general theory

Using math to investigate possibility of time travel

Ben Tippett, a mathematics and physics instructor at UBC’s Okanagan campus, recently published a study about the feasibility of time travel. Tippett, whose field of expertise is Einstein’s theory of general relativity, studies black holes and science fiction when he’s not teaching. Using math and physics, he has created a formula that describes a method for time travel.

“People think of time travel as something as fiction,” says Tippett. “And we tend to think it’s not possible because we don’t actually do it. But, mathematically, it is possible.”

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The Dragon Angus Theory

I don’t know how many people know about this particular TAZ Theory but I discovered it last night in the TAZ Subreddit. There are thread discussions about this here and here. There could be more but these were the two I found.

In summary, the theory in general pertains to the fact that Angus might not be all that he seems, and that he might be a dragon in disguise. Specifically a Silver Dragon. Under the cut because this came out really long! (Don’t worry there’s a tldr at the bottom)

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ok so now that I saw a gif of the hug...

I realised that Belle was totally going in for a kiss there.

(gif mine, because I’m not sure on the etiquette here)

Anyway, see her hands? She was going for his face and then remembered “Oh, right, we’re not quite doing that yet”

You will tear this theory from my cold, dead hands, alright?

Are you interested in watching Adventure Time, but intimidated by the thought of watching 252 episodes? Have you watched the series before, but want to watch again without any filler episodes (unless it’s Bubbline, of course)? This is for you!

After seeing a request in the ATimers tag, I have compiled a list of all the Adventure Time episodes that contain major plot, important backstory, major characterization, and/or Bubbline moments. I have also included optional episodes that I think will increase your understanding/enjoyment of the show (I put the reason next to it; if it says something about being an arc, backstory, characterization, etc., be warned that not watching may make the major plot points of the show a bit more confusing for you). 

I condensed the show down to 128 of the 10-minute episodes (69 episodes if you don’t watch any of the optional episodes). Optional episodes are in italics. Episodes with Bubbline moments, characterization of Marcy/Princess Bubblegum (PB), or major backstory/plot related to Marcy/PB are in bold. Anything with a an asterisk (*) can be watched at any time (order doesn’t matter, though you may still want to watch it in the same season). 

I hope this helps someone out since I spent three hours putting it together! Without further ado… 

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But really, though, Voltron/Night Vale crossover

Keith grows up in Night Vale.

It would explain his inexplicably strong sword skills at the beginning of the show (because seriously, I’d buy he knows how to fight but *sword*? Reeeeally???). It would also explain his affinity for deserts, shacks, conspiracy theories, and general willingness to just go along with the idea of random cave carvings psychically calling to him.  

Keith growing up with Uncles Cecil and Carlos

“Uncle Cecil?”  

“We’re related. Sort of. I think time travel was involved. I zoned out about halfway through Carlos’ powerpoint, to be honest.”

Cecil and his listeners being inexplicably aware of the Galra space war

“As all you listeners know, my beloved nephew Keith who is sometimes purple went off to fight an intergalactic space war last summer…”

Cecil somehow keeping up with intergalactic events 

“My beloved nephew Keith who is sometimes purple recently found out his mother was an alien. Oops, guess I forgot to tell him before he went off to school. Linear time is a troublesome thing…anyway, he’s apparently not handling his newfound heritage well.  He’s been getting into fights - more than usual (he is fighting an intergalactic space war, after all), withdrawing from his peers and just being plain moody.”

Just. Keith growing up in Night Vale.


Charalgamate and NMT!Frisk belongs to @xxmileikaivanaxx!! ;D

In Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, space and time are unified in a single entity called spacetime. This is the “stage” in which the laws of physics operate.

In Einstein’s theory, the presence of mass and energy warps spacetime, and it is this curvature that affects objects in the way we perceive as gravity. The basic idea is that while we see objects accelerating towards a mass by the effect of a force, in reality is just the object attempting to follow a straight line in this four-dimensional warped space described by General Relativity.

In other words, things fall because they are following a straight line in spacetime.

In usual illustrations, the bending of space is represented as a flat rubber-sheet with masses pressing down on it. This has always bugged me, as it didn’t really represent the nature of 3D space being curved, and it never really addressed the fact that time is also distorted near masses.

This is my first attempt at a better depiction of the effects of General Relativity. Here, we see a 3x3x3 section of an imaginary spatial grid (that extends throughout all of space) being distorted by the presence of a mass. At the intersections of the grid lines there are clocks that show the rate of passage of time at each point in space, relative to a far away observer.

Notice how the clocks near the mass measure time at a slower pace than the clocks further away from the mass.

The distortion of spacetime is real, and can and has been measured experimentally several times. Modern telecommunication satellites and GPS systems all make use of the predictions of General Relativity in order to function.

While bizarre and complex, General Relativity has stood the test of time, and is one of the most well-tested and successful scientific theories ever conceived.

When you see a Black Hole 10000 times larger than our Sun and leave the spaceship to take a picture ✔✔💯👀📷🎥📹

When you accidentally fall into a Black Hole from your spaceship, but are okay with your inevitable death 😨😱😆😂

When the pilot sees you get incinerated at the event horizon, due to “Hawking’s Radiation”, and only your ashes are left. 💀💀👀😭👎👎

When you realize you didn’t instantly die because you passed through the event horizon unarmed, due to Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, and the gravitational pull of this huge black hole isn’t strong enough to spaghettify you, so you end up experiencing “Einstein’s Happiest Thought” bc you’re peacefully floating forward in time unharmed (until you eventually die at the singularity). 

When you existing in two places at the same time defy the law of Physics, stating information cannot be cloned.

When you remember because of Quantum Physics, information cannot be lost, therefore; all traces of your existence has to be left outside the black hole (ashes) even though you are alive and well inside the black hole.

When it turns out you aren’t violating this law of Physics because only one of you exists in both you and the pilot’s reality, and there is no one around to prove the existence of two of you.

When the copilot, still in shock, doesn’t want to believe you’re dead, so they try to look inside the black hole themselves, from safe distance, utilizing Quantum mechanics rather than relativity.

When the copilot has something up their sleeve called “Spooky action-at-a-distance” which allows them to collect samples of your ashes, to see what info its entangled with, in order to determine if you’re alive or if all your remains are across Hawking’s Radiation.

When you know no matter the answer, it will either break General Relativity or defy the laws of Quantum Mechanics.  

When science and technology isn’t fast enough or advanced enough to decode the entangled information, so no one will ever know if you’re really dead or alive bc the Black Hole will be long gone by then.

Meanwhile On Starkiller Base, cont'd;
  • Hux: *Walking around minding his own business*
  • Hux: *Opens supply closet*
  • Hux: *Finds a giant framed picture of Darth Vader surrounded by roses and candles*
  • Hux:
  • Hux:
  • Hux:
  • Hux: Ben Fucking Solo What The Fucking Fuck
What we don’t know about black holes:

Of all the places in the entire universe, there is probably nowhere more mysterious than the inner workings of a black hole. This is because the two most accurate theories humans have ever created disagree about what happens in the center of one.

When a large star runs out of fuel, it no longer has the energy to resist its own gravity and starts pulling in on itself. If nothing stops the collapse before a certain point, the gravity will become so strong that not even light can escape. At this point, the star becomes a black hole; a massive celestial body that has the ability to tear apart stars.

For the most part, we have a good idea for what happens in the space around a black hole. Einstein’s theory of General Relativity tells us that black holes, as well as other massive objects, bend the fabric of space and time, leading to strange events such as time dilation. But the main point of controversy isn’t what happens around a black hole, but what happens in the very middle; the singularity.

General Relativity states that if a piece of matter falls into a black hole, it gets crushed into a single point in the center. Here, any information about what fell in is completely obliterated. However, quantum mechanics tells a different story. It is a well known rule in quantum physics that quantum information can’t be destroyed, and there must be some ambiguity to a particle’s position. Clearly, something is off here.

There are a lot of different theories that attempt to solve this riddle, often involving extra dimensions or new particles beyond the Standard Model, but none of them seem to be currently testable. But it’s possible that someday, someone will give us a new, testable theory, and it will give us insight into the inner working of black holes, and maybe even the first few moments of the Big Bang.

Black Holes: A Summary

I got asked this lovely question yesterday afternoon and instead of just answering it, I wanted to write a comprehensive post about black holes and their many intricacies.  So, here we go: let’s talk about black holes!


We’re going to work with General Relativity (mostly) because it simplifies these concepts down into something a lot more understandable.  General Relativity is the perception of gravity as not an inherent force, but instead caused by the curvature of spacetime, a two-dimensional interpretation of the four dimensions of Minkowski spacetime (space in x, y and z directions and time).  The extent of the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the mass of the object.  Quantum theory will come up briefly, but not in the creation of black holes nor in the analysis of their properties.  

We’re also going to assume that the black holes discussed are gravitational, static and eternal.  This means that the black holes have gravity generated by their mass, do not spin and do not deteriorate over time.  I will discuss black hole deterioration in a separate section, but that concept won’t be relevant in the earlier sections.  

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can humanity just admit we’re not ready to make robots look like eery, fleshy humans…

It makes me sad to see a machine being forced to stretch flesh over its face to visually satisfy the ‘in-theory’ general human population. 

Id put my entire trust in a friendly box of wires. Ill hold hands with a metal claw!!! heck id date a computer if it genuinely asked me out!!!! You dont have to smile for me to know ur happy!!!!!!!

Realism is not the way to go. Let the robots be themselves!! Down With the Uncanny Valley!!!!!

It might at first seem attractive to say things like “Marxism can’t explain everything and although it is useful in its particular domain it’s not enough to explain the experiences of xyz, etc.”—but there’s a few things that people forget or don’t realize when they say that.

First, people mistake Marxism for a specific set of conclusions. When we realize that certain issues like racial or national oppression cannot be strictly analyzed through the lens of some pre-existing categories within the Marxist “canon,” we may be tempted to say that Marxism has reached its limit here. I must insist in contrast that, while i certainly feel many of the conclusions typically associated with Marxism are correct, all of these conclusions could actually be wrong and Marxism would still be “true” in the sense that it is most fundamentally a revolutionary way of approaching problems and enacting social change

Second, what is particularly insidious about the idea that Marxism “doesn’t apply” to this or that is the broader implication—which is quite consistent with postmodern theory in general—that different “domains” of life require us to use different approaches, different methodologies, different systems, etc. Wittgenstein, for example, was one of the people who most rigorously argued this, and he held that different domains of life were playing different “language games” which each had their own logic. One conclusion that follows from this is that no domain of social life is really poised to evaluate the validity of the others or appeal to universal truths. This can seem like a compelling line of reasoning, especially since it aligns with the dominant ideology of late capitalism. But it begins to fall apart when one realizes that, to even be able to distinguish where different domains of social life lie and what separates them requires a “global” logic by which you make the distinctions. Proponents of the notion that there can only be “local” theoretical and political systems tailored to the specific conditions of different “domains” do not at all escape appealing to universals; they simply leave the universal principles upon which they base their conclusion completely unsaid, which i feel is extremely dangerous. At least with the liberal humanists, although they simply assert universality from on-high and base their notion on the most vague of abstractions, you know what their assumptions are.

So the question is, what do you hold to be universal? Because without universality, the notion of specificity literally has no meaning.

What do i think? Well, i think Marxism as a theoretical and political practice does have boundaries, but it is able to evaluate where its own boundaries lie utilizing certain principles which are universal. To be precise materialist dialectics contain statements about the very nature of existence which are of necessity global. The fact that materialist dialectics are the product of a concrete practice—namely, taking the standpoint of proletariat in the realm of theory—does not jeopardize their universal “reach.” In fact, i would say that the proletariat, a force which occurs at the point where the various contradictions of society fuse, is particularly poised to access the universal.

Further, the boundaries of Marxism as assessed under the framework of materialist dialectics are larger than many people assume. Remember that Marx does not simply presuppose social class and then analyze society through that lens. Marxism is ultimately interested in the social formation as a whole and in particular in the transformation of that social whole. Marx arrives at the concept of social class as a result (not as the point of departure!) of the study of the social formation in its entirety (which is also why he really only began to concretely articulate the concept of class near the end of his life). So, Marxism is immediately relevant whenever we are talking about the revolutionary transformation of social life. And i am convinced that it remains the best tool for catalyzing revolutionary change there is. After all, it is not a coincidence that the most successful revolutionary movements around the globe have either been explicitly communist or have at least tried to appropriate certain elements of Marxism to suit their purposes.

Long story short, Marxism as a whole “package” may have limits, but they are broader than most people assume, and within Marxism there are universal principles, without which it is impossible to even distinguish what is specific. 


Okay so I don’t know if someone has talked about that yet but this morning I thought about it so here it is.

From what I know and remember, it has been said, by the Russos and/or Renner, that Clint had mostly joined team Cap because “he was the first to ask”. It had always kind of bugged me, and now I’m convinced that Clint had actually been against the Sokovia Accords all along.

The gifset I made is here to proove my point. First I want to say that I know most people think Clint was already retired, and I agree that it might be the case. During Age of Ultron, he says, through a metaphora about house renovations, that battling Ultron is his “last project”. Then, he went back to his family and hasn’t been shown to come back, though being still in touch with at least Natasha.

But remember when Laura says “Then you’ll find another part of the house to tear apart”? Sure, Clint says after that that it’s his last project, but the fact that Laura mentions that she knows he’ll find something else after the current situation means he’s done that already. The very fact that he comes out of retirement to help Cap is a proof that he can’t stop, he always needs to help. But yes, maybe Clint went into retirement back then, right after Ultron. Makes sense considering he was to be a dad not long after. But then… Why would Steve ask if Clint signed the SA? If he’s already retired, he isn’t an Avenger anymore and don’t need to sign them. So this is where my theory (because let’s face it, that’s a theory and no less) lands, Clint didn’t retire after Ultron. He took vacations, some paternity leave maybe, but didn’t leave the Avengers for good.

Now I’d like to come back to the gifs. In the ones on the left, Secretary Ross mentions that if you don’t sign the Accords, or if you do something that doesn’t please the ones in charge, then you’re send to retirement. And on the right, Natasha mentions that Clint “says he’s retired”. Now if we consider he was already retired, there’s nothing about it. But if you consider he wasn’t, then it means something else entirely.

Clint says he’s retired. What a strange choice of words from Natasha. She doesn’t say he consider it’s not his business, nor that he puts his family first. She doesn’t say he’s signed nor that he hasn’t. She doesn’t say “You know he’s retired”. No she specifically quotes him saying “I’m retired”. Exactly what happens when you don’t sign. Now one can only imagine Clint asking Natasha what happens if he disagree, and upon hearing the answer, saying something like “Then I’m retired.”

I’ve seen a lot of people saying that Wanda is the reason he’s team Cap and I agree with them, but I also think that he wouldn’t have been that involved if he hadn’t share Cap’s opinion. Getting out of retirement, compromising himself, risking not to see his family (including a baby possibly not one year old yet) only because someone “asked first” doesn’t makes sense to me.

(++ When Tony comes to the Raft, Clint welcomes him with a great speech that includes “He knows what’s best for you, whether you like it or not”. Wait a minute. Knowing what’s best for someone, making them do things they might not want? Doesn’t that sound like what the Sokovia Accords are proposing? Yes it does. That’s a clear criticism of Tony agreeing with the Accords and what they imply, that would seem a little off coming from someone who came because “Cap asked first”. Clint isn’t some guy you feel with your opinion and he takes it, he makes his own opinions and he’s clearly against the Accords.)

So yes, things works well without this theory, but it had always bugged me, and I think it had always bugged some other Clint fans, so I tried to think about why it bugged me so much. I think I might have found it. At least it works for me.

I believe that each of the teachers was created by Roy himself, and as he continued making teachers, he kept trying less and less to make them, well, coherent.

The notepad spoke clearly, most of her vocabulary made sense, and the things she said could be taken seriously. The clock was similar, just a little… off.

The butterfly was pretty coherent, but not nearly as much as the Clock and Notepad were, especially when you listen to all of Butterfly’s friends. None of them make much sense, and the Story of Micheal was entirely senseless.

The computer was insane, with a hint of coherence. The kitchen gang was almost entirely nonsense, essentially spouting food and health words in any random order.

The lamp was particularly incoherent. Instead of even TRYING to teach some kind of lesson, all he did was spout things you could see in a dream. And the teachers that flashed on screen for short periods spouted utter nonsense before disappearing.

Tl;Dr., Roy created the teachers and as time went on, he got sloppy. He implemented the teachers in order of quality, best to worst.