gas producers

Colliding Galaxies in Stephans Quintet : Will either of these galaxies survive? In what might be dubbed as a semi-final round in a galactic elimination tournament, the two spirals of NGC 7318 are colliding. The featured picture was created from images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. When galaxies crash into each other, many things may happen including gravitational distortion, gas condensing to produce new episodes of star formation, and ultimately the two galaxies combining into one. Since these two galaxies are part of Stephans Quintet, a final round of battling galaxies will likely occur over the next few billion years with the eventual result of many scattered stars and one large galaxy. Quite possibly, the remaining galaxy will not be easily identified with any of its initial galactic components. Stephans Quintet was the first identified galaxy group, lies about 300 million light years away, and is visible through a moderately-sized telescope toward the constellation of the Winged Horse . via NASA

Read This, it will make your day!

If you yelled for 8 years, 7 months and 6 days you would have produced enough sound energy to heat one cup of coffee
(Hardly seems worth it.)

If you farted consistently for 6 years and 9 months, enough gas is produced to create the energy of an atomic bomb.
(Now that’s more like it!)

The human heart creates enough pressure when it pumps out to the body to squirt blood 30 feet.


A pig’s orgasm lasts 30 minutes.

(In my next life, I want to be a pig.)

A cockroach will live nine days without its head before it starves to death. (Creepy.)
(I’m still not over the pig.)

Banging your head against a wall uses 150 calories a hour
(Don’t try this at home, maybe at work)

The male praying mantis cannot copulate while its head is attached to its body. The female initiates sex by ripping the male’s head off.

(Honey, I’m home. What the…?!)
The flea can jump 350 times its body length. It’s like a human jumping the length of a football field.

(30 minutes..lucky pig! Can you imagine?)

The catfish has over 27,000 taste buds.

(What could be so tasty on the bottom of a pond?)

Some lions mate over 50 times a day.

(I still want to be a pig in my next life…quality over quantity)

Butterflies taste with their feet.

(Something I always wanted to know.)

The strongest muscle in the body is the tongue.

Right-handed people live, on average, nine years longer than left-handed people.
(If you’re ambidextrous, do you split the difference?)

Elephants are the only animals that cannot jump.

(Still want 2 b the pig)

A cat’s urine glows under a black light.

(I wonder who was paid to figure that out?)

An ostrich’s eye is bigger than its brain.

(I know some people like that)

Starfish have no brains
(I know some people like that too.)

Polar bears are left-handed.

(If they switch, they’ll live a lot longer)

Humans and dolphins are the only species that have sex for pleasure.

(What about that pig??)

Now that you’ve smiled at least once, it’s your turn to spread these crazy facts and send this to someone you want to bring a smile to, maybe even a chuckle.

In other words, send it to everyone!
(and God love that pig!)                              
Trump to pick oil ally Pruitt to head EPA
Pruitt has professed skepticism about climate change science, and his selection marks a major turning point for EPA.

As attorney general for a state that is one the nation’s biggest oil, natural gas and grain producers, Pruitt has been at the forefront of lawsuits challenging EPA regulations on carbon emissions and water pollution, and he is expected to lead the effort to erase much of President Barack Obama’s environmental agenda. Pruitt has also faced accusations that he’s unusually close to energy producers, including a 2014 New York Times story reporting that he and other Republican attorneys general had formed an “unprecedented, secretive alliance” with the industry.

Anti-fracking folks who refused to vote for Hillary:

The Hydrogen Clouds of M33 : Gorgeous spiral galaxy M33 seems to have more than its fair share of glowing hydrogen gas. A prominent member of the local group of galaxies, M33 is also known as the Triangulum Galaxy and lies about 3 million light-years distant. The galaxy’s inner 30,000 light-years or so are shown in this telescopic portrait that enhances its reddish ionized hydrogen clouds or HII regions. Sprawling along loose spiral arms that wind toward the core, M33’s giant HII regions are some of the largest known stellar nurseries, sites of the formation of short-lived but very massive stars. Intense ultraviolet radiation from the luminous, massive stars ionizes the surrounding hydrogen gas and ultimately produces the characteristic red glow. To enhance this image, broadband data was used to produce a color view of the galaxy and combined with narrowband data recorded through a hydrogen-alpha filter. That filter transmits the light of the strongest visible hydrogen emission line. via NASA

Nigeria Recovers $160 Million in Alleged Corruption Proceeds

Nigeria recovered more than $160 million in alleged corruption proceeds last week from four people, including $9.2 million from a former head of the state-owned oil company, said Information Minister Lai Mohammed.

“The biggest amount of $136.7 million was recovered from an account in a commercial bank, where the money was kept under an apparently fake account name,” Mohammed said Sunday in an e-mailed statement. The rest was from three others, including an unidentified former group managing director of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corp., according to the statement.

More from Abe, Trump Show Unity in Condemning North Korea Missile Test

President Muhammadu Buhari was elected in 2015 after campaigning to end widespread corruption in the country of more than 180 million people, one of Africa’s top oil and gas producers. Several former government officials, including army generals, are on trial for corruption, which PricewaterhouseCoopers estimated in a report last year could cost the country 37 percent of its gross domestic product by 2030.

“Whatever has been recovered so far is just a tip of the iceberg,” Mohammed said.

More from

Read Nigeria Recovers $160 Million in Alleged Corruption Proceeds on

Week 1: Kitchens

Hey everyone,

Last Tuesday the 24th of January 2017 was my first day in the kitchens developing the quinoa based pizza. For the first couple of weeks, I will be focusing on the base itself before I add any toppings. The aim of the first class was to produce a dough-like consistency mixture using quinoa, to get the mixture to rise upon proving, and for the texture to be soft on the inside and crisp on the outside.

Firstly, I soaked the grains for 12 hours before the class in order to remove the bitter saponins that can affect the taste. The water was then drained off. I then proceeded to blend the grains to form a dough. Once that was ready, I added in the fast acting yeast with corn starch. I added in the starch as quinoa is gluten-free (gluten is responsible for holding the gas produced during fermentation) and starchs can help increase the stability of the liquid film surrounding the gas bubbles. The mixture was then left to prove for 1 hour and 30 minutes. Upon removal from proving, the mixture had not risen. 

Here is a picture of the dough before cooking:

As you can see, dough is still quite wet but I was happy with the appearance and the consistency. Next I placed it in the oven to cook. 

Below is a picture of the quinoa base from week 1:

Although the mixture had not risen during proving, it slightly rose in the oven. The appearance is what I was aiming for colour and texture wise. The colour was brown and gold. The texture was smooth on the inside, with an aerated dough and crisp on the outside. I would like the appearance of the dough to be more smooth and flattened. In regards to sensory analysis, the taste was nutty, and had garlic and pepper throughout. The smell was earth like. I was happy with the texture. I want to improve the appearance and taste. 

Stay tuned to see how I improve the product next week!


Project Plowshare and Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy,

In the 1950’s scientists first proposed the idea of using nuclear weapons for peaceful purposes, essentially replacing TNT as the main explosive for moving earth, creating tunnels and canals, cutting paths through mountains for highways or railroads, and for other civil engineering projects.  Thus in 1961 Project Plowshare was created to study the use of nuclear weapons for peaceful purposes.  Between 1961 and 1973, 27 atomic bombs were detonated as part of the project.  Three were detonated to test the feasibility of using nuclear explosives to stimulate gas flow in a low permeability natural gas field. The study was a failure when it was determined that the natural gas produced was too radioactive for use. While the project was promising, it was doomed by the radioactive fallout that resulted after a nuclear explosion, thus making the results hazardous to the health of those who benefited from it. One of the most notorious tests was the underground Sedan explosion, conducted in Yucca Flat, Nevada on July 6th, 1962, to test the feasibility of using nuclear explosives for mining and excavating purposes.  The resulting blast ejected 12,000,000 tons of radioactive soil into the atmosphere, which spread as far as West Virginia, Ohio, and North Carolina.

Overall Operation Plowshare cost a total of $700 million.

Since the Americans were doing it, the Soviets had to do it too, except they had to do it bigger and better.  In 1965 the Soviet Union began the “Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy” project, which detonated 156 nuclear devices between 1965 and 1988.  Unlike Project Plowshare, the NENE project was done with practicality in mind.  Few of the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions were scientific tests, but were used to actually excavate mines, create canals, build dams, and conduct other works of engineering. Like Project Plowshare, radioactive fallout often negated positive results, although the Soviets gave much less of a damn about it than the Americans did.  Many of the explosions caused irreversible environmental damage.  20 years after the Kraton-3 explosion in Siberia in 1973, plutonium levels in the nearby waterways and aquifers were still thousands of times higher than recommended safe levels. The Chagan explosion conducted in 1965 (top picture) spread radioactive material across Asia as far as Japan. 


Hubble captures vivid auroras in Jupiter’s atmosphere

Astronomers are using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to study auroras – stunning light shows in a planet’s atmosphere – on the poles of the largest planet in the Solar System, Jupiter. This observation programme is supported by measurements made by NASA’s Juno spacecraft, currently on its way to Jupiter.

Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, is best known for its colourful storms, the most famous being the Great Red Spot. Now astronomers have focused on another beautiful feature of the planet, using the ultraviolet capabilities of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope.

The extraordinary vivid glows shown in the new observations are known as auroras. They are created when high energy particles enter a planet’s atmosphere near its magnetic poles and collide with atoms of gas. As well as producing beautiful images, this programme aims to determine how various components of Jupiter’s auroras respond to different conditions in the solar wind , a stream of charged particles ejected from the Sun.

This observation programme is perfectly timed as NASA’s Juno spacecraft is currently in the solar wind near Jupiter and will enter the orbit of the planet in early July 2016. While Hubble is observing and measuring the auroras on Jupiter, Juno is measuring the properties of the solar wind itself; a perfect collaboration between a telescope and a space probe [2].

“These auroras are very dramatic and among the most active I have ever seen”, says Jonathan Nichols from the University of Leicester, UK, and principal investigator of the study. “It almost seems as if Jupiter is throwing a firework party for the imminent arrival of Juno.”

To highlight changes in the auroras Hubble is observing Jupiter daily for around one month. Using this series of images it is possible for scientists to create videos that demonstrate the movement of the vivid auroras, which cover areas bigger than the Earth.

Not only are the auroras huge, they are also hundreds of times more energetic than auroras on Earth. And, unlike those on Earth, they never cease. Whilst on Earth the most intense auroras are caused by solar storms – when charged particles rain down on the upper atmosphere, excite gases, and cause them to glow red, green and purple – Jupiter has an additional source for its auroras.

The strong magnetic field of the gas giant grabs charged particles from its surroundings. This includes not only the charged particles within the solar wind but also the particles thrown into space by its orbiting moon Io, known for its numerous and large volcanos.

The new observations and measurements made with Hubble and Juno will help to better understand how the Sun and other sources influence auroras. While the observations with Hubble are still ongoing and the analysis of the data will take several more months, the first images and videos are already available and show the auroras on Jupiter’s north pole in their full beauty.


[1] Jupiter’s auroras were first discovered by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in 1979. A thin ring of light on Jupiter’s nightside looked like a stretched-out version of our own auroras on Earth. Only later on was it discovered that the auroras were best visible in the ultraviolet.
[2] This is not the first time astronomers have used Hubble to observe the auroras on Jupiter, nor is it the first time that Hubble has cooperated with space probes to do so. In 2000 the NASA/ESA Cassini spacecraft made its closest approach to Jupiter and scientists used this opportunity to gather data and images about the auroras simultaneously from Cassini and Hubble heic0009. In 2007 Hubble obtained images in support of its sister NASA Mission New Horizons which used Jupiter’s gravity for a manoeuvre on its way to Pluto opo0714a.


Fusil Modèle 1866

Design and Production

The Mle 1866 was designed in 1863 by French Alsatian gunsmith Antoine Alphonse Chassepot, following an idea he had submitted in 1856 to his employer the Manufacture d’Armes de St-Etienne about the use of a rubber obturator that would produce a gas-seal in the new bolt-action rifles.
Although this new type of breech-loader had only been developed anecdotally in most of the world by people like l’Hermite or Greene, Nikolaus von Dreyse had been working on his Zündnadelgewehr since 1821, and in 1864 and 1866, 23 years after the Prussians adopted the weapon as the Model 1841, this gun changed the way wars were fought by winning Prussia two wars against Denmark and Austria whose armies still used muzzle-loading Minié rifles. Using the self-contained paper cartridge developed by Frenchman Prélat and Schweizer Pauly in Paris during the Napoleonic wars, the Dreyse M1841 could be loaded and fired from a prone position with both accuracy and speed.

Dreyse M1841 needle rifle

France of course understood the need to step up its game immediately, and Chassepot’s rifle was adopted, named after him and issued to all branches of the French army as the Mle 1866 ‘Chassepot’ rifle. Its maker would go on to receive the Légion d’Honneur, France’s highest decoration, as well as 30000Fr for his invention.

Produced in every major gun manufacturing centers in France like St-Etienne, Châttelerault, Tulle and Chassepot’s hometown Mutzig in Alsace, as well as in several other countries like by Steyr in Austria, the Mle 1866 was widely available by 1870. Older Minié P1851 were converted using the Tabatière système so they could be breech-loaded with metal-and-cardboard centerfire cartridge - this was necessary to provide a sufficient gas-seal, however their ballistic properties were very inferior to that of a Chassepot.

Tabatière (snuffbox) conversion close-up

On the 3rd of November 1867, the Mle 1866 ‘Chassepot’ makes its first appearance on the battlefield, protecting the pope against the troops of Giuseppe Garibaldi and cutting his troops to ribbons. The extreme velocity of the 11mm (.43) caliber 25g (0.88 ounce/385 grains) bullets inflicted even more devastating wounds than the Minié bullets ever did, far from the smaller calibers introduced at the end of the century. In the French parliament, it’s reported that « Les chassepots ont fait merveille  », and the Swiss guard cleaning corp mops up the mess. Garibaldi would go on as a military commander in the Franco-Prussian war three years later through a series of what I can only assume were wacky misunderstandings.

Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, battle of Gravelotte


The booming cigarette paper industry in France meant that there was no shortage of material to make munition for the French Chassepot on the eve of war, which was actually one of his main selling point, as Snider-Enfield rifles and similar guns’ metallic cartridges were more expensive to manufacture for lesser or about equal ballistic properties. Things looked good for the Chassepot, and if not for the overwhelming superiority of Prussia’s Krupp artillery, it would have definitely be the decisive weapon in this decisive war for both countries. Of course Germany won and the Second French Empire lost, and Alsace was the reason France jumped in WW1 43 years later (you can quote other official reasons too but trust me that’s the actual one).
The antiquated Dreyse, although upgraded several time, was still no match for the French rifle. It was plagued by several key features ; the percussion cap of its cartridges was seated deep inside the powder charge at the base of the bullet, in an effort to optimize the barrel’s resistance to fouling, meaning the needle was constantly corroded and blew up after less than 100 shots, requiring field stripping the gun after prolongated fire ; the gas seal was poor in the best cases and inexistent in most, resulting in German soldiers being unable to aim down their guns and resorting to hip fire for most of the conflict, else they burn their amazing moustaches off ; it simply wasn’t as good as the Chassepot.
The Mle 1866 on the other hand had double the effective range due to the gas seal allowing for higher pressure in the chamber and thus more velocity and a flatter trajectory for the bullet. This was a slight trade off as the rubber gas-seal had to be changed every 80 or so shots, a process however that took less than a minute. Fouling was also an issue, but rarely to the point of impairing the gun’s performance in a single battle. It’s to be noted that these gas issues were all solved with the adoption of metallic cartridges and a diet rich in fiber a bit later in history.

Mle 1874 Gras rifle with gravity-fed magazine modification

This weapon thus marked one of the first step toward the trend of massive firepower that would confirm itself during WW1, with an accurate, fast-loading rifle that slowly spelled the doom of lined battles. It would went on as the Gras 1866/74 using a 11mm metallic cartridge, serving up to WW1 in border units and attaining notoriety under this name within the Greek resistance up to WW2.
That’s also my favorite gun ever -bounces
I never did know how to end an article. I wrote all that shit from memory with help from Wikipedia for dates and stuff. Have some additional pics.

the Mle 1874 and Mle 1866/74 Gras were identical in everything but their origin.

a Chassepot bayonet, with the distinctive yatagan double-curvature

a Gras bayonet

Come and witness my fifth court hearing concerning Cabot Oil and Gas, a billion dollar Gas Company suing Vera Scroggins, concerned resident and citizen of Susquehanna County.

I have been documenting with videos, photos, and  gas tours, of Cabot and other shale gas companies in my county since 2008. Unfortunately, they continue to industrialize our rural towns, villages, and expose us to the water, air, land pollution, in addition to heavy truck traffic.  The road damage caused by this heavy-truck traffic is the worst I’ve seen in my 25 years of residency.

I can not stand, stop or park within 100’ of a Cabot driveway, and cannot be within 100’ of their gas sites.

On Feb. 25, 2015, during a court hearing, Cabot produced a gas worker who testified under oath that I had violated these restrictions by parking on a Cabot driveway/access road in Dimock, Pa., on 1/16/2015.  However, he had no photographs of this eventhough he produced a photo of me legally at the next door neighbor’s driveway, where I have permission to be…

I have two witnesses and myself who deny that I was on or near Cabot’s driveway.  I was parked about 672’ at the next door neighbor’s driveway where I let out my visitors and waited for them to come back.  I have witnesses who testified under oath
that I was not with them on or near the Cabot driveway.

But Judge Seamans believed the gas worker more than us and found me in contempt.  This Thursday, April 23, at 1:30 I am to be sentenced.  He may be willing to hear and consider the testimony of additional witnesses on my behalf.

My intention has always been to follow Judge Seamans’ injunction.  Nevertheless, the Judge can order punishment of fines, jail, and legal costs that Cabot has incurred.

Also, at this hearing he will hear more testimony from both sides about whether to place a permanent injunction on me for the rest of my life.

Come and witness all the citizens who stand up to the abusive power of the shale gas industries and are willing to expose what is happening.

I am asking for all to hold a space of support, peace, light, and love, for myself and all in the courtroom no matter their position on the issue.  

Thank you.  I and others are grateful for all the support we are receiving.  After the court hearing, which may last till 4:30, we can commune together at Mazar’s, the restaurant across the road.

Once again, the time and date is 1:30 on April 23, 2015, in the Montrose County Courthouse, 105 Maple St., Montrose, Pa.

Blessings to all …..Come if not a burden or coming from too far….thank you…


Vera Scroggins, Citizen Journalist, Citizen Gas Tours

Consider coming out and supporting Vera if you’re in the Susquehanna, Pennsylvania area. She needs all the help she can get.

Old crab, new tricks

Let’s just take a few moments to look at this. The Crab Nebula is nothing new, but this view is oh so spectacular. This is one of the most well-known and well-studied objects in the cosmos. What we see is an expanding gas cloud produced by the a supernova explosion – the violent death of a massive star.

In 1054 the light from this supernova reached Earth, and since that point, the size of the nebula has reached over 10 light-years across. Just so we’re clear, 10 light-years = 100 trillion kilometers.

The image we see here combines Hubble (visible) and Herschel (infrared) data. High temperatures and extreme pressures within the explosion fuses elements together to form heavier elements.

Oxygen and sulfur glow brightly in visible light and were detected by Hubble – seen as blue in this image. Herschel is sensitive to dust and complex carbon-based molecules created by the explosion’s shock wave are shown in red. The pink regions are areas of brightness observed by both telescopes.

Herschel also separated the light from the nebula into its constituent wavelengths. By examining the spectra, astronomers can determine the chemical composition of a nebula. Despite being the most well-known nebula, astronomers were surprised to detect argon hydride in the new data.

Argon is a noble gas, and as such it’s generally inert – meaning it is not likely to combine with other elements. So, it’s uncommon for argon to form molecules. With the case of this nebula, the argon is blasted by ultra violet light from the neutron star (leftover core of the progenitor star), stripping off electrons. This makes the argon more apt to combine with surrounding material.

Elements come in different varieties or “flavors” known as isotopes. The isotopes have the same properties, but varying number of neutrons. Neutrons affect the mass and as a result affect the spectral signature of the isotope. Here on Earth, the most common argon isotope is argon-40, with 22 neutrons and 18 protons. In the Crab Nebula, argon-36 was detected, having only 18 neutrons and 18 protons.

This is a perfect example of a previously discovered object teaching us something new. As our technology and instruments continue to improve, who knows what other secrets this, and other nebulae may hold.

Source & Image credit: NASA/Hubble


Porsche Offers a Pure Electric Sports Sedan: Konzept Studie Mission E

At Frankfurt this week, Porsche unveils its first all-electric four-seat sports car, the Mission E. Porsche claims Mission E can travel over 300 miles on one battery charge. It will reach 60 mph in less than 3.5 seconds, and has a top speed of 155 mph. Using the newly developed “Porsche Turbo Charging” system, the lithium-ion batteries can be recharged to 80 percent in 15 minutes, enough energy for another 250 miles. They can make this car, probably within 18 to 24 months, and most likely will as federal emissions and fuel mileage regulations grow stricter. Porsche needs an electric vehicle. Pricing is not yet available. Read more >

Since I realize I post nothing but weekend selfies, thereby making it seem like I incessantly post my face, I’d like to start posting fun facts.

“Did you know? If you consistently fart for 6.75 years, enough gas is produced to create the energy of an atomic bomb.”

“So there’s many productive ways I could have spent my day. Like working on my drawing skills, or maybe working on my piano skills. But instead I looked up random facts that I’ll never need in life. But, did you know that your stomach produces a new layer of mucus every two weeks otherwise it’ll digest itself? Oh! And sharks kill orcas by torpedoing up into their stomach which causes them to explode? And finally, if you consistently fart for six years & nine months, enough gas is produced to create the energy of an atomic bomb… please don’t ask how bored I was to look up that last one. The answer is very.”

“Anyway, the moral of that story is I clearly need help.”