gene activation

Genetic theory of Red Queen on Newbloods, Silver and Reds

Ok, so I have this theory since last year, and I didn’t know where I could share it, so this is it.
I just love genetics, and I tried (and succeed) on applying it to Red Queen world. I checked with my biology teacher, and she said it’s ok.
This is it. We have two kinds of blood (red and silver) and two kinds of state of power (active and inactive). I believe the red blood is the dominant gene, whereas the silver one is recessive. Therefore, I will represent the red blood as A and the silver blood as a. I also think the inactive power is the dominant gene and the active power is the recessive. So I’ll call the inactive power gene B and the active power gene b.
So, this how it looks like:
Red people: AABB, AABb, AaBB or AaBb
Newbloods: AAbb or Aabb
Silver people: aabb
Considering this, I was able to make some statements.
1) the Red-Silver segregation begun through a genetic mutation, either natural or induced (I believe it was induced, because technology has been improving so much for the past few years, and I wonder what we could do in the future)
2) Newblood would be Reds’ AND Silvers’ grandchildren. Aristocracy men used to sexually use poor women in the past, and the Silvers do think themselves as superior people. What would stop them? And think with me: a Red woman (AABB genes) and a Silver man (aabb genes) have a baby. This child will be AaBb, by the rule of Punnet’s square. The child would be a powerless red. But he/she would carry the genes with him/her. At a given time, they or their decedents would cross among each other (AaBb x AaBb) and there’s a chance this baby would be a Newblood. This is how the gene has been carried through generations and no one saw it coming until a red child have powers. Until Mare.
3) the absence of powerless Silvers can be explained by two forms, despite the fact the nobility and royalty have all aabb genes and have children among each other. The simplest one is lethal gene, which means that a fetus with aaBb or aaBB gene would be naturally aborted or could be a stillborn. The other explanation also explains why no Red woman had a child with silver blood (it could be possible if you cross AaBb x AaBb). It’s similar to the one when an Rh negative woman gives birth to a Rh positive child (she produces antibodies and the next child, if it’s also Rh negative, will be anaemic). So, a woman with AA of Aa genes cannot give birth to a child with aa genes, because it would kill the baby, naturally aborted or a stillborn.
4) as I said before, the recessive genes were passed through generations without being noticed, so it’s possible, as we see in the books, to ordinary red parents have a Newblood child. Let’s take the Barrow family as an example. Mare and Shade have the A_bb gene, so both Daniel and Ruth have the b gene, only one each other, which means their genes are A_Bb. They passed the b genes to Mare and Shade, but to Tramy, Bree and Gisa, at least one of them passed the B gene.
5) it’s possible the red blood has something the silver one doesn’t have. Julian tells Mare she’s Red and Silver, and stronger than both. So, Newbloods are more powerful than Silvers. This means that, in the Silvers’ blood, the b gene doesn’t manifest as it could. But, in the Red blood, it can fully developed, making the Newbloods more powerful. For example, Maven and Cal can only handle fire, whereas Mare can not only handle electric energy, but create it from the energy present in the air, as Elsa does in Frozen (a hell of example, huh). Another things that make me believe this is that, in the Silvers’ blood, the power is trapped to hereditary. Cal and Maven are siblings and inherited their power from their father, who inherited from his father, and so it goes until the begging of the Burning Crown. Otherwise, Mare and Shade are siblings, and their powers are completely different, once she’s an electricon and he’s a jumper. This makes me believe that the Newbloods’ powers are developed by a psychic and psychological condition completely susceptible to their mindset and personality.
So, that’s the way I found to explain to myself and whoever want to hear what’s the relation between Newbloods, Reds and Silvers. Of course, it’s up to Victoria to decide if this theory, a bit crazy but plausible, is correct or if I’m just out of my mind. Perhaps she has another theory, one she’s always based her book on and it’s going to tell us about it in the forth book.
Thanks for reading, seriously. I know it was a very long post, but I had to get it out of myself.

Cancer pt 1

A cancer-y overview

  • the second most common cause of death in developed countries 
  • 29% of all mortality (13% worldwide) 
  • 12.7 million cases, 7.6million deaths in 2008 
  • 14.1 million cases 8.2 million deaths in 2012 

Tumours originate in epithelial cells, cells of the blood and lymph system, connective tissue cells and neural cells

Hallmarks of cancer

Genetic Factors

  • Cancer Producing Genes are known as oncogenes - “Any mutated gene that contributes to neoplastic transformation” 
  • These genes are activated in cancer 
  • Often promote cell growth & survival 
  • “Remove the brakes” from normal tissue homeostasis 
  • Often repress cell death and differentiation
  • Result = lots more cells

Oncogenes

Prior to mutation these are known as “Proto-oncogenes”. Activation can occur by altering gene expression or protein structure (e.g. constitutive activation). Many common oncogenes promote mitosis/progress through cell cycle OR the evasion of death signals.

Activation is caused by genetic changes, including:

  • Point mutations: can result in production of an abnormally functioning protein product.  
  • Deletions: of a few base pairs to loss of an entire chromosome 
  • Gene amplification: resulting in excessive production of oncogene product 
  • Chromosomal translocations: gene is activated inappropriately by another promoter region; caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes

Active oncogenes are found in tumours and are thought to be early events in malignant transformation.

Environmental Factors

Carcinogenesis - the process of initiating and promoting cancer

  • Initiationirreversible genetic alteration of a cancer-related gene (oncogene or tumour suppressing gene (TSG)) 
  • Promotion – clonal expansion of the initiated cell (i.e. stimulation of growth) 
  • Progression – stable alteration of an initiated cell. Gaining ability to invade and metastasise 

Carcinogenic agents (will go into detail in future posts)

  • Chemical Carcinogens 
  • Dietary factors 
  • Biological 
  • Viruses
  • Physical 
  • Exposure to ionising radiation

Following exposure to a carcinogenic agent there can be a long latent period before neoplasia develops. This is because the steps of carcinogenesis must be in the right order (initiation, promotion, progression). eg if exposed to a promoter and then an initiator, all is good until exposed to another promoter after the initiator.

Not a Jihope post.

Okay, so I’m watching a drama called The Lovers (you can watch it on Viki) and i’m totally in love with THE BROMANCE in this drama !!! And it’s with TAKUYA FROM CROSS GENE *_*

KYAAAAAAAAAH I’M SO IN LOVE WITH THIS COUPLE THAT I HAVE TO SHARE MY HAPINESS WITH U GUYS >.<

This scene is from the 3rd episode of the drama and i can assure u that i became totally crazy *fangirling*

9

A quick comic with Michirou headcanons! Sorry about the rushed paneling orz;;;

When Michirou was 5, he got separated from his parents past the barrier, and was chased down by a horsemen. Ferid had heard news of a new seraph being born, and had sent a horsemen to lead him away from the barrier. Ferid approached him and tried to take him away, but Michirou panicked and his seraph gene activated. He ended up killing the horsemen, and Yuu and Mika found him covered in blood. Yuu went berserk when he saw Ferid, who laughed and disappeared. Yuu and Mika tried to get their son back, and Mika ended up with a scar from Michirou.

Though he doesn’t remember much about what happened, he’s been suffering from nightmares and panics attacks since then.


(Gyurei get your ass here and comfort him >w>)

Inhuman of The Day

September 21 - Quake

Daisy Johnson.  Super hero, high ranking member of the governmental organization, Shield, and the daughter of Calvin Zabo, the villain known as ‘Mr. Hyde.’   Daisy has the ability to create powerful concussive waves, similar to that of an earthquake.  Daisy has refined her powers so that she can localize these concussions in an extremely precise fashion, making her a very formidable combatant.  

Initially, it was assumed that Daisy’s powers were the result of the mutagenic serum her father used to become Mr. Hyde, passed down into her own genetic makeup.  It was later revealed, however, that Daisy is actually an Inhuman descendant and it is from this that she has gained her abilities (her latent Inhuman genes possibly being activated by way of the altered chromosomes passed down to her by her father).  

Daisy was recruited by Nick Fury Sr. into his caterpillar program.  Daisy was given the codename ‘Quake,’ and one of her earliest assignments was to accompany a selected group of heroes sent to Latvaria to overthrow the regime of Countess Lucia von Bardas (who had been secretly arming American super villains with advanced weaponry).  Later, following Fury’s ousting as commander of Shield, Daisy was made the field leader of Fury’s ‘Secret Warriors’ initiative, fighting a covert war against splintered factions of Hydra. 

Following the disbanding of the Secret Warriors program, Daisy was made a Level 10 agent of Shield.  She was additionally recruited into Captain America’s new team of Avengers.  In one of her earlier missions with The Avengers, she accompanied the team on a Shield joint task-force raid of an encampment of super-powered beings.  During the skirmish, Daisy learned that these beings were Inhumans and that she too was of Inhuman lineage.  She encountered an older Inhuman named Jiaying who was in the process of evacuating a number of Inhuman children.  Jiaying seemed to know who Daisy was and the nature of her parentage.  She pleaded with Daisy to allow her and the children to escape, fearful of what Shield would do to these children… how they would be separated from their parents and likely forged into weapons of war.  

Having experienced something quite similar herself, Daisy was moved by Jiaying’s pleas and she ultimately allowed them to flee.  This was an act that put Daisy at great odds with many of her colleagues at Shield as well as with her fellow Avenger, Iron Man.  Captain America, however, lauded Daisy’s decision, noting that it showed a level of compassion that was sorely needed among the hero community (all this had occurred shortly after the ‘Dark Reign’ era and the ousting of Norman Osbourn as director of Shield).  

Some time later, Daisy resigned from the Avengers and was promoted to the directorship of Shield.  Her tenure as director, however, proved to be quite short and she was soon ousted in a coup orchestrated by Maria Hill.  Daisy them went on to act as the partner of Bucky Barnes in his new role as Earth’s Secret Defender against other worldly threats.  

Daisy later returned to active duty at Shield.  Along with her other duties at the agency, Daisy was assigned the role as official liaison to the Inhumans of New Attilan.  

Daisy’s counterpart in the Marvel Cinematic Universe deviates a good deal from her story in the 616 universe.  In the MCU, Daisy grew up an orphan named Skye who possessed a great knack for computer programming and hacking.  She used these skills in an effort to track down her parents as well as investigate the various superhuman activities following The Avengers’ battle with the Chitauri in New York.  Skye’s activities with an illegal underground hacker network earned her the attention of Shield who ultimately apprehended her.  Deputy Section Director, Phil Coulson, had a keen interest in Skye, harboring knowledge of her past history.  Rather than turning Skye over to the authorities, Coulson chose to keep her on as a part of his team, assigning her training to Shield agent Grant Ward.  

Skye served with distinction as part of Coulson’s team, ultimately earning her the rank of an official agent of the organization.  When Shield fell after Captain America exposed and defeated the Hydra sleeper cell that had infiltrated the organization, Skye chose to join Coulson as he created a new Shield that operated under the radar, pursuing the remnants of Hydra.  

Throughout her various adventures with Shield, Skye came to learn more and more about her mysterious past.  She discovered that she had been born in a remote village in mainland China.  Some sort of terrible massacre had occurred at this village and the infant Skye was the sole survivor.  There was something different and possibly dangerous about her, but no one knew exactly what it was… and yet she was nonetheless classified on a Shield index of possible para-human threats (the reason why Coulson had shown such a keen interest in her).  Skye also discovered the identity of her father and was horrified to learn that he was a murderous and unhinged maniac who worked as an off-the-books doctor for the criminal fringe.  

Meanwhile, the competing forces of Shield and Hydra were in a race to discover the secrets of an alien artifact known as the Diviner.  The search led to an ancient underground city in South America that had been built by the alien Kree thousands of years ago.  Ward, Skye’s former C.O., had turned out to be a Hydra double-agent.  He abducted Skye and brought her to his Hydra masters, where she was finally introduced to her father, Calvin Johnson.  During this brief and unsettling reunion, Skye’s father explained that her real name was ‘Daisy’ and that her mother had possessed special gifts, gifts that she had passed to her.  The Hydra scientist, Dr. Whitehall, had taken Skye’s mother and murdered and dissected her in an effort to understand and possess her powers.  Her father added that he had sided with Hydra only to the extent that it gave him the opportunity to find and extract vengeance on Dr. Whitehall.  

Skye’s fellow Shield agents raided Hydra’s operation as they were attempting to enter the underground city.  Dr. Whitehall was shot and killed by Agent Coulson, enraging Skye’s father who felt that Coulson had robbed him of his revenge.  He attacked Coulson and Skye had to stop him, knocking him out before he killed Coulson.  

The other Shield agents had set charges, ready to level the ancient city.  Before they could trigger these charges, however, the Hydra agent, Raina, had absconded with the Diviner and fled into the city.  Overwhelmed by her need to know the true purposes of the Diviner, Skye pursued Raina into the city, ultimately catching up with her in an alcove that proved to be the chamber of Terrigenesis.  As soon as Skye had arrived, Raina placed the Diviner into position, causing it to open and expose them both to the Terrigen Mists.  Both Skye and Raina were encased in Terrigenic cocoons and a massive earthquake occurred when Skye finally broke free from the cocoon.  

Skye managed to survive this earthquake and was taken back to the Shield base and placed in quarantine.  At first it seemed that the mists had had no effect on her.  She did not change in any overtly physical way.  When her colleague, Agent Fitz, conducted tests on her, however, they learned that her DNA had been drastically altered.  Soon thereafter, Skye discovered her seismic powers.  She had a very difficult time controlling these powers and Coulson took her to a safe-house originally designed to contain The Hulk.  While residing at this safe-house, Skye was visited by the Inhuman known as Gordon who offered to take her to the sanctuary of ‘Afterlife’ where she could be among others of her kind.  

Skye declined Gordon’s offer, but called out to him once agents from a rival branch of SHIELD arrived to take her into custody.  Gorgon transported them both to Afterlife, hidden in a secure location somewhere in Asia. There Skye was introduced to Lincoln, an Inhuman electricity-manipulator assigned to help her navigate her post-terrigenesis transition.  Skye also met the leader of the inhumans of Afterlife, Jiaying, who ultimately revealed herself to be Skye’s mother (Jiaying’s Inhuman powers for regeneration had enabled her to survive her butchery at the hands of Dr. Whitehall).

Skye enjoyed a brief time of peace and happiness at Afterlife, getting to know her mother, better mastering her powers, and even reconciling with her father (who had also been brought to Afterlife).  This happy time came to an abrupt end when Lincoln was abducted by Hydra.  Skye returned to Shield to assist in a raid of a Hydra facility in order to rescue Lincoln who was being held along with Mike Peterson (Deathlocke).  Skye and her fellow Shield agents were able to defeat Hydra and save Lincoln and Peterson, but it came at the expense of Shield obtaining the technology needed to decipher the location of Afterlife.  
At the time, the two competing factions of Shield combined into one, headed by a committee.  After much discussion, Shield decided that Co-Director Gonzalez would lead a mission to Afterlife and attempt to forge a truce with the Inhumans under the condition that they allow all of the super-powered beings residing therein to be cataloged on their Index.  

Jiaying would not abide by this condition.  She murdered Gonzalez and staged it all so that it appeared as though Shield had launched an attack on The Inhumans.  Using this ruse, Jiaying orchestrated a strike, taking over the aircraft carrier that had acted as Shield’s main base of operations.  Jiaying planned on exposing all on board to the Terrigen Mists; those who were of Inhuman lineage would transform and all those who did not would be killed by the musts.  
Heartbroken, Skye discovered her mother’s murderous plans and she teamed up with Lincoln and her fellow Shield agents to stop Jiaying.  Assisted by Skye’s father, Shield was able to foil Jiaying’s plans and Jiaying herself apparently perished.  The remaining cache of Terrigen Crystals were knocked into he ocean where they sank to the seafloor.  

These crystals eventually broke down into a liquid, absorbed by many of the fish in the vicinity; a great number of these fish were caught by fishermen, sold and processed into Omega 3 fish oil supplements.  The Terrigen maintained its potency even when rendered in this fashion.  If consumed by normal humans it would have not effect, yet when consumed by individuals possessing latent Inhuman lineage, however, it would trigger Terigenesis.  Before long the proliferation of these supplements were causing the creation of new Inhumans all over the world.

Having gained much greater mastery over her powers, Skye (now going by her original name, ‘Daisy’) has taken on the role of leadership of a splinter group of Shield tasked with finding and protecting the various new Inhumans that are being created.  

Daisy’s Secret Warriors program recruited a number of new Inhumans.  Meanwhile, the body of the Hydra agent, Grant Ward, had become possessed by the spirit of an ancient Inhuman known as Hive.  Hive took over Hydra and enacted a complicated plot to expose the entire population of earth to a derivative of the Terrigen Mists.  

The agents of Shield were ultimately able to thwart Hive’s plans, yet Lincoln (whom Daisy had become romantically involved with) perished in the final battle.  Mourning Lincoln’s death and disillusioned by Shield’s acquiescence to index Inhumans, Daisy chose to leave the agency and strike out on her own.  Now dubbed a vigilante and wanted criminal, Daisy is being sought out by her former colleagues at Shield.  

Daisy’s ongoing adventures are set to be depicted in the upcoming fourth season of the Agents of Shield TV show.  Daisy’s character is portrayed by actress, Chloe Bennet.  

SUPREME GENERATION X

3/12

Monet St. Croix as “Monet”

Monet St. Croix is the second oldest of four children of the prestigious St. Croix family. Her father, Cartier St. Croix, is the president of multiple corporations and companies in his home country of Monaco and her mother, who’s identity and whereabouts remain unknown, was a descendant of Algerian royalty. Monet led a luxurious life and due to both her beauty and her intelligence, she quickly won the approval of her father. Though because of her spoiled lifestyle she developed a very pretentious and snooty attitude, she is still a very caring person. Since her father was a single parent, Monet often had to take care of her two younger twin sisters, Claudette and Nicole.

Her older brother Marius, however, was the black sheep of the family. Marius had a cruel soul and Monet would often find him torturing the neighborhood kids or animals and always intervened. When Marius reached adolescence, his X-Gene activated, granting him the power to drain energy from victims. Marius tried to recruit Monet to join him to escape their life of luxury and set off for world domination but Monet refused. Furious, Marius tried to attack his twin sisters and Monet once again intervened, but Marius was able to defeat her and sealed her in a small coffin-like prison in the basement that he nicknamed “Penance” that he used to torture others. Marius then detonated explosives in the St. Croix mansion and brought the building crumbling down and fled the scene.

The twins managed to escape and get help but it would be days until Monet was found. Monet was able to survive for a few days in the prison until she was almost at death’s door. It was here that Monet’s X-gene was activated and granted her superhuman strength, invulnerability, senses, and basic telepathy skills. Using the last bit of her strength she was able to break through the prison and rubble.

Traumatized by the experience, Monet adopted a cold and almost heartless front in order to hide her own insecurities and fears. Her father relocated their family elsewhere but could see that Monet was not happy. One fateful day, however, a business friend of Cartier, Emma Frost, approached him and Monet to recruit her for a spot in the newly constructed Jean Grey Institute for Higher Learning which she accepted.

At the school the students are divided into 3-person squads to train with. Monet, codename “Monet" is currently in the student squad called the Hellions which is the most aggressive of the student squads. The team is mentored by Co-Headmaster Emma Frost and consists of Monet, Piotr Rasputin aka Colossus, and Jubilation Lee aka Jubilee. Monet has developed a friendly rivalry with Jubilee and is excelling in all of her classes. She is also very good friends with Irma Torres aka “Cuckoo", and the two often go on shopping trips together. Monet, like her father, is Muslim.

Design Notes: Monet is one of my favorite characters. Her powerset is amazing and through the hard and rough exterior she is still a superhero and wants to help others. I took her current costume and tweaked it just a bit but otherwise pretty much the same!

Hello there!

This is a game development blog by @aquosboost detailing the progress they make with an RPG called CyBER. Made with RPG Maker VX Ace, the plot details a cyberpunk future where space travel was underfunded and advancements in healthcare, gene manipulation, prosthetics, personal weaponry, and even robotic citizenry were all successfully created - however, with the good of these things comes the bad.

Main characters Fybraux Santos, Nathanael Marzkov, Cyrla Maheswahn, Nyx Kyedo, and Aevangel Onatah, all wake up one morning in an active gene manipulation facility only to discover that somebody has been manipulating genes for their own ends - mutating other people to suit their own desires. As the adventure stretches on, they find that there’s more to it than just a few kooks mutating innocents…

A demo may take a long time to put up, considering the amount of Free Time Events I need to do, alongside some bug checks. I cannot give an ETA on a demo currently, but as more progress is made, I may be able to give a demo.

I hope that I can bring you an exciting experience!

- Aeris

SUPREME MARVEL HEROES #1

(My “heroes” series will be superheroes that act on their own accord and do not belong on any team)

Valerie Jones aka “Spinneret”


Valerie “Val" Jones is currently a college student at NYU pioneering the university’s new library and information science program. Since she was a child, Val had always wanted to become a librarian to follow in her mother’s footsteps and wanted to pursue her secret passion of becoming a superhero. Val had always admired the actions of the now-retired superhero Spider-Man and was an avid collector of any type of Spider-Man collectable. She would frequently imagine herself as “Spider-Girl”, another spider-themed superhero that would continue the heroic legacy. During her teenage years, Val’s X-gene was activated, granting her the mutant powers of enhanced strength, agility, and durability. During this time, Miles Morales had donned the mantle and name of Spider-Man and had begun fighting crime. This inspired Val to create her own makeshift costume and fight as “Spider-Girl”. During a confrontation, Val ended up saving Spider-Man’s life and Miles rewarded her valiant efforts with meeting the original Spider-Man himself, Peter Parker. Peter then decided to gift Val with her own set of web shooters, as well as strength enhancing gauntlets to further amplify her strength.

With his blessing, Val decided to make her own name as a superhero and dropped the “Spider-Girl” name and went with “Spinneret”, which is the alias she currently goes by. She has been invited to many superhero teams but has refused all invitations though she is often called up as a reserve member of the Avengers. She currently fights crime with her fellow student and best friend Cindy Moon aka “Silk”.

Design Notes: So ever since superheroesincolor posted about the spin-off spiderwoman who was also a librarian, I have been creating my own reboot/revamp of that character. For her costume I basically stole the color pallet from Spider-Gwen but mixed up the levels of the colors on the costume. Also shout out to nostalgiacloud because she did an amazing job with her rendition of this character too and you should definitely check it out. 

SUPREME YOUNG AVENGERS

8/8

David Alleyne as “Prodigy”

David was born in Chicago, Illinois and quickly built a reputation in the area as a genius. David was a natural learner, completing high school level courses while still in middle school. In addition to his academics, David picked up a vast array of skills to keep his thirst for knowledge at bay. Electronics, biology, and linguistics were just a sample of areas he delved in. During his teenage years, David had his X-Gene activated during puberty, granting him a limited form of telepathy where he is able to acquire skills and knowledge of the individuals around him. However, this information would be lost when his target has left his vicinity.

Over the years, David struggled with this flaw in his powers. Recently, David has developed a supercomputer in the form of a visor that is capable of storing information that he obtains from his mutant powers for later use. However, his visor can only store so much information before it overloads and is unable to retain any more new information. Thus, David strategically loads/unloads certain skillsets he has obtained over the years that he deems helpful for the mission at hand.

His genius level intelligence caught the attention of SHIELD and he was asked to join the Young Avengers Initiative, which is a program that seeks out young superpower heroes and provides them guidance under the tutelage of Janet van Dyne aka “Wasp” and James Rhodes aka “War Machine”. On the team, David goes by the codename “Prodigy”.

Design notes: I dig his New X-Men/Mutants look a lot so I decided to go with the white gold feel. And who doesn’t like sleeveless outfits?

SUPREME X-MEN

7/8

Anna Marie as “Rogue”

Anna Marie grew up in Jackson, Mississippi, where she led a relatively normal life. She was a rebel and frequently ran away from home to a point where her family and friends nicknamed her “Rogue” which she decided to go by. One fateful day, Rogue kissed her boyfriend only for her X-gene to activate and grant her with the ability to absorb energy and memories via touch. Her kiss was enough to put her boyfriend in a coma, and she decided to run away from home yet again, only this time to never return. Rogue wandered aimlessly through the South just getting by until she was approached by the Brotherhood of Mutants, who invited her to join them which she accepted. However, during one of their battles, Rogue was up against Carol Danvers aka “Ms. Marvel” at the time but now known as “Captain Marvel”. Rogue’s mutant ability reacted strangely to Carol’s alien hybrid powers and resulted in Rogue permanantly duplicating Carol’s powers onto herself, granting Rogue the ability to fly as well as super strength and invulnerability.

This fight left Carol crushed, and seeing what consequences her actions had Rogue, used her new powers to her advantage and fled the Brotherhood. She was later tracked down by Carol, herself and the two talked and Carol managed to forgive Rogue and brought her to the Avengers where she was granted a place on the team. Over the years the original Avengers roster and team had dissolved into almost nothing, which led Rogue to pursue her own solo career. When a new Avengers team was formed by Nick Fury, led by Sam Wilson and Monica Rambeau, she decided against joining as she desired to help young mutants. Fortunately, she was soon approached by Scott Summers aka Cyclops and was offered a position on his new X-Men as well as a guidance counselor and Avengers liaison for the Jean Grey Institute for Higher Learning which she graciously accepted.

Design Notes: Not much to say here. I basically kept her 90s cartoon design which I love.

3

There’s actually some real science behind Deadpool

In the film, Deadpool acquires his powers from a dangerous experimental cancer “treatment” designed to activate mutant genes. Oxygen deprivation leaves him with regeneration abilities and scars all over. While oxygen deprivation wouldn’t cause such scarring, there is a ton of science behind cancer and regeneration. Meet the axolotl salamander.

Follow @the-future-now

SUPREME GENERATION X

5/12

Billy Maximoff as “Wiccan”

Billy is the son of Supreme Sorceress Scarlet Witch aka Wanda Maximoff and an unknown mage from Sri Lanka. He was raised by Scarlet Witch in New York City and throughout his childhood he was taught basic magic spells and hexes. During his teenage years, Billy came out as gay at his school and was subjected to a lot of bullying. The mixture of his multiracial status and his homosexuality caused a stir with the bigots at his school. When his bullies physically assaulted him, his X-gene activated and Billy developed the mutant ability to generate electric blasts which he was able to ward off the bullies with.

Upon learning of his son’s newfound powers, Wanda decided to begin training him in magic. However, his training was interrupted when Director Nick Fury recruited his mother for the new Avengers team. She then left Billy in the care of the new Jean Grey Institute for Higher Learning where he is now able to better control his mutant powers in addition to his magical powers. Billy is a naturally gifted student and is able to pick up knowledge fast as well as absorb it.

At the school the students are divided into 3-person squads to train with. Billy, codename “Wiccan" is currently in the student squad called the Paragons which is composed of the brightest and strategic of the students. The team is mentored by Instructor Kuan-Yin Xorn and consists of Wiccan, Hisako Ichiki aka Armor, and Jeanne-Marie Beaubier aka Aurora. Wiccan has developed a close friendship with Hisako and the two often hangout after school. In addition, he has also been tutoring Colossus in spells as he has shown some affinity for magic.

Design Notes: Hey look! So I decided race bend Billy because south asians are rarely represented in comics. In addition, his outfit is just a weird combo of his two outfits that I liked haha. 

EDIT: So I guess it wasn’t clear but it was brought to my attention that my Billy reboot’s ethnicity is not clear. I decided that instead of Billy being created as a result of Wanda’s reality warping powers, I thought it would be interesting to let her have a biological child, in this case with a Sri Lankan Desi Jew. So his ethnicity in this reboot is a quarter Roma, a quarter Jewish, and half South Asian, and his religion is still Judaism. I realize I did end up reducing the minority ethnicities Billy was before, but I decided that I didn’t want Wanda to be pegged as the “mentally ill” superhero and root Billy’s origin in that, and, coming as someone who is a mix of ethnicities, I thought it would be cool to see a superhero with a similar background. If you think this is offensive then please send me a message and we can discuss and I can edit/change it! Thank you!

Scientists discover why X chromosome lacks ‘housekeeping genes’

Men have one copy, women have two, but scientists have long puzzled over why the human X chromosome mostly contains genes that are active in a small number of tissues. Now, a team of researchers led by the University of Bath studying the evolution of this X chromosome has discovered why it contains such an unusual mixture of genes.

In humans, males have XY chromosomes, females have XX but only one of these is active, meaning that both sexes only have one active copy of the X chromosome.

Scientists discovered in 2002 that the X chromosome is unusual because it contains very few of the most important genes needed for basic cell function – dubbed “housekeeping” genes.

Now the team, a collaboration between researchers at the University of Bath and Uppsala University, along with members of the FANTOM consortium, have found out why.

They analysed the world’s largest compendium of data on gene activity (expression) and looked at how activity on the X chromosome compares with that on other chromosomes.

In a paper published in the journal PLoS Biology, they found that the peak level of gene expression on the X chromosome was under half that of other chromosomes where we have two functioning copies.

The study was led by Professor Laurence Hurst, Director of the Milner Centre for Evolution based in the Department of Biology & Biochemistry at the University of Bath.

He explained: “Since we showed that X-linked genes tend to be relatively tissue specific over a decade ago, the reason as to why the X chromosome is so odd has bugged me.

"In the end, we have found the answer to be quite simple. Whereas most chromosomes operate in pairs, meaning there are two copies of each gene in every cell, in contrast, we only have one active copy of the X chromosome.

"This means it is not sustainable for highly active genes to be on the X chromosome. Housekeeping genes tend also to be highly active – they just couldn’t survive on the X.”

The team also identified which genes have moved from the X to the other chromosomes over evolutionary time and those that have gone the other way.

They found that those genes that have migrated onto the X chromosome have much lower peak rates of expression that those making the reverse trip.

Hurst explained: “It’s a bit like traffic on a busy road – a highway with two lanes can have a lot more and faster traffic on it than a single lane highway.

"A consequence of having a single chromosome is that, like a one lane road, there will be gene expression traffic tailbacks on the X chromosome especially at peak periods. Hence our X chromosome will not be a tolerable home for the most highly expressed genes.”

The study also found that, unlike those found on other chromosomes, the more highly expressed genes on the X chromosome were less prone to increasing their expression level over evolutionary time.

Senior author Lukasz Huminiecki of Uppsala University commented: “This fits with our traffic analogy as, if there is a tailback, it is hard to increase the speed of the cars on the road.”

The team also found that there has been an evolutionary exodus of genes that are highly expressed at peak times from the X chromosome, suggesting these genes cannot function on this chromosome due to the fact there is only one active copy. For example, genes that are active in tissues such as the pancreas which secretes a large number of protein hormones, are noticeably rare on the X chromosome compared to the non-sex chromosomes.

Huminiecki added: “With the remarkable resolution of the FANTOM gene expression data, we have shown that none of the prior explanations resolves fully the mysteries of the X. For example, if you exclude genes expressed in tissues that are found in only one sex or are involved in making sperm, the remainder still have relatively tissue-specific activity.”

The work has implications for new medical treatments such as gene therapy as it suggests that replacement genes should not be inserted into the X chromosome because traffic tailbacks may limit the extent to which the gene can be expressed.

SUPREME GENERATION X

7/12

Betsy Kusanagi as “Psylocke”

Betsy is one of three children of the illustrious Kusanagi family. Her parents immigrated from Japan to Britain and were able to establish a successful technology company. However, while operating on machinery, an explosion took out both Betsy’s parents and the children, though left with a large sum of money, were split up among relatives across the globe.

Betsy was taken in by an aunt who lived in New York City which is where Betsy spent the remainder of her childhood. As she grew up she was offered the best possible education and developed a passion for physics. In addition, she picked up a wide range of martial arts and became quite adept and skilled with swords and knives. One day, Betsy’s X-gene activated granting her telepathy and the unique ability to form external mental energy. She uses this latter power to form psychic daggers which are not able to physically harm others but can disrupt electrical systems and cause intense pain or numbness in humans.

Kavita Rao and Storm were sent to recruit Betsy, but Betsy was kidnapped by a mysterious terrorist organization called Weapon X, who have been capturing telepaths across the globe. Unknown to our heroes, Weapon X has been seeking the perfect telepathic host for the mysterious force called the “Phoenix” who is set to return to Earth soon. However, Ghost Rider and Spider-Woman were able to infiltrate one of Weapon X’s facilities and rescue Betsy and left her in the care of the X-Men at the Jean Grey Institute for Higher Learning.

At the school the students are divided into 3-person squads to train with. Betsy, codename “Psylocke" is currently in the student squad called the Exemplars which is composed of the most cunning and ambitious of the students, specializing in stealth. The team is mentored by Instructor Ororo Munroe and consists of Psylocke, Maxwell Wang aka Quill, and Shiro Yoshida aka Sunfire. Psylocke uses her previous training and the stealth and combat training from Storm to be an outstanding leader for the Exemplars. She has often spars with Sunfire and, due to their ties with Weapon X, she has developed a close friendship to Irma Torres aka “Cuckoo”.

Design Notes: So I did away with Psylocke being a white woman trapped in a Japanese body and just made her Japanese. Psylocke’s costume is also completely based on her Uncanny costume and her scarf is clearly from a Kamen Rider haha. Psylocke is the main character in my  storyline for the first act of Supreme Marvel so she’s a biggie.