Why Did Hunter-gatherer Group in Europe Unexpectedly Disappear After the Last Ice Age?

A recent study has shown that a group of hunter-gatherers had survived the last Ice Age while living in the modern location of Europe, only to unexpectedly disappear about 14,500 years ago. Their mitochondrial DNA coincides with indigenous peoples in Asia and the Americas, but was wiped out in Europe. What happened to make this group of hunter-gatherers disappear from the region of Europe 14,500 years ago? How is it that they survived the chilling Ice Age only to fail to survive the subsequent warming?

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Quick and Simple guide for the new Poison and Toxic genes!


tumblr why are you making these blurry stop it. you looked just fine before what even

Scientists Discover That Eyes Are Windows To The Soul

The eye is the window to the universe, and some would say they are also windows to the soul… We have heard this phrase get passed around before: “The eyes are the windows of the soul”. People usually say this when they can see pain, anger, or some other emotion in somebody else’s eyes.  But recent research gives a whole new meaning to this phrase.  Eyes not only windows to emotions, they are windows to the soul.

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Color Wheel Expansion

Thanks for joining us for the fun tonight! I think we’ve kept the lid on this for long enough…

Our engineering team has been working on new tools to help us generate and implement genes in a much faster and more efficient manner that does not sacrifice the image and color quality we’ve come to value as part of our site’s style. These tools are being developed to make future gene implementation much easier, but also come with the added benefit of allowing us to expand our color wheel without also increasing artist workload exponentially.

We are currently working on converting our existing breed art templates into ones that will be compatible with our new tools. Every time we finish 10, we will be revealing a color. Some will be old, some will be new.

To answer your questions:

  • We are intending to only expand the color wheel once, as we would like to minimize the disruption to player’s breeding ranges.
  • New colors will go between existing colors on the wheel so that they are in places that make sense for their range. We will not reshuffle the wheel, and your ranges will remain close to the same, but expanded.
  • New colors will ONLY be able to be bred, hatched, and scattered for.
  • Example: If you had a Rose to Magenta range, you’re not suddenly going to have a green in there. It will be more pinks.
  • To remain fair to all of our players, only the original 67 colors will be available during account registration and new dragon creation.

How a single gene can influence your emotional reactions

Serotonin is one of the major neurotransmitters (i.e. chemicals) in the brain. It’s very connected to our emotions and so it’s not a coincidence that a lot of the drugs that are used to treat depression and anxiety act on the serotonin system in the brain. This is clearly a very important chemical for determining the nature of our emotional lives.

The serotonin transporter gene is involved with the regulation of serotonin in the brain. People are born with variations of this gene. The long variation (or “allele”) clears serotonin out of the neural synapse more efficiently. The short variation is less efficient, which lets the serotonin hang around a little bit longer in the synapse.

The short variation was originally considered a risk gene because it was associated with depression and anxiety — but it’s now being thought of as a sensitivity gene.

Do you have the emotional sensitivity gene?

Gene Editing Is Now Cheap and Easy—and No One Is Prepared for the Consequences
No one is prepared for an era when editing DNA is as easy as editing a Microsoft Word document.

In April 2015, a paper by Chinese scientists about their attempts to edit the DNA of a human embryo rocked the scientific world and set off a furious debate. Leading scientists warned that altering the human germ line without studying the consequences could have horrific consequences. Geneticists with good intentions could mistakenly engineer changes in DNA that generate dangerous mutations and cause painful deaths. Scientists — and countries — with less noble intentions could again try to build a race of superhumans.

There is enough DNA in an average person’s body to stretch from the Sun to Pluto and back, 17 times.

The human genome, the genetic code in each human cell, contains 23 DNA molecules each containing from 500 thousand to 2.5 million nucleotide pairs. DNA molecules of this size are 1.7 to 8.5 cm long when uncoiled, or about 5 cm on average. There are about 37 trillion cells in the human body and if you’d uncoil all of the DNA encased in each cell and put them end to end, then these would sum to a total length of 2×1014 meters or enough for 17 Pluto roundtrips (1.2×1013 meters/Pluto roundtrip).

How elephants avoid cancer

Elephants have evolved extra copies of a gene that fights tumour cells, according to two independent studies1, 2 — offering an explanation for why the animals so rarely develop cancer.

Why elephants do not get cancer is a famous conundrum that was posed — in a different form — by epidemiologist Richard Peto of the University of Oxford, UK, in the 1970s3. Peto noted that, in general, there is little relationship between cancer rates and the body size or age of animals. That is surprising: the cells of large-bodied or older animals should have divided many more times than those of smaller or younger ones, so should possess more random mutations predisposing them to cancer. Peto speculated that there might be an intrinsic biological mechanism that protects cells from cancer as they age and expand.

At least one solution to Peto’s paradox may now have been found, according to a pair of papers independently published this week. Elephants have 20 copies of a gene called p53 (or, more properly, TP53), in their genome, where humans and other mammals have only one. The gene is known as a tumour suppressor, and it snaps to action when cells suffer DNA damage, churning out copies of its associated p53 protein and either repairing the damage or killing off the cell.

Abegglen, L. M. et al. J. Am. Med. Assoc. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.13134 (2015).

Sulak, M. et al. Preprint at bioRxiv http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/028522 (2015).

Multiple copies of a tumour-suppressor gene help elephants avoid cancer. Theo Allofs/Minden Pictures/FLPA


Fake Tertiary Gene: Leaf

- The Leaf tertiary grants a dragon extra camouflage from enemy’s and prey. It has only recently been breed for a wider range of colors in designer dragons. Dragons in colder climates shed their leaves during the winter. For the leaves to remain lush and colorful these dragons must supplement their diet with iron and potassium. 

I drew this gene while in class and thought “oh if their can be gems on dragons, why not leaves?” I have to admit the line art is a bit rough but overall wouldn’t a leaf gene be the coolest?

Gene editing just got a big boost of support

CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing gives scientists the ability to directly modify or correct changes in our genome, especially ones that come from disease. When CRISPR is successful, it means that we can change a busted protein — like one from cancer or HIV — and fully correct the problem. Thanks to a new, high profile partnership, we just got one step closer to real world use.

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