gas producers

Ocean Worlds Beyond Earth

We’re incredibly lucky to live on a planet drenched in water, nestled in a perfect distance from our sun and wrapped with magnetic fields keeping our atmosphere intact against harsh radiation and space weather.

We know from recent research that life can persist in the cruelest of environments here on Earth, which gives us hope to finding life thriving on other worlds. While we have yet to find life outside of Earth, we are optimistic about the possibilities, especially on other ocean worlds right here in our solar system.  

So…What’s the News?!

Two of our veteran missions are providing tantalizing new details about icy, ocean-bearing moons of Jupiter and Saturn, further enhancing the scientific interest of these and other “ocean worlds” in our solar system and beyond!

Cassini scientists announce that a form of energy for life appears to exist in Saturn’s moon Enceladus, and Hubble researchers report additional evidence of plumes erupting from Jupiter’s moon Europa.

The Two Missions: Cassini and Hubble


Our Cassini spacecraft has found that hydrothermal vents in the ocean of Saturn’s icy moon Enceladus are producing hydrogen gas, which could potentially provide a chemical energy source for life.

Cassini discovered that this little moon of Saturn was active in 2005. The discovery that Enceladus has jets of gas and icy particles coming out of its south polar region surprised the world. Later we determined that plumes of material are coming from a global ocean under the icy crust, through large cracks known as “tiger stripes.” 

We have more evidence now – this time sampled straight from the plume itself – of hydrothermal activity, and we now know the water is chemically interacting with the rock beneath the ocean and producing the kind of chemistry that could be used by microbes IF they happened to be there.

This is the culmination of 12 years of investigations by Cassini and a capstone finding for the mission. We now know Enceladus has nearly all the ingredients needed for life as we know it.

The Cassini spacecraft made its deepest dive through the plume on Oct. 28, 2015. From previous flybys, Cassini determined that nearly 98% of the gas in the plume is water and the rest is a mixture of other molecules, including carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. 

Cassini’s other instruments provided evidence of hydrothermal activity in the ocean. What we really wanted to know was…Is there hydrogen being produced that microbes could use to make energy? And that’s exactly what we found!

To be clear…we haven’t discovered microbes at Enceladus, but vents of this type at Earth host these kinds of life. We’re cautiously excited at the prospect that there might be something like this at Enceladus too!


The Hubble Space Telescope has also been studying another ocean world in our solar system: Europa!

Europa is one of the four major moons of Jupiter, about the size of our own moon but very different in appearance. It’s a cold, icy world with a relatively smooth, bright surface crisscrossed with dark cracks and patches of reddish material.

What makes Europa interesting is that it’s believed to have a global ocean, underneath a thick crust of ice. In fact, it’s got about twice as much ocean as planet Earth!

In 2014, we detected evidence of intermittent water plumes on the surface of Europa, which is interesting because they may provide us with easier access to subsurface liquid water without having to drill through miles of ice.

And now, in 2016, we’ve found one particular plume candidate that appears to be at the same location that it was seen in 2014. 

This is exciting because if we can establish that a particular feature does repeat, then it is much more likely to be real and we can attempt to study and understand the processes that cause it to turn on or off. 

This plume also happens to coincide with an area where Europa is unusually warm as compared to the surrounding terrain. The plume candidates are about 30 to 60 miles (50 to 100 kilometers) in height and are well-positioned for observation, being in a relatively equatorial and well-determined location.

What Does All This Mean and What’s Next?

Hubble and Cassini are inherently different missions, but their complementary scientific discoveries, along with the synergy between our current and planned missions, will help us in finding out whether we are alone in the universe. 

Hubble will continue to observe Europa. If you’re wondering how we might be able to get more information on the Europa plume, the upcoming Europa Clipper mission will be carrying a suite of 9 instruments to investigate whether the mysterious icy moon could harbor conditions favorable for life. Europa Clipper is slated to launch in the 2020s.

This future mission will be able to study the surface of Europa in great detail and assess the habitability of this moon. Whether there’s life there or not is a question for this future mission to discover!

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space:

Colliding Galaxies in Stephans Quintet : Will either of these galaxies survive? In what might be dubbed as a semi-final round in a galactic elimination tournament, the two spirals of NGC 7318 are colliding. The featured picture was created from images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. When galaxies crash into each other, many things may happen including gravitational distortion, gas condensing to produce new episodes of star formation, and ultimately the two galaxies combining into one. Since these two galaxies are part of Stephans Quintet, a final round of battling galaxies will likely occur over the next few billion years with the eventual result of many scattered stars and one large galaxy. Quite possibly, the remaining galaxy will not be easily identified with any of its initial galactic components. Stephans Quintet was the first identified galaxy group, lies about 300 million light years away, and is visible through a moderately-sized telescope toward the constellation of the Winged Horse . via NASA


Preparation of pyrrolidine carbonyl chloride on +100g scale. 

On the gifs you can see the beginning of the addition of the pyrrolidine to a solution containing a LOT (~200 g) of triphosgene. 

Triphosgene (bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate is a chemical compound that is used as a safer substitute for phosgene, because at room temperature it is a solid crystal, as opposed to phosgene which is a gas. It is a great reagent, since it could be easily handled and if it’s in a solution it decomposes to phosgene and reacts as I would use phosgene. 

On the gifs as the pyrrolidine contacts with the phosgene containing atmosphere it immediately reacts with it producing HCl gas what reacts with the pyrrolidine to form pyrrolidine x HCl which is a solid compounds and could be observed as fog in the glass.

Interesting fact: phosgene is HIGHLY TOXIC, so great care should be taken while working with it, always use PPE and a WELL working fume hood, but /do not try it out/ it has an odor in high dilution similar to freshly cut grass. 


Project Plowshare and Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy,

In the 1950’s scientists first proposed the idea of using nuclear weapons for peaceful purposes, essentially replacing TNT as the main explosive for moving earth, creating tunnels and canals, cutting paths through mountains for highways or railroads, and for other civil engineering projects.  Thus in 1961 Project Plowshare was created to study the use of nuclear weapons for peaceful purposes.  Between 1961 and 1973, 27 atomic bombs were detonated as part of the project.  Three were detonated to test the feasibility of using nuclear explosives to stimulate gas flow in a low permeability natural gas field. The study was a failure when it was determined that the natural gas produced was too radioactive for use. While the project was promising, it was doomed by the radioactive fallout that resulted after a nuclear explosion, thus making the results hazardous to the health of those who benefited from it. One of the most notorious tests was the underground Sedan explosion, conducted in Yucca Flat, Nevada on July 6th, 1962, to test the feasibility of using nuclear explosives for mining and excavating purposes.  The resulting blast ejected 12,000,000 tons of radioactive soil into the atmosphere, which spread as far as West Virginia, Ohio, and North Carolina.

Overall Operation Plowshare cost a total of $700 million.

Since the Americans were doing it, the Soviets had to do it too, except they had to do it bigger and better.  In 1965 the Soviet Union began the “Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy” project, which detonated 156 nuclear devices between 1965 and 1988.  Unlike Project Plowshare, the NENE project was done with practicality in mind.  Few of the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions were scientific tests, but were used to actually excavate mines, create canals, build dams, and conduct other works of engineering. Like Project Plowshare, radioactive fallout often negated positive results, although the Soviets gave much less of a damn about it than the Americans did.  Many of the explosions caused irreversible environmental damage.  20 years after the Kraton-3 explosion in Siberia in 1973, plutonium levels in the nearby waterways and aquifers were still thousands of times higher than recommended safe levels. The Chagan explosion conducted in 1965 (top picture) spread radioactive material across Asia as far as Japan. 


The Paladins of Voltron ◦ Hunk Garrett
⤿ “I think this thing is getting rid of the excess gas produced from its multiple stomachs… It’s farting!”

( lowkey gift for @bentfire )

anonymous asked:

Hello hello. I can see that you've seen a lot of mangas, manwha etc. If you don't mind, could you please give me some recommendation that are like Kakao 79%? Or something to read that reminds you of Kakao 79%? I love Kakao 79% and I can't find something that is similar to it. Halp me. :o Thank you.


Hm, I don’t know which particular factor of Kakao 79% you love soooo

Childhood Friends to Lovers

Special A
Tomo-chan wo Onnanoko
Watashi ga Mitote Dousanda
NG Life
Koi Da no Ai Da no
Akatsuki no Yona
Koe no Katachi
Stardust Wink
Kimi ga Suki
Mishounen Produce
I Give my First Love to You
Venus Capriccio

Independent Female Lead

Ao Haru Ride
Tonari no Kaibutsu-kun*

Rom-Com feels*

Lovely Complex
Ookami Shoujo to Kuro Ouji
It’s Difficult to love an Otaku
Soushi Souai
Gekkan Shoujo Nozaki-kun
Spotted Flower

Dense lead issues

Last Game
Love so Life
Liar x Liar
Kaichou wo maid Sama

Hehe. This is the list for now~ I don’t know if the other recomm would fit the Kakao 79% troupe

Andy Cohen randomly has the only tweet you need about NAFTA.

Donald Trump has revealed he backed down on pledges to scrap Nafta after calls from the leaders of Canada and Mexico.

He said that he had received calls from the two countries’ leaders asking him to “renegotiate Nafta rather than terminate”. It came one day after he told leaders of the two countries that he wouldn’t end the trade pact, and just days after the White House said that the President was considering quitting it entirely.

The free trade agreement may still be terminated if “we do not reach a fair deal for all”, he posted on Twitter.

He claimed that the relationship between the three countries were “good”. It comes just two days after a series of rambling and confused attacks on Canada over its policy on milk.

(cont. Independent UK

In case you missed those tweets, never fear – Andy Cohen has you covered.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

Fun fact to take away your boredom: If you consistently fart for 6 years & 9 months, enough gas is produced to create the energy of an atomic bomb :D

KP: This is the best fun fact I have ever heard

anonymous asked:

You claimed that glassfed beef produces more gas than grain. Can you explain why? And does that mean that letting cattle graze on a natural grassland or pampas unsuitable for crops is bad?

What a good question! Again, you could write a whole paper on this, or a thesis, but let me try to hit the major points. I’m  going to have to break up the answer into two bits here:

1) Grass-fed animals, on an individual animal level, produce more methane per day than grain-fed ones. But why is that?

Let’s start with a view of what’s going on inside the animal: 

  • Herbivores like cattle and sheep have a very complex ecosystem of microbes in their gut, particularly in the part of the stomach called the rumen. 
  • The rumen is like a giant fermentation vat - it’s anaerobic (no oxygen), warm, and has a pH ranging from neutral-ish to slightly acidic. 
  • Feed goes in, gets regurgitated and chewed to break it down into smaller pieces, and then the rumen microbes break it down.  
  • While some nutrients exit the rumen into the acid part of the stomach without microbes getting a hold of them, the majority of nutrients in feed go to keep the microbes healthy and happy. 
  • The byproducts of the microbes’ actions on these feeds help feed the animal

The basic equation is this: 

Feed + microbes -> VFAs + CO2 + methane +microbial protein

  • VFAs, volatile fatty acids, are short-chain fatty acids that get absorbed by the gut and used for energy - in fact, these account for >70% of a cow or sheep’s energy!  
  • Rumen microbes use nitrogen in feed to grow and make more microbes, and when they get washed out of the rumen into the acid stomach, become a major source of protein to the animal, especially on low-protein diets. 
  • Waste products like carbon dioxide and methane get burped out and become greenhouse gases.

Methane is what the rumen does with excess hydrogen. 

  • There’s been research that shows that the level of hydrogen in the rumen affects the rate of certain chemical reactions, especially ones needed for microbial function, and too much hydrogen can make it harder for some microbes to function.  
  • So methane production by specific methanogenic microbes reduces hydrogen in the rumen, allowing microbes to go on their merry way. 

What you feed cows alters how much hydrogen microbes produce as a byproduct of fermenting feed.  

  • The major VFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are always going to be produced, but the ratios differ depending on diet. 
  • When acetate or butyrate is produced, so is hydrogen, and hydrogen levels rise in the rumen.  
  • When propionate is produced, the reaction uses up hydrogen, and hydrogen in the rumen decreases.
  • Pasture-based diets contain lots of cellulose, which produces mostly acetate when fermented.  
  • This is good, because cellulose is one of the things that humans definitely can’t digest, so cows are turning human inedible food into tasty meat and milk
  •  But it also means that there’s more hydrogen in the rumen because of the higher acetate levels.  
  • Mostly-grain diets, which have more starch, favor propionate, so less hydrogen and therefore less methane gets produced by the animal itself

There are other more complex effects involving different microbial groups, plant compounds, and pH effects, but let’s stick with this for now. 

There’s also the factor that methane production is driven by how much feed enters the rumen, which is driven by how much feed the animal needs to meet its energy requirements.  Forages usually have lower energy per pound of feed and are less digestible, so an animal needs to eat more. This, combined with acetate being the major VFA, means that on a per day basis, a grass-fed animal will in general produce more methane than a grain-fed one. 

However, the nice thing about grass-fed beef is that the inputs to the system are lower.  On native pasture, the only inputs are often rain and manure.  On managed pasture, there may be irrigation, seeding, fertilizer, etc.  

For grain-based diets, you have to add on the energy (and greenhouse gases) from producing the feed, processing the feed, and transporting the feed, versus the greenhouse gases from managing pasture.  But grain-fed cattle eat a lot of byproducts from other industries that would otherwise go to waste (beet pulp, distiller’s grains, barley hulls) so you need to consider that. Emissions from feed can make up a good chunk of the overall emissions associated with animal production, so the answer gets even more complex fast.  

This specific kind of analysis, of assigning greenhouse gas emissions and summing them up for a product, is part of a technique called Life Cycle Assesment - that is, looking at the life cycle of a product to determine the inputs and outputs and the emissions associated with them.  I’m doing one right now on sheep production in California and it’s utterly fascinating, but it shows that in these situations, there often isn’t an easy answer, and it depends a lot on where you set the boundaries and what you define as an impact. The debate is ongoing, and there really isn’t one clear-cut answer right now. 

So, moving on to part 2 of your question:

Is it bad to let cattle graze land unsuitable for crops because the animals themselves produce more methane than the same cow on a grain-based diet? DEFINITELY NOT.  

Cattle grazing on rangelands is definitely sustainable if managed right.

 I discussed this on my previous post here but grasslands need large herbivores to survive, and given how much land is grassland, not producing livestock on grasslands wastes a lot of land that could feed people. Removing herbivores also changes ecosystem balance for many other species that rely on herbivores to clear out excess brush, provide manure, or alter habitats.

If we don’t graze these native rangelands with something, then we risk habitat degradation and impacts on the other species that live there.  Large herbivores are an important part of the grasslands’ circle of life, and help promote ecosystem health if managed sustainably.  Grass-fed systems are also important for using land responsibly to feed everyone. 

Methane is just one part of the big picture. We need to look at ecosystem health, and the methane and other GHGs needed to produce what we’d feed these cattle if we didn’t feed them pasture.

So to answer your question, Both grain-fed and pasture-based systems have their place in modern agriculture, and neither is strictly better than the other.  And the fact is: all systems have the potential to be sustainable!

Thanks for staying with me this long. Here, have some cute Herefords as a treat (one of my favorite beef breeds). They have such sweet faces. Image credit: Irish Hereford Breed Society


1. Ama el Planeta. Recuerda que la naturaleza ha existido durante millones de años sin el hombre, pero que el hombre no puede vivir sin la naturaleza.

2. Recicla. El primer paso en nuestra ayuda diaria por la conservación del ambiente lo podemos dar separando los residuos sólidos de nuestra propia casa, oficina y colegio. Recuerda que el reciclado de papel, cartón, vidrio, aluminio y otros materiales evitan la destrucción de más bosques, y la emisión de más contaminantes a la atmósfera y al agua.

3. Ahorra agua y electricidad. El agua potable es poca y que cada vez hay más humanos haciendo uso de ella. En la actualidad muchas ciudades como Cuidad de México debe traer el agua de lugares cada vez más distantes. Un tercio de la humanidad se ve afectada por enfermedades transmitidas por aguas contaminadas y esto mata a diez millones de personas cada año. Recuerda también que los detergentes que normalmente se usan tienen agentes tensioactivos que contaminan el agua, por esto es recomendable reutilizar el agua de la lavadora para lavar el auto, por ejemplo. En cuanto al ahorro de la electricidad la razón de esto se debe a que en muchos lugares ésta se produce al quemar carbón, y en el proceso se generan contaminantes atmosféricos; en otras regiones la electricidad se produce en plantas nucleares, las cuales dejan como desecho sustancias radioactivas que pueden generar un impacto negativo en la salud humana y del ecosistema en general.

4. Usa menos combustibles fósiles (carbón, petróleo y gas natural). La quema de carbón – para producir electricidad -  de gasolina y ACPM en los automóviles generan gases de efecto invernadero como el CO2, gases tóxicos como el dióxido de azufre (responsable de la lluvia ácida) y el ozono. La creciente demanda por el petróleo ha llevado a realizar perforaciones en muchos lugares del Planeta; en algunas ocasiones y de manera accidental ocurren derrames de petróleo en el mar, esto causa gran destrucción a la vida marina. Usar menos combustibles fósiles implica apoyar el transporte masivo en lugar del uso del automóvil particular, los días sin carro y hacer uso de las ciclorrutas. Ten en cuenta también que el voraz apetito por el petróleo ha producido guerras (Ej. Las dos guerras del Golfo Pérsico) 

5. Evita el uso de materiales no biodegradables y contaminantes. Muchos materiales como la espuma de poliestireno (Icopor) no se degrada de forma natural y permanece contaminando el Planeta durante cientos de años. Algunos pesticidas (como los hidrocarburos clorados) son también muy persistentes en el ambiente y deben ser evitados ya que ingresan en las cadenas alimenticias produciendo impactos negativos para los consumidores de los niveles superiores.

6. Siembra un árbol Las plantas consumen el CO2 (un gas que en demasía produce un efecto invernadero exagerado) y liberan O2 a la atmósfera. Recuerda que el agua de muchas ciudades depende de los bosques y páramos en los que nacen muchos ríos y quebradas, por eso cuando siembres un árbol procura sembrar una especie nativa en lugar de una exótica. Mantén una planta en tu sala, oficina o salón de clase. El hacerlo te recordará que todos los seres vivos del Planeta estamos relacionados.

7. Evita comprar fauna silvestre como mascotas El tráfico de animales silvestres  está colocando a cientos de especies de mamíferos, aves, tortugas y peces de arrecifes de coral en peligro de extinción. Un animal silvestre separado de su medio ambiente está muerto para su especie ya que no podrá dejar descendencia. Recuerda que antes que un mono o un oso perezoso bebe llegaran al mercado fue necesario asesinar a sus respectivas madres; en el caso de las aves, por cada pájaro vendido en los mercados aproximadamente otros nueve murieron en el proceso de captura y transporte.

8. Di no al maltrato animal. Los animales que rodean a los seres humanos deben ser objeto de cuidado y consideración. Si tienes una mascota cuídala, mantenla vacunada y bien alimentada. Rechaza prácticas que generan entretenimiento a costa del sufrimiento de los animales tales como el toreo y la riña de gallos. El toreo NO es un deporte, es el arte de la tortura. La oposición a la crueldad con los animales más que una norma ambiental es un acto de nobleza y humanidad.

9. Di no al tabaquismo. Cada año miles de hectáreas de suelo fértil se utilizan para sembrar la muerte en lugar de producir alimento. El hábito de fumar no solo afecta al fumador sino a todo aquel respira el humo del tabaco. Este vicio es el principal responsable del cáncer de pulmón, de esófago y de laringe, enfisema pulmonar, bronquitis crónica, infarto cardíaco y derrame cerebral. Has valer tu derecho a la vida, no permitas que se fume en espacios cerrados, ni que se venda cigarrillos a menores de edad.

10. Evita la sobrepoblación. Una de las principales causas por las cuales muchas especies están en vías de extinción es por la destrucción de sus hábitat, y esto ocurre porque cada vez se requiere más tierras para cultivo, ganados y asentamientos urbanos. El crecimiento de la población incrementa la presión por el uso del suelo, del agua potable, del papel (que se obtiene de los árboles) y los recursos minerales. La manera como todos podemos evitar la sobrepoblación es siendo responsables con nuestra reproducción, evitando los embarazos en la adolescencia y planear el momento para ser padres. Iniciando el siglo XXI hay ya más de 6 mil millones de habitantes y desafortunadamente las familias que tienen más hijos son aquellas de más pobres recursos, justo en los países pobres. La sobrepoblación engendra más pobreza e ignorancia, y un pueblo ignorante no cuida el Planeta.


Disclaimer & Notes: This pictorial is for educational purposes only. Chloroform is a suspected carcinogen. It is toxic to the liver and is metabolized into small amounts of phosgene (also toxic). Oral ingestion can result in unconsciousness or death. Inhalation is not recommended due to the potential health hazards of long-term use/chronic exposure.

If you carry out this procedure, add 5-10% ethanol to the final product as a stabilizer - chloroform degrades over time to produce phosgene gas, especially in the presence of UV light. That is also why it’s necessary to store the chloroform in a dark/amber glass bottle.

The reaction is exothermic and can easily run out of control if scaled up without proper measures for cooling the solution.

Read This, it will make your day!

If you yelled for 8 years, 7 months and 6 days you would have produced enough sound energy to heat one cup of coffee
(Hardly seems worth it.)

If you farted consistently for 6 years and 9 months, enough gas is produced to create the energy of an atomic bomb.
(Now that’s more like it!)

The human heart creates enough pressure when it pumps out to the body to squirt blood 30 feet.


A pig’s orgasm lasts 30 minutes.

(In my next life, I want to be a pig.)

A cockroach will live nine days without its head before it starves to death. (Creepy.)
(I’m still not over the pig.)

Banging your head against a wall uses 150 calories a hour
(Don’t try this at home, maybe at work)

The male praying mantis cannot copulate while its head is attached to its body. The female initiates sex by ripping the male’s head off.

(Honey, I’m home. What the…?!)
The flea can jump 350 times its body length. It’s like a human jumping the length of a football field.

(30 minutes..lucky pig! Can you imagine?)

The catfish has over 27,000 taste buds.

(What could be so tasty on the bottom of a pond?)

Some lions mate over 50 times a day.

(I still want to be a pig in my next life…quality over quantity)

Butterflies taste with their feet.

(Something I always wanted to know.)

The strongest muscle in the body is the tongue.

Right-handed people live, on average, nine years longer than left-handed people.
(If you’re ambidextrous, do you split the difference?)

Elephants are the only animals that cannot jump.

(Still want 2 b the pig)

A cat’s urine glows under a black light.

(I wonder who was paid to figure that out?)

An ostrich’s eye is bigger than its brain.

(I know some people like that)

Starfish have no brains
(I know some people like that too.)

Polar bears are left-handed.

(If they switch, they’ll live a lot longer)

Humans and dolphins are the only species that have sex for pleasure.

(What about that pig??)

Now that you’ve smiled at least once, it’s your turn to spread these crazy facts and send this to someone you want to bring a smile to, maybe even a chuckle.

In other words, send it to everyone!
(and God love that pig!)                                      

anonymous asked:

I'm been eating pretty healthy all day, mainly, mainly fruits and vegetables (except for Chorizo con huevo), and I feel extremely bloated? It feels like there's so much pressure on my lower stomach. I tried cleansing myself with green tea and a dietary tea before bed, and that seemed to do the trick for a little while, but I just woke up and I feel it again. Any advice?

Sometimes eating too much fibre can produce gas in your intestines, contributing to a feeling of being bloated. Also, if you tend to eat a lot of salt, your body could be retaining water. The final possibility I can think of is you having an allergy (such as lactose/gluten intolerance etc) which can cause bloating. If it’s too much fibre, your body will get used to it in a few days, or you can keep track of your intake to determine a comfortable level. If it’s too much salt, you can reduce sodium intake. Lastly, if neither of those work (or if it’s really bothering you) feel free to contact a physician. Those are the only things I can think of, I hope that helps you!


Fusil Modèle 1866

Design and Production

The Mle 1866 was designed in 1863 by French Alsatian gunsmith Antoine Alphonse Chassepot, following an idea he had submitted in 1856 to his employer the Manufacture d’Armes de St-Etienne about the use of a rubber obturator that would produce a gas-seal in the new bolt-action rifles.
Although this new type of breech-loader had only been developed anecdotally in most of the world by people like l’Hermite or Greene, Nikolaus von Dreyse had been working on his Zündnadelgewehr since 1821, and in 1864 and 1866, 23 years after the Prussians adopted the weapon as the Model 1841, this gun changed the way wars were fought by winning Prussia two wars against Denmark and Austria whose armies still used muzzle-loading Minié rifles. Using the self-contained paper cartridge developed by Frenchman Prélat and Schweizer Pauly in Paris during the Napoleonic wars, the Dreyse M1841 could be loaded and fired from a prone position with both accuracy and speed.

Dreyse M1841 needle rifle

France of course understood the need to step up its game immediately, and Chassepot’s rifle was adopted, named after him and issued to all branches of the French army as the Mle 1866 ‘Chassepot’ rifle. Its maker would go on to receive the Légion d’Honneur, France’s highest decoration, as well as 30000Fr for his invention.

Produced in every major gun manufacturing centers in France like St-Etienne, Châttelerault, Tulle and Chassepot’s hometown Mutzig in Alsace, as well as in several other countries like by Steyr in Austria, the Mle 1866 was widely available by 1870. Older Minié P1851 were converted using the Tabatière système so they could be breech-loaded with metal-and-cardboard centerfire cartridge - this was necessary to provide a sufficient gas-seal, however their ballistic properties were very inferior to that of a Chassepot.

Tabatière (snuffbox) conversion close-up

On the 3rd of November 1867, the Mle 1866 ‘Chassepot’ makes its first appearance on the battlefield, protecting the pope against the troops of Giuseppe Garibaldi and cutting his troops to ribbons. The extreme velocity of the 11mm (.43) caliber 25g (0.88 ounce/385 grains) bullets inflicted even more devastating wounds than the Minié bullets ever did, far from the smaller calibers introduced at the end of the century. In the French parliament, it’s reported that « Les chassepots ont fait merveille  », and the Swiss guard cleaning corp mops up the mess. Garibaldi would go on as a military commander in the Franco-Prussian war three years later through a series of what I can only assume were wacky misunderstandings.

Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, battle of Gravelotte


The booming cigarette paper industry in France meant that there was no shortage of material to make munition for the French Chassepot on the eve of war, which was actually one of his main selling point, as Snider-Enfield rifles and similar guns’ metallic cartridges were more expensive to manufacture for lesser or about equal ballistic properties. Things looked good for the Chassepot, and if not for the overwhelming superiority of Prussia’s Krupp artillery, it would have definitely be the decisive weapon in this decisive war for both countries. Of course Germany won and the Second French Empire lost, and Alsace was the reason France jumped in WW1 43 years later (you can quote other official reasons too but trust me that’s the actual one).
The antiquated Dreyse, although upgraded several time, was still no match for the French rifle. It was plagued by several key features ; the percussion cap of its cartridges was seated deep inside the powder charge at the base of the bullet, in an effort to optimize the barrel’s resistance to fouling, meaning the needle was constantly corroded and blew up after less than 100 shots, requiring field stripping the gun after prolongated fire ; the gas seal was poor in the best cases and inexistent in most, resulting in German soldiers being unable to aim down their guns and resorting to hip fire for most of the conflict, else they burn their amazing moustaches off ; it simply wasn’t as good as the Chassepot.
The Mle 1866 on the other hand had double the effective range due to the gas seal allowing for higher pressure in the chamber and thus more velocity and a flatter trajectory for the bullet. This was a slight trade off as the rubber gas-seal had to be changed every 80 or so shots, a process however that took less than a minute. Fouling was also an issue, but rarely to the point of impairing the gun’s performance in a single battle. It’s to be noted that these gas issues were all solved with the adoption of metallic cartridges and a diet rich in fiber a bit later in history.

Mle 1874 Gras rifle with gravity-fed magazine modification

This weapon thus marked one of the first step toward the trend of massive firepower that would confirm itself during WW1, with an accurate, fast-loading rifle that slowly spelled the doom of lined battles. It would went on as the Gras 1866/74 using a 11mm metallic cartridge, serving up to WW1 in border units and attaining notoriety under this name within the Greek resistance up to WW2.
That’s also my favorite gun ever -bounces
I never did know how to end an article. I wrote all that shit from memory with help from Wikipedia for dates and stuff. Have some additional pics.

the Mle 1874 and Mle 1866/74 Gras were identical in everything but their origin.

a Chassepot bayonet, with the distinctive yatagan double-curvature

a Gras bayonet

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The Hydrogen Clouds of M33 : Gorgeous spiral galaxy M33 seems to have more than its fair share of glowing hydrogen gas. A prominent member of the local group of galaxies, M33 is also known as the Triangulum Galaxy and lies about 3 million light-years distant. The galaxy’s inner 30,000 light-years or so are shown in this telescopic portrait that enhances its reddish ionized hydrogen clouds or HII regions. Sprawling along loose spiral arms that wind toward the core, M33’s giant HII regions are some of the largest known stellar nurseries, sites of the formation of short-lived but very massive stars. Intense ultraviolet radiation from the luminous, massive stars ionizes the surrounding hydrogen gas and ultimately produces the characteristic red glow. To enhance this image, broadband data was used to produce a color view of the galaxy and combined with narrowband data recorded through a hydrogen-alpha filter. That filter transmits the light of the strongest visible hydrogen emission line. via NASA


Pokemon cross-breed commission set one of two for an anonymous Pokemon enthusiast! I had great fun with this set - it got a little weird and a tad morbid in places, but that’s where the fun is.

For your potential question-answering needs:

Q: How come these “crossbreeds” look almost nothing like the original parents / Pokemon?

A: The reason for this is because these crossbreeds are not made by using either parent as a rigid template. These designs are formulated via the basic (not exact) body-shape of the mother Pokemon, between one and three physical features / attributes of both parents (eg: gaseous flight), between one and two behaviours described in the Pokedexes across versions / the anime, and a shared colour palette. These attributes and descriptors are put together in an interpretive fashion, using the parents as a springboard rather than a rule. The results of this method can vary heavily, and is often dependent on the amount of freedom I’m given by the client. This this case, I was given free-reign over my choices, producing some wilder results.

Much thanks to those who joined me on multiple streams putting this set together! I immensely enjoyed your company and commentary (and your awful puns).

ETA: By request, here are the bullet-pint descriptors for the above crossbreeds!

SLAOS: Shiny Magcargo + Gastrodon.

+ Most be kept moist, but contact with water can be deadly. + Internal organs exposed to allow needed cooling, will burn otherwise. + Owners will be investigated for cruelty, as this crossbreed is considered a result of unethical breeding practices.

HEARTBURN: Gardevoir + Shiny Magcargo

+ Slow moving. + Spine is immobile, uncurling it will kill the Pokemon. +Heart burns at 10,000 deg C.

MARTIAN BRAINS: Gradevoir + Driftblim

+ Prone to explosions, with recorded fatalities. + Illegal in most leagues and cities. + Known in law enforcement and underground rings as “Hindenburg” or “Lead Zeppelin”. + Compulsively grabs at people and objects.

SMOKE STACK: Gardevoir + Weezing

+ Toxic union results in erratic foetal cell duplication. + Surviving eggs bear multiple fused Pokemon. + Acidic gases eat away Pokemon’s brain, nullifying psychic abilities - eventual neurological failure. + Cysts ooze pus until they rupture unto vents. + Toxic, acidic gas produced by oxidising white blood cells.

PUPPETEER: Gardevoir + Reuniclus

+ Illegal, owners will be investigated for cruelty. + Crossbreed never develops beyond foetal or pre-egg-laying stage. + Lives for 21 days in utero. +Foetus gains consciousness within first day gestation with great psychic power. + Foetus(es) will take control of mother and use her as a psychic amplifier. + Mother cannot control body. + Conscious but no intelligence, cannot be controlled. + Difficult to detect, only indicator is erratic movement by the mother.

I hope you enjoy!

Israel’s Natural Gas Supply Is a Game-Changer - 13 April 2017

“Russia Cuts Gas, and Europe Shivers,” the New York Times reported on January 6, 2009, after Russia shut off gas exports to Europe due to a pricing dispute with Ukraine. From France to Turkey, nations across Europe went without power — and the incident underscored Russia’s outsized hold on European gas supplies.
Fast-forward nearly a decade later, and Europe is on the verge of relief from an unlikely source: Israel.
While approximately 60 percent of the world’s oil reserves are found in the Middle East, none of them are found Israel. Israel has been striving for decades to reduce its reliance on foreign sources of energy, by developing nuclear and solar technology, among other methods.
Then the game-changer occurred: the discovery of the Tamar and Leviathan natural gas fields off the coast of Haifa in 2009 and 2010. They were among the largest offshore finds in the world.
The Tamar field has been producing natural gas for the Israeli market during the past few years, and natural gas now meets 60 percent of Israel’s energy needs, with coal and diesel filling in the rest. But when the Leviathan field comes online in 2019, it will help Israel achieve a level of energy independence that the Jewish state has never known.
Israeli Energy Minister Dr. Yuval Steinitz, who will be speaking in New York City on May 7, has articulated a goal of natural gas eventually providing 80 percent of the country’s electricity needs. Perhaps more importantly, Israel’s new gas fields will make the Jewish state a global energy player for the first time in its history, greatly altering its political and economic clout throughout the Middle East and Europe. Steinitz has said that he sees the eastern Mediterranean becoming the new North Sea.
Jordan has already signed a $10 billion deal to import Israeli gas, and Europe is next. Israel, Cyprus, Greece and Italy recently agreed to a $6.4 billion plan to construct the world’s longest underwater pipeline, which would bring Israel’s natural gas into the European market. The deal was supported by the EU’s Climate and Energy Commission, which said that it would help limit reliance on Russian-supplied gas.
The benefits of Israel’s new energy sector might also extend beyond the economic. Will Israel see more political support in Europe due to the gas deals? Will European governments back away from their support of BDS?
Time will tell, but like other energy exporters, Israel may finally have the leverage it needs to get the fair treatment that it deserves.