around a female and squeezing her. The female is lucky enough to have much shorter fins.

They are very pretty and I like them a lot, these little fish to actually have personality and attitude, but I also feel like going beyond super delta is too far.

The welfare aspects of breeding fish to such extreme shapes s generally overlooked, and will probably remain that was because fish are often viewed more like ornaments than like animals. I hope that changes, but I doubt it will happen very soon.

And I’d like to take a moment to indulge a pet peeve. Someone, somewhere, had the bright idea of taking my favorite species of fish, the beautiful pearl gourami…

… and inbreeding it to the point where we end up with creatures like this…

I mean, WHY did you have to do this? It just saddens me like you wouldn’t believe.

Just because we can do these things, doesn’t always mean we should.

nature.com
Mummy DNA unravels ancient Egyptians’ ancestry
Genetic analysis reveals a close relationship with Middle Easterners, not central Africans.

“The tombs of ancient Egypt have yielded golden collars and ivory bracelets, but another treasure — human DNA — has proved elusive. Now, scientists have captured sweeping genomic information from Egyptian mummies. It reveals that mummies were closely related to ancient Middle Easterners, hinting that northern Africans might have different genetic roots from people south of the Sahara desert.

The study, published on 30 May in Nature Communications1, includes data from 90 mummies buried between 1380 bc, during Egypt’s New Kingdom, and ad 425, in the Roman era. The findings show that the mummies’ closest kin were ancient farmers from a region that includes present-day Israel and Jordan. Modern Egyptians, by contrast, have inherited more of their DNA from central Africans.

Archaeological discoveries and historical documents suggest close ties between Egypt and the Middle East, but “it is very nice that this study has now provided empirical evidence for this at the genetic level”, says evolutionary anthropologist Omer Gokcumen of the State University of New York at Buffalo.

The scientists obtained information about variations in mitochondrial DNA, which is passed from mother to child, from 90 mummies. Because of contamination, the team was able to acquire detailed nuclear DNA, which is inherited from both parents, from only three mummies.

Both types of genomic material showed that ancient Egyptians shared little DNA with modern sub-Saharan Africans. Instead, their closest relatives were people living during the Neolithic and Bronze ages in an area known as the Levant. Strikingly, the mummies were more closely related to ancient Europeans and Anatolians than to modern Egyptians.


Well this is fascinating

Kenshi Yonezu's Monster Encyclopedia (Text Translation)

Kenshi Yonezu released his first book, Monster Encyclopedia, on December 10th, 2016. It’s a collection and expansion of a monthly series he did for the magazine ROCKIN'ON JAPAN, where he drew monsters and gave a short description of their ecology. Here are translations of all the descriptions from the book.

(Amazon.co.jp)

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Many non-Jews have a weird fascination with us, because they believe we are unusually intelligent and successful. But here’s the thing:

1) It’s often ableist af and sorta dehumanizing, reducing us and our contributions to society to a supposed genetic difference. Ick!

2) This idea, that Jews are all very intelligent (read: cunning, calculating), or over represented in academia, is an age old antisemitic idea, even when it appears to be spun in a positive light.

doctorrichardstrand  asked:

i can't remember if this is still the q tax but: i learned that horses are more horrifying on a biological level than i thought! so i know that in quite a few dog breeds, partially or all white coats are linked with deafness/blindess. why is this only in certain breeds (dachshunds, dalmatians, etc) and not others? is this seen in other species?

Simply put, there are multiple different genetic mechanisms that can result in ‘white’ dogs. Some of these genes result in a lack of pigment in the fur only, but other genes are associated with issues like undersized eyeballs, or lack of pigment in the inner ear.

We don’t know all the genes that cause whiteness in dogs, but if it helps to simplify it think of white dogs like this:

  • Dogs that have colour, but have white on top
  • Dogs that have no colour (or patches of no colour)
  • Albino

Pigment isn’t just for decoration. An animal needs pigment in areas like the eye and inner ear to function. On the skin areas that are devoid of pigment are just white, but if you happen to have a white patch in your retina or inner ear you might be partially deaf or blind. This is why sometimes, some white dogs are associated with deafness and blindness. Some individual white genes are also associated with deformities of particular organs (eg eye), or a potential increased cancer risk.

Dogs that are actually coloured dogs with white over the top (eg White shepherds, Samoyeds, Maltese) typically have black (or brown) noses and pigment around their eyelids.

Dogs which genuinely lack pigment (either completely or in patches), often don’t. Their eyelids and nose are more likely to be pink.

These two pictured dogs are both white, but genetically very different and consequently have different risk factors.

Problems associated with lack of pigment are also seen in other species to varying extents. Lethal White Foals is probably the best known example.

Handedness arises from genes in the spinal cords of embryos

Our nervous systems have left-right differences that are important for correct functioning. Handedness is probably the best-known asymmetry arising from the development of the nervous system. This is observed very early on: embryos of eight weeks already tend to move their right arms more often than their left arms. At this ‘age’ signals are not sent from the brain to the arms yet, but only from the spinal cord. A few weeks later, left-right differences also become visible in the shape and size of the premature brain.

A team of scientists from the Netherlands, the UK and China searched for genes that contribute to left-right differences in the nervous system, in the period between four and eight weeks after fertilisation. The genetic analysis showed that the left and right sides of the spinal cord develop at different paces.

The left side of the spinal cord matures slightly faster than the right side. Sets of key genes that control growth and maturity were found to reach a more advanced profile of activity on the left side than the right. In the hindbrain, an area which is the predecessor for some adult parts of the brain, this was the other way around.

“This seems logical, since many nerve fibers cross over from one side to the other at the boundary between the hindbrain and spinal cord,” says Carolien de Kovel, lead author of the study and researcher at the Max Plank Institute for Psycholinguistics (MPI). “How exactly this left-right genetic difference in the spinal cord leads to right-handedness is, however, not yet clear.”

Clyde Francks, head of the MPI research group ‘Brain and behavioral asymmetries’ and Research Fellow at the Donders Institute at the Radboud University, explains, “We think that these very early left-right differences in the spinal cord may act to trigger some of the later asymmetries of the brain, such as the eventual dominance of the left hemisphere for language functions in most adults’.

Asymmetry and schizophrenia
"Around 85% of humans are right-handed; it seems the standard in human development,” De Kovel adds, “but genetic and environmental factors may provide alternative paths of development, such as left-handedness or two-handedness. Interestingly, disturbances in such asymmetries seem to be more common in people with psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia.”

Hence, De Kovel and her colleagues also compared the results of their study with genetic factors that influence the risk of schizophrenia. It was found that genes which exhibit the largest left-right differences in the embryos also tended to be involved in the risk of schizophrenia. “The findings do not prove directly that these genes cause schizophrenia by their actions in the spinal cord, because the same genes are also active in the grown-up brain. However this does provide us with clues on which we can base further research,” De Kovel explains.

2

As a scientist who studies blacktip sharks, I feel like it is my duty to inform others about this common case of misidentification.

The first picture is of one of my sharks, and the second picture is another species within its genus for which my shark is mistaken. Many people do not know that the blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus) and blacktip reef shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus) are two completely different species. First, the blacktip reef is found in the Indian and Pacific oceans, and they have limited ranges as they stay extremely close to their sites for many years. Conversely, the blacktip is worldwide along coastlines and migrates seasonally. As for visual differences, the black fin markings on the blacktip reef are much more prominant. The blacktips nearly always lack black tips on their anal fins, and their black markings fade significantly with age. Another notable distinction is coloring, as blacktips tend to have a gray/bronze coloring while blacktips are a paler, cream based color. A behavioral difference is that blacktips have been known to jump out of the water like a spinner shark (Carcharhinus brevipinna) in the presence of prey or when caught on a line (I have witnessed this first-hand when I caught my first juvenile). Genetically, the blacktip is actually thought to be most closely related to the blacknose (Carcharhinus acronotus) based on DNA studies. However, resolution of phylogenies for both species is far from happening.

There are two lesser known species (Australian blacktip and smoothtooth blacktip) that are not as easily distinguished. The Australian blacktip (Carcharhinus tilstoni) looks exactly like the blacktip and was only found to be a separate species due to genetic analysis and vertebral differences; it is found along the northern half of Australia’s coastline. The smoothtooth blacktip (Carcharhinus leiodon) looks like the blacktip reef shark and is exclusively found along the Arabian Peninsula coastline.

anonymous asked:

Does Priya have any behavioral issues because of her life as a street dog before you got her?

She has some quirks, but it’s tough to say where they come from – hard to know what might be tied to her experiences as a former street dog, vs. what is just stuff that pops up with dogs sometimes. (I lean toward the latter interpretation mostly.) She has some dog-reactive / dog-selective quirks, but that’s not uncommon for dogs in general. She has some resource guarding tendencies, which I can imagine were probably nurtured in her first year of life when she literally scavenged for a living – but resource guarding is an awfully common behavior for dogs who’ve lived in homes their whole lives too. She also countersurfs (surfbort, surfbort) and has crashed multiple holiday dinners, but that’s more about human failure to remove temptation.

Dear parents...

I am not you. We are not the same people. We don’t look at the world the same way. We choose different words. We take different steps. I can not and do not want to be you. You’re beautiful as individuals, as people, and God knows I love you to death, but I am beautiful too. And that beauty is not defined by the things we do similarly. It is defined by our differences. My beauty and it’s definition lies in myself, and it can not be framed by your norms. My beauty is mine. The words I choose are only mine. Some I share with the world, some I don’t. But the ones I do are mine to pick, and it’s not your job to pick me apart for choosing them. After all, they are doing no harm. Though they sometimes may be uncomfortable for you, they are still words worth saying. They are still an expression of the very person I am. And shouldn’t you get excited at the very thought of me wanting to express who I am? Aren’t you the ones who molded me? Shouldn’t you be happy that I’m growing and spreading outside your lines? Learning more about who it is that I am to myself and to the world? Shouldn’t you be jumping for joy every time you hear me sing my songs and not analyze and pick apart the words that make them? Shouldn’t you feel at ease for giving me roots like you did?

And shouldn’t you let me spread my branches?

Me and you are not „a we“. You say „this isn’t exactly our style“ but our style doesn’t exist. There’s mine and yours. There’s me and you. There’s loving each other for what isn’t the same in us as well as what is. You can’t fix me. I needn’t be fixed. I need to be loved. The only thing any of us essentially need is to be loved. Not for what we can agree on, but for what we can disagree on.

The Butterfly Effect

Originally posted by ksjknj

Chapter One, Chapter Two, Chapter Three, Chapter Four, Chapter Five, Chapter Six, Chapter SevenChapter Eight Chapter Nine, Chapter Ten, Chapter Eleven

Pairing: Kim Namjoon / Park Jimin 

Genre: ABO Dynamics - Werewolf!AU, Actor!AU

Rating: Mature

Author: Admin Kaycie

Words: 3.6K+

Series Summary: Kim Namjoon was no ordinary rising star, he was the star at the very top of the tree of fame. He was a man with a strict schedule, every moment of his life planned out immaculately. Park Jimin was a distant childhood friend in need of his protection - the only problem, he was a rare male omega, and also Namjoon’s mate. Will Namjoon be able to deal with a developing scandal, a career in trouble, and the advances of the mate that he is strictly prohibited from claiming?

Series Status: Completed

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