gate of europe

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Heidentor

Carnuntum, Austria

4th century CE

15 m. in height

Between 354 CE and 361 CE a huge triumphal monument was erected next to the camp and city. Contemporary reports suggest that Emperor Constantius II had it built to commemorate his victories. When the remains of Carnuntum disappeared after the Migration Period the monument remained as an isolated building in a natural landscape and led Medieval people to believe it was the tomb of a pagan giant. Hence, they called it “Heidentor” (pagan gate). 

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Arch of Augustus

Susa, Italy

1st century BCE

11.93 m long and 7.3 m wide


It was originally built at the end of the 1st century BC to record the renewed alliance between Emperor Augustus and Marcus Julius Cottius, a celto-ligurian ruler, made king and Roman prefect of the Cottian Alps. 

The arch has a unique arcade, in which the archivolt is supported by pilasters. The entablature rests on four Corinthian columns placed at the extremities of each corner, such that a quarter of each drum is embedded in the monument. The lowest architrave is composed of three bands of which the lowest band is thicker than the middle band, and this in turn is thicker than the top band. Above the architrave, a frieze composed of a bass relief stretches around all four sides. Above that is the cornice which has twenty-two corbels on each face and twelve on each side of the arch. The corbels’ panels are decorated with roses. On tob of that rests the attic, which displays an inscription on both faces.

Brandenburg Gate - Berlin, Germany 

Built in the 18th century, this neo-classical monument marked the start of the road from Berline to Brandenburg an der Havel. The design was based off of the Propylaea, the gate way to the Acropolis in Athens. The monument is 26m high, and 65m wide. Reliefs and Sculptures on the gate depict the tales of Hercules. 

The gate has five passages between its doric columns. The central passage, which is the widest, was reserved for royals. The adjacent passages were used by aristocrats. Ordinary citizens were only allowed to use the outer two passages. 

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Pont Flavien (English: Flavian Bridge)

Saint-Chamas, France

~12 BCE

25 m. in length


The bridge probably replaced an earlier wooden structure on the same site. It measures 21.4 metres  long by 6.2 metres wide.The two arches at either end, each standing 7 metres high with a single wide bay, are constructed of the same local stone as the bridge and are broader than they are tall. At the corners of the arches are fluted Corinthian pilasters at the top of which are carved eagles. Acanthus scrolls extend partway along the pediments, in the middle of which is an inscription that reads:

L·DONNIVS·C·F·FLAVOS·FLAMEN·ROMAE

ET·AVGVSTI·TESTAMENTO·FIEREI·IVSSIT

ARBITRATV·C·DONNEI·VENAE·ET·C·ATTEI·RVFEI

In translation, this means:

Lucius Donnius, son of Caius, Flavos, flamen [priest] of Rome and Augustus, has ordained in his will that [this monument] be built under the direction of Cauis Donnius Vena and Caius Attius Rufius.

The Dead Sea - Israel 

The Dead Sea is a 304m deep salt lake, bordered by Israel, Jordan, and Palestine, and surrounded by the Negev Desert. At 430.5 metres below sea level, the lakes shores are the lowest elevation point on earth. The lake is also one of the saltiest bodies of water on the planet. The high level of saline in the water gives rise to the sea’s name, as no fish or animals can survive in the incredibly salty waters. The salt content has made the Sea famous in other ways: for its healing abilities; and the ability for swimmers to float naturally on the surface.

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Arch of Augustus

Fano, Italy

9 CE


it was the principle gate of Colonia Julia Fanestris, a colonia established in the town of Fanum Fortunae (temple of Fortuna) by the Roman architect Vitruvius at the command of the Emperor Augustus, in commemoration of the victory over the Carthaginian general Hasdrubal Barca in the Battle of Metauro during the Second Punic War.

Constructed at the point at which the via Flaminia met the decumanus maximus of the city, the monument is dated to 9 CE by means of an inscription located on the frieze, with large characters carved in the rock which were once gilded in bronze. The inscription reports:

IMP. CESAR DIVI F. AVGVSTVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS COS. XIII TRIBVNICIA POTESTATE XXXII IMP. XXVI PATER PATRIAE MURVM DEDIT

Imperator Caesar Augustus son of a god, Pontifex Maximus, Consul 13 times, recipient of tribunician power 32 times, acclaimed imperator 26 times, father of his country donated this wall.

Faced with opus quadratum from blocks of Istrian stone, the monument consists of two minor lateral arches and a larger central arch: the keystone of the latter is decorated with an image of an animal which is no longer recognisable but which most probably depicted an elephant. The main body, still well preserved, supported a large attic which is now lost, with a Corinthian pseudo-portico, in which there were seven arched windows separated by eight pseudo-columns.

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Arch of Augustus (Parthian Arch)

Rome

20 BCE

he Arch of Augustus was the triumphal arch of Augustus, located in the Roman Forum. It spanned the road between the Temple of Castor and Pollux and the Temple of Caesar, near the Temple of Vesta. It commemorated the return of the Parthian standards and replaced the earlier Arch of Octavian built on the same spot in 29 BC, to commemorate the Battle of Actium (31 BC) against Mark Antony and Cleopatra.