general theory

A Total Solar Eclipse Revealed Solar Storms 100 Years Before Satellites

Just days from now, on Aug. 21, 2017, the Moon will pass between the Sun and Earth, casting its shadow down on Earth and giving all of North America the chance to see a solar eclipse. Remember that it is never safe to look at the partially eclipsed or uneclipsed Sun, so make sure you use a solar filter or indirect viewing method if you plan to watch the eclipse.

Eclipses set the stage for historic science. Past eclipses enabled scientists to study the Sun’s structure, find the first proof of Einstein’s theory of general relativity, and discover the element helium — 30 years before it was found on Earth..

We’re taking advantage of the Aug. 21 eclipse by funding 11 ground-based scientific studies. As our scientists prepare their experiments for next week, we’re looking back to an historic 1860 total solar eclipse, which many think gave humanity our first glimpse of solar storms — called coronal mass ejections — 100 years before scientists first understood what they were.  

Coronal mass ejections, or CMEs, are massive eruptions made up of hot gas, plasma and magnetic fields. Bursting from the Sun’s surface, these giant clouds of solar material speed into space up to a million miles per hour and carry enough energy to power the world for 10,000 years if we could harness it. Sometimes, when they’re directed towards Earth, CMEs can affect Earth’s space environment, creating space weather: including triggering auroras, affecting satellites, and – in extreme cases – even straining power grids.

Scientists observed these eruptions in the 1970s during the beginning of the modern satellite era, when satellites in space were able to capture thousands of images of solar activity that had never been seen before.

But in hindsight, scientists realized their satellite images might not be the first record of these solar storms. Hand-drawn records of an 1860 total solar eclipse bore surprising resemblance to these groundbreaking satellite images.

On July 18, 1860, the Moon’s shadow swept across North America, Spain and North Africa. Because it passed over so much populated land, this eclipse was particularly well-observed, resulting in a wealth of scientific observations.  

Drawings from across the path of the 1860 eclipse show large, white finger-like projections in the Sun’s atmosphere—called the corona—as well as a distinctive, bubble-shaped structure. But the observations weren’t uniform – only about two-thirds of the 1860 eclipse sketches showed this bubble, setting off heated debate about what this feature could have been.

Sketches from the total solar eclipse of July 1860.

One hundred years later, with the onset of space-based satellite imagery, scientists got another piece of the puzzle. Those illustrations from the 1860 eclipse looked very similar to satellite imagery showing CMEs – meaning 1860 may have been humanity’s first glimpse at these solar storms, even though we didn’t understand what we were seeing.

While satellites provide most of the data for CME research, total solar eclipses seen from the ground still play an important role in understanding our star. During an eclipse, observers on the ground are treated to unique views of the innermost corona, the region of the solar atmosphere that triggers CMEs.

This region of the Sun’s atmosphere can’t be measured at any other time, since human-made instruments that create artificial eclipses must block out much of the Sun’s atmosphere—as well as its bright face—in order to produce clear images. Yet scientists think this important region is responsible for accelerating CMEs, as well as heating the entire corona to extraordinarily high temperatures.

When the path of an eclipse falls on land, scientists take advantage of these rare chances to collect unique data. With each new total solar eclipse, there’s the possibility of new information and research—and maybe, the chance to reveal something as astronomical as the first solar storm.

Learn all about the Aug. 21 eclipse at, and follow @NASASun on Twitter and NASA Sun Science on Facebook for more. Watch the eclipse through the eyes of NASA at starting at 12 PM ET on Aug. 21.

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Are you interested in watching Adventure Time, but intimidated by the thought of watching 252 episodes? Have you watched the series before, but want to watch again without any filler episodes (unless it’s Bubbline, of course)? This is for you!

After seeing a request in the ATimers tag, I have compiled a list of all the Adventure Time episodes that contain major plot, important backstory, major characterization, and/or Bubbline moments. I have also included optional episodes that I think will increase your understanding/enjoyment of the show (I put the reason next to it; if it says something about being an arc, backstory, characterization, etc., be warned that not watching may make the major plot points of the show a bit more confusing for you). 

I condensed the show down to 128 of the 10-minute episodes (69 episodes if you don’t watch any of the optional episodes). Optional episodes are in italics. Episodes with Bubbline moments, characterization of Marcy/Princess Bubblegum (PB), or major backstory/plot related to Marcy/PB are in bold. Anything with a an asterisk (*) can be watched at any time (order doesn’t matter, though you may still want to watch it in the same season). 

I hope this helps someone out since I spent three hours putting it together! Without further ado… 

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anonymous asked:

coolest physics thing that u know??

The coolest physics thing that I know keeps changing over time. But here is one that is extremely fascinating ( and also exaggerated for the effect ; but true! ):

Person living at the top of a skyscraper experiences time faster than one at the bottom

It is a known fact that the higher you are in the earth’s ** atmosphere, the lesser the effect of gravity is.

But the lesser the effect of gravity is, the faster the time ticks.

By how much you ask? Even if you live on the top floor of the Burj Khalifa  your entire life, you would have aged more only by a few milliseconds than your friends at the bottom. 

( Sure, doesn’t seem like much, but hell would break loose if we don’t consider this on the bigger scale of things )

This is known as Gravitational time dilation and is at the foundations of General Theory of Relativity. (More about this in an upcoming post)

Have a great day and thanks for asking!

EDIT: ** Lets just say hypothetically the earth is not spinning( just to ignore special relativistic effects) and we are looking at only the effects of height.

The Dragon Angus Theory

I don’t know how many people know about this particular TAZ Theory but I discovered it last night in the TAZ Subreddit. There are thread discussions about this here and here. There could be more but these were the two I found.

In summary, the theory in general pertains to the fact that Angus might not be all that he seems, and that he might be a dragon in disguise. Specifically a Silver Dragon. Under the cut because this came out really long! (Don’t worry there’s a tldr at the bottom)

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Hubble Sees A Smiling Lens: In the center of this image, taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, is the galaxy cluster SDSS J1038+4849 and it seems to be smiling.

You can make out its two orange eyes and white button nose. In the case of this happy face, the two eyes are very bright galaxies and the misleading smile lines are actually arcs caused by an effect known as strong gravitational lensing.

Galaxy clusters are the most massive structures in the Universe and exert such a powerful gravitational pull that they warp the spacetime around them and act as cosmic lenses which can magnify, distort and bend the light behind them. This phenomenon, crucial to many of Hubbles discoveries, can be explained by Einsteins theory of general relativity.

In this special case of gravitational lensing, a ring known as an Einstein Ring is produced from this bending of light, a consequence of the exact and symmetrical alignment of the source, lens and observer and resulting in the ring-like structure we see here.

Hubble has provided astronomers with the tools to probe these massive galaxies and model their lensing effects, allowing us to peer further into the early Universe than ever before. This object was studied by Hubbles Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 as part of a survey of strong lenses.

A version of this image was entered into the Hubbles Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Judy Schmidt.

Image Credit: NASA/ESA
Caption: ESA


anonymous asked:

When the twins make an appearance in the cult flashback during Chapter 19, do you know what the symbols on their right arms represent? The one on Real!Ciel's arm looks like the alchemical symbol of mercury but I have no clue about the one on Our!Ciel's arm.

Ohh, I like this ask. Such tiny details are so interesting. And I love symbolism. :)

Okay, so you’re right, there seem to be symbols on each of the twin’s right arm in chapter 19. These marks only appear in that chapter (I think). Later, in other flashbacks (like chapter 62) we see bruises there but nothing that seems like a special mark.

First of all, I find it hard to tell who is who here. From the parting of the hair it rather seems like the right one is the twin but since this seems to be the scene where the twin is stabbed it could also be our Ciel… Difficult to say in this situation.

There’s also the possibility that it’s the same twin in both panels and that the mark is really just a bruise that changed its form over time because of new injuries or because older ones healed up. It’s definitely not a permanent mark because our Ciel doesn’t have it anymore (unlike the brand mark on his back).

But let’s assume it really is another symbol that the cultists branded or cut into the boys’ arms.

The left one kinda looks like a “P” and first I thought this just stands for ‘Phantomhive’. But part of the symbol could be hidden by the sleeve of his shirt. So let’s first take a look at the other symbol. I agree with you that it might be the symbol for mercury:

Mercury could fit quite well here. It can stand for the metal mercury often used in alchemy where it’s one of the three ‘elements’ of which everything else is made of (according to Paracelsus) where it represents the ‘soul’ and it’s one of the seven metals in alchemy associated with the seven classical planets and deities (source). Since the cultists may have used alchemy in order to summon a demon they might have marked one of their sacrifices with that symbol.

Mercury also fits with our Ciel’s brand mark quite well.

The brand looks similar to the Caduceus (without the wings). That staff entwined by two serpents is often associated with the Roman God Mercury (source).

And guess what animal mercury is represented by – it’s a serpent (source).

Finally, in astrology Mercury (the planet) is seen as the ruler of Gemini which would fit with the twins quite well, too.

So yeah, I think the symbol that’s on one of the twin’s arm could stand for mercury.

Now the other sign is more tricky. If the symbol on the one twin stands for mercury the symbol on the other twin probably doesn’t just stand for Phantomhive. I searched a few other symbols that could fit with mercury. And if we’re on the topics of planets maybe what looks like a P could stand for Pluto (there are different symbols for Pluto but both might fit here):

Or what might fit better with alchemy may be iron (associated with Mars) or copper (Venus) which are also two of the seven metals/planets (source). 

Since it’s hard to say what the symbol could represent I can’t really tell why one of the twins would have been branded by it. But maybe all of the children in the cult were signed with one of the symbols of these metals or planets if the cult were trying to use alchemy in order to summon a demon.

There may also be a connection to the seals of Solomon which are said to gain control over demons or used in order to summon a demon. There was this pentacle drawn on the floor around the altar where the twin was sacrificed on:

It looks similar to some of Solomon’s seals, namely those of Mars (left), Venus (middle) or again Mercury (right) (source):

So I assume these symbols that the cultists marked the twins with (and maybe the other children, too) were part of the preparation for sacrificing them in order to successfully summon a demon.

But really, though, Voltron/Night Vale crossover

Keith grows up in Night Vale.

It would explain his inexplicably strong sword skills at the beginning of the show (because seriously, I’d buy he knows how to fight but *sword*? Reeeeally???). It would also explain his affinity for deserts, shacks, conspiracy theories, and general willingness to just go along with the idea of random cave carvings psychically calling to him.  

Keith growing up with Uncles Cecil and Carlos

“Uncle Cecil?”  

“We’re related. Sort of. I think time travel was involved. I zoned out about halfway through Carlos’ powerpoint, to be honest.”

Cecil and his listeners being inexplicably aware of the Galra space war

“As all you listeners know, my beloved nephew Keith who is sometimes purple went off to fight an intergalactic space war last summer…”

Cecil somehow keeping up with intergalactic events 

“My beloved nephew Keith who is sometimes purple recently found out his mother was an alien. Oops, guess I forgot to tell him before he went off to school. Linear time is a troublesome thing…anyway, he’s apparently not handling his newfound heritage well.  He’s been getting into fights - more than usual (he is fighting an intergalactic space war, after all), withdrawing from his peers and just being plain moody.”

Just. Keith growing up in Night Vale.

ok so now that I saw a gif of the hug...

I realised that Belle was totally going in for a kiss there.

(gif mine, because I’m not sure on the etiquette here)

Anyway, see her hands? She was going for his face and then remembered “Oh, right, we’re not quite doing that yet”

You will tear this theory from my cold, dead hands, alright?

can humanity just admit we’re not ready to make robots look like eery, fleshy humans…

It makes me sad to see a machine being forced to stretch flesh over its face to visually satisfy the ‘in-theory’ general human population. 

Id put my entire trust in a friendly box of wires. Ill hold hands with a metal claw!!! heck id date a computer if it genuinely asked me out!!!! You dont have to smile for me to know ur happy!!!!!!!

Realism is not the way to go. Let the robots be themselves!! Down With the Uncanny Valley!!!!!

In Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, space and time are unified in a single entity called spacetime. This is the “stage” in which the laws of physics operate.

In Einstein’s theory, the presence of mass and energy warps spacetime, and it is this curvature that affects objects in the way we perceive as gravity. The basic idea is that while we see objects accelerating towards a mass by the effect of a force, in reality is just the object attempting to follow a straight line in this four-dimensional warped space described by General Relativity.

In other words, things fall because they are following a straight line in spacetime.

In usual illustrations, the bending of space is represented as a flat rubber-sheet with masses pressing down on it. This has always bugged me, as it didn’t really represent the nature of 3D space being curved, and it never really addressed the fact that time is also distorted near masses.

This is my first attempt at a better depiction of the effects of General Relativity. Here, we see a 3x3x3 section of an imaginary spatial grid (that extends throughout all of space) being distorted by the presence of a mass. At the intersections of the grid lines there are clocks that show the rate of passage of time at each point in space, relative to a far away observer.

Notice how the clocks near the mass measure time at a slower pace than the clocks further away from the mass.

The distortion of spacetime is real, and can and has been measured experimentally several times. Modern telecommunication satellites and GPS systems all make use of the predictions of General Relativity in order to function.

While bizarre and complex, General Relativity has stood the test of time, and is one of the most well-tested and successful scientific theories ever conceived.

Scientists just did something that even Einstein thought was impossible

  • Albert Einstein was smart, but he wasn’t always optimistic.
  • Scientists recently managed to weigh a star using his long-standing theory on gravity, even though Einstein himself thought it’d be impossible to pull off.
  • In the early 1900s, Einstein drafted the longstanding General Theory of Relativity, which explains the force of gravity.
  • The theory asserts that giant objects “cause a distortion in space-time, which is felt as gravity,” according to the website Space.
  • According to his theory, in the case of two stars perfectly aligned with the viewer, light can warp around the gravitational field of one star and allow the other star to be seen up close.
  • The curved light works as sort of a magnifying glass — yet it’s a phenomenon that humans have “no hope of observing,” Einstein wrote.
  • But thanks to modern technology like the high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope, scientists from the Space Telescope Science Institute were at last able to see Einstein’s theory at work on a small star. The details of their findings were published in Science on June 7. Read more (6/8/17)

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When you see a Black Hole 10000 times larger than our Sun and leave the spaceship to take a picture ✔✔💯👀📷🎥📹

When you accidentally fall into a Black Hole from your spaceship, but are okay with your inevitable death 😨😱😆😂

When the pilot sees you get incinerated at the event horizon, due to “Hawking’s Radiation”, and only your ashes are left. 💀💀👀😭👎👎

When you realize you didn’t instantly die because you passed through the event horizon unarmed, due to Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, and the gravitational pull of this huge black hole isn’t strong enough to spaghettify you, so you end up experiencing “Einstein’s Happiest Thought” bc you’re peacefully floating forward in time unharmed (until you eventually die at the singularity). 

When you existing in two places at the same time defy the law of Physics, stating information cannot be cloned.

When you remember because of Quantum Physics, information cannot be lost, therefore; all traces of your existence has to be left outside the black hole (ashes) even though you are alive and well inside the black hole.

When it turns out you aren’t violating this law of Physics because only one of you exists in both you and the pilot’s reality, and there is no one around to prove the existence of two of you.

When the copilot, still in shock, doesn’t want to believe you’re dead, so they try to look inside the black hole themselves, from safe distance, utilizing Quantum mechanics rather than relativity.

When the copilot has something up their sleeve called “Spooky action-at-a-distance” which allows them to collect samples of your ashes, to see what info its entangled with, in order to determine if you’re alive or if all your remains are across Hawking’s Radiation.

When you know no matter the answer, it will either break General Relativity or defy the laws of Quantum Mechanics.  

When science and technology isn’t fast enough or advanced enough to decode the entangled information, so no one will ever know if you’re really dead or alive bc the Black Hole will be long gone by then.

derbyluna  asked:

How visible will the stars be compared to a normal night sky if I'm in the path of totality? (Sun completely covered)

I’m not entirely sure, but you will be able to see some stars that you normally wouldn’t see. In fact, during the 1919 eclipse, Sir Arthur Eddington and others used our ability to see stars close to the Sun during the eclipse to help confirm Einstines’ theory of general relativity.