gas producers

Ocean Worlds Beyond Earth

We’re incredibly lucky to live on a planet drenched in water, nestled in a perfect distance from our sun and wrapped with magnetic fields keeping our atmosphere intact against harsh radiation and space weather.

We know from recent research that life can persist in the cruelest of environments here on Earth, which gives us hope to finding life thriving on other worlds. While we have yet to find life outside of Earth, we are optimistic about the possibilities, especially on other ocean worlds right here in our solar system.  

So…What’s the News?!

Two of our veteran missions are providing tantalizing new details about icy, ocean-bearing moons of Jupiter and Saturn, further enhancing the scientific interest of these and other “ocean worlds” in our solar system and beyond!

Cassini scientists announce that a form of energy for life appears to exist in Saturn’s moon Enceladus, and Hubble researchers report additional evidence of plumes erupting from Jupiter’s moon Europa.

The Two Missions: Cassini and Hubble


Our Cassini spacecraft has found that hydrothermal vents in the ocean of Saturn’s icy moon Enceladus are producing hydrogen gas, which could potentially provide a chemical energy source for life.

Cassini discovered that this little moon of Saturn was active in 2005. The discovery that Enceladus has jets of gas and icy particles coming out of its south polar region surprised the world. Later we determined that plumes of material are coming from a global ocean under the icy crust, through large cracks known as “tiger stripes.” 

We have more evidence now – this time sampled straight from the plume itself – of hydrothermal activity, and we now know the water is chemically interacting with the rock beneath the ocean and producing the kind of chemistry that could be used by microbes IF they happened to be there.

This is the culmination of 12 years of investigations by Cassini and a capstone finding for the mission. We now know Enceladus has nearly all the ingredients needed for life as we know it.

The Cassini spacecraft made its deepest dive through the plume on Oct. 28, 2015. From previous flybys, Cassini determined that nearly 98% of the gas in the plume is water and the rest is a mixture of other molecules, including carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. 

Cassini’s other instruments provided evidence of hydrothermal activity in the ocean. What we really wanted to know was…Is there hydrogen being produced that microbes could use to make energy? And that’s exactly what we found!

To be clear…we haven’t discovered microbes at Enceladus, but vents of this type at Earth host these kinds of life. We’re cautiously excited at the prospect that there might be something like this at Enceladus too!


The Hubble Space Telescope has also been studying another ocean world in our solar system: Europa!

Europa is one of the four major moons of Jupiter, about the size of our own moon but very different in appearance. It’s a cold, icy world with a relatively smooth, bright surface crisscrossed with dark cracks and patches of reddish material.

What makes Europa interesting is that it’s believed to have a global ocean, underneath a thick crust of ice. In fact, it’s got about twice as much ocean as planet Earth!

In 2014, we detected evidence of intermittent water plumes on the surface of Europa, which is interesting because they may provide us with easier access to subsurface liquid water without having to drill through miles of ice.

And now, in 2016, we’ve found one particular plume candidate that appears to be at the same location that it was seen in 2014. 

This is exciting because if we can establish that a particular feature does repeat, then it is much more likely to be real and we can attempt to study and understand the processes that cause it to turn on or off. 

This plume also happens to coincide with an area where Europa is unusually warm as compared to the surrounding terrain. The plume candidates are about 30 to 60 miles (50 to 100 kilometers) in height and are well-positioned for observation, being in a relatively equatorial and well-determined location.

What Does All This Mean and What’s Next?

Hubble and Cassini are inherently different missions, but their complementary scientific discoveries, along with the synergy between our current and planned missions, will help us in finding out whether we are alone in the universe. 

Hubble will continue to observe Europa. If you’re wondering how we might be able to get more information on the Europa plume, the upcoming Europa Clipper mission will be carrying a suite of 9 instruments to investigate whether the mysterious icy moon could harbor conditions favorable for life. Europa Clipper is slated to launch in the 2020s.

This future mission will be able to study the surface of Europa in great detail and assess the habitability of this moon. Whether there’s life there or not is a question for this future mission to discover!

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At the end of the day, capitalists care only about the surplus value which will be realised as monetary profit. They are indifferent as to the particular commodities they produce. If there is a market for poison gas then they will produce it.
—  David Harvey, Marx, Capital, and the Madness of Economic Reason (2017)

cat grant: your prose is not bad. i mean it’s not great, but its not bad

lena luthor: i can’t find where she asked your dusty ass, broke ass, ain’t doing shit with yo life ass, ugly ass, ain’t know how to dress ass, no edges having ass, science experiment gone wrong looking ass, a face a mother couldn’t love looking ass, number one contributing factor to global warming with your hot gas producing ass for your goddamn opinion.


Disclaimer & Notes: This pictorial is for educational purposes only. Chloroform is a suspected carcinogen. It is toxic to the liver and is metabolized into small amounts of phosgene (also toxic). Oral ingestion can result in unconsciousness or death. Inhalation is not recommended due to the potential health hazards of long-term use/chronic exposure.

If you carry out this procedure, add 5-10% ethanol to the final product as a stabilizer - chloroform degrades over time to produce phosgene gas, especially in the presence of UV light. That is also why it’s necessary to store the chloroform in a dark/amber glass bottle.

The reaction is exothermic and can easily run out of control if scaled up without proper measures for cooling the solution.

Colliding Galaxies in Stephans Quintet : Will either of these galaxies survive? In what might be dubbed as a semi-final round in a galactic elimination tournament, the two spirals of NGC 7318 are colliding. The featured picture was created from images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. When galaxies crash into each other, many things may happen including gravitational distortion, gas condensing to produce new episodes of star formation, and ultimately the two galaxies combining into one. Since these two galaxies are part of Stephans Quintet, a final round of battling galaxies will likely occur over the next few billion years with the eventual result of many scattered stars and one large galaxy. Quite possibly, the remaining galaxy will not be easily identified with any of its initial galactic components. Stephans Quintet was the first identified galaxy group, lies about 300 million light years away, and is visible through a moderately-sized telescope toward the constellation of the Winged Horse . via NASA


Project Plowshare and Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy,

In the 1950’s scientists first proposed the idea of using nuclear weapons for peaceful purposes, essentially replacing TNT as the main explosive for moving earth, creating tunnels and canals, cutting paths through mountains for highways or railroads, and for other civil engineering projects.  Thus in 1961 Project Plowshare was created to study the use of nuclear weapons for peaceful purposes.  Between 1961 and 1973, 27 atomic bombs were detonated as part of the project.  Three were detonated to test the feasibility of using nuclear explosives to stimulate gas flow in a low permeability natural gas field. The study was a failure when it was determined that the natural gas produced was too radioactive for use. While the project was promising, it was doomed by the radioactive fallout that resulted after a nuclear explosion, thus making the results hazardous to the health of those who benefited from it. One of the most notorious tests was the underground Sedan explosion, conducted in Yucca Flat, Nevada on July 6th, 1962, to test the feasibility of using nuclear explosives for mining and excavating purposes.  The resulting blast ejected 12,000,000 tons of radioactive soil into the atmosphere, which spread as far as West Virginia, Ohio, and North Carolina.

Overall Operation Plowshare cost a total of $700 million.

Since the Americans were doing it, the Soviets had to do it too, except they had to do it bigger and better.  In 1965 the Soviet Union began the “Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy” project, which detonated 156 nuclear devices between 1965 and 1988.  Unlike Project Plowshare, the NENE project was done with practicality in mind.  Few of the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions were scientific tests, but were used to actually excavate mines, create canals, build dams, and conduct other works of engineering. Like Project Plowshare, radioactive fallout often negated positive results, although the Soviets gave much less of a damn about it than the Americans did.  Many of the explosions caused irreversible environmental damage.  20 years after the Kraton-3 explosion in Siberia in 1973, plutonium levels in the nearby waterways and aquifers were still thousands of times higher than recommended safe levels. The Chagan explosion conducted in 1965 (top picture) spread radioactive material across Asia as far as Japan. 


Lightning 2000 Plasma Lamp: low pressure noble gasses glow due to discharge from high voltage. A small high frequency coil at center creates the high voltage potential between the center electrode dome and the outer glass dome which is coated with a thin transparent film of metal. Current flow through the thin gas produces the glowing zigzagged path like that of lightning but more rounded. Shown here in 480 fps slow motion.


Preparation of pyrrolidine carbonyl chloride on +100g scale. 

On the gifs you can see the beginning of the addition of the pyrrolidine to a solution containing a LOT (~200 g) of triphosgene. 

Triphosgene (bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate is a chemical compound that is used as a safer substitute for phosgene, because at room temperature it is a solid crystal, as opposed to phosgene which is a gas. It is a great reagent, since it could be easily handled and if it’s in a solution it decomposes to phosgene and reacts as I would use phosgene. 

On the gifs as the pyrrolidine contacts with the phosgene containing atmosphere it immediately reacts with it producing HCl gas what reacts with the pyrrolidine to form pyrrolidine x HCl which is a solid compounds and could be observed as fog in the glass.

Interesting fact: phosgene is HIGHLY TOXIC, so great care should be taken while working with it, always use PPE and a WELL working fume hood, but /do not try it out/ it has an odor in high dilution similar to freshly cut grass. 


File #40: HAOS

Haos is a gigantic B.O.W. and the ultimate weapon created by Neo-Umbrella at its underwater facility.

The creature has translucent skin, making humanoid bone structures and internal organs visible to the naked eye. In addition, there are also gas producing organs that secrete a gas that turns humans into zombies. This gas is thousands of times more concentrated than Lepotitsa’s, and its potential infection radius is just as exponentially wide.

Civil War Aircraft Carrier— The USS George Washington Parke Custis 

In 1861 the US Navy purchased the George Washington Parke Custis, a coal barge which was built around the mid 1850’s.  The Navy intended to use the barge as a platform from which to launch balloons. Balloons were first used inthe  Civil War for observing enemy troops movements and positions. A wooden platform was built over the barge, and in the lower decks devices were installed which could produce hydrogen gas (used to make the balloons float) from coal and steam.  

The first flight occurred on the 11th of November, 1861, where a balloon observed Confederate troop movements along the Virginia coast.  Throughout the war the USS George Washington Parke Custis was used as a platform from which Confederate forces and fortifications could be observed along the coast, providing valuable intelligence for the Union Army.  It was also used to keep and eye out for Confederate blockade runners.  It is unknown when the USS George Washington Parke Custis was decommissioned.


The Paladins of Voltron ◦ Hunk Garrett
⤿ “I think this thing is getting rid of the excess gas produced from its multiple stomachs… It’s farting!”

( lowkey gift for @bentfire )


1. Ama el Planeta. Recuerda que la naturaleza ha existido durante millones de años sin el hombre, pero que el hombre no puede vivir sin la naturaleza.

2. Recicla. El primer paso en nuestra ayuda diaria por la conservación del ambiente lo podemos dar separando los residuos sólidos de nuestra propia casa, oficina y colegio. Recuerda que el reciclado de papel, cartón, vidrio, aluminio y otros materiales evitan la destrucción de más bosques, y la emisión de más contaminantes a la atmósfera y al agua.

3. Ahorra agua y electricidad. El agua potable es poca y que cada vez hay más humanos haciendo uso de ella. En la actualidad muchas ciudades como Cuidad de México debe traer el agua de lugares cada vez más distantes. Un tercio de la humanidad se ve afectada por enfermedades transmitidas por aguas contaminadas y esto mata a diez millones de personas cada año. Recuerda también que los detergentes que normalmente se usan tienen agentes tensioactivos que contaminan el agua, por esto es recomendable reutilizar el agua de la lavadora para lavar el auto, por ejemplo. En cuanto al ahorro de la electricidad la razón de esto se debe a que en muchos lugares ésta se produce al quemar carbón, y en el proceso se generan contaminantes atmosféricos; en otras regiones la electricidad se produce en plantas nucleares, las cuales dejan como desecho sustancias radioactivas que pueden generar un impacto negativo en la salud humana y del ecosistema en general.

4. Usa menos combustibles fósiles (carbón, petróleo y gas natural). La quema de carbón – para producir electricidad -  de gasolina y ACPM en los automóviles generan gases de efecto invernadero como el CO2, gases tóxicos como el dióxido de azufre (responsable de la lluvia ácida) y el ozono. La creciente demanda por el petróleo ha llevado a realizar perforaciones en muchos lugares del Planeta; en algunas ocasiones y de manera accidental ocurren derrames de petróleo en el mar, esto causa gran destrucción a la vida marina. Usar menos combustibles fósiles implica apoyar el transporte masivo en lugar del uso del automóvil particular, los días sin carro y hacer uso de las ciclorrutas. Ten en cuenta también que el voraz apetito por el petróleo ha producido guerras (Ej. Las dos guerras del Golfo Pérsico) 

5. Evita el uso de materiales no biodegradables y contaminantes. Muchos materiales como la espuma de poliestireno (Icopor) no se degrada de forma natural y permanece contaminando el Planeta durante cientos de años. Algunos pesticidas (como los hidrocarburos clorados) son también muy persistentes en el ambiente y deben ser evitados ya que ingresan en las cadenas alimenticias produciendo impactos negativos para los consumidores de los niveles superiores.

6. Siembra un árbol Las plantas consumen el CO2 (un gas que en demasía produce un efecto invernadero exagerado) y liberan O2 a la atmósfera. Recuerda que el agua de muchas ciudades depende de los bosques y páramos en los que nacen muchos ríos y quebradas, por eso cuando siembres un árbol procura sembrar una especie nativa en lugar de una exótica. Mantén una planta en tu sala, oficina o salón de clase. El hacerlo te recordará que todos los seres vivos del Planeta estamos relacionados.

7. Evita comprar fauna silvestre como mascotas El tráfico de animales silvestres  está colocando a cientos de especies de mamíferos, aves, tortugas y peces de arrecifes de coral en peligro de extinción. Un animal silvestre separado de su medio ambiente está muerto para su especie ya que no podrá dejar descendencia. Recuerda que antes que un mono o un oso perezoso bebe llegaran al mercado fue necesario asesinar a sus respectivas madres; en el caso de las aves, por cada pájaro vendido en los mercados aproximadamente otros nueve murieron en el proceso de captura y transporte.

8. Di no al maltrato animal. Los animales que rodean a los seres humanos deben ser objeto de cuidado y consideración. Si tienes una mascota cuídala, mantenla vacunada y bien alimentada. Rechaza prácticas que generan entretenimiento a costa del sufrimiento de los animales tales como el toreo y la riña de gallos. El toreo NO es un deporte, es el arte de la tortura. La oposición a la crueldad con los animales más que una norma ambiental es un acto de nobleza y humanidad.

9. Di no al tabaquismo. Cada año miles de hectáreas de suelo fértil se utilizan para sembrar la muerte en lugar de producir alimento. El hábito de fumar no solo afecta al fumador sino a todo aquel respira el humo del tabaco. Este vicio es el principal responsable del cáncer de pulmón, de esófago y de laringe, enfisema pulmonar, bronquitis crónica, infarto cardíaco y derrame cerebral. Has valer tu derecho a la vida, no permitas que se fume en espacios cerrados, ni que se venda cigarrillos a menores de edad.

10. Evita la sobrepoblación. Una de las principales causas por las cuales muchas especies están en vías de extinción es por la destrucción de sus hábitat, y esto ocurre porque cada vez se requiere más tierras para cultivo, ganados y asentamientos urbanos. El crecimiento de la población incrementa la presión por el uso del suelo, del agua potable, del papel (que se obtiene de los árboles) y los recursos minerales. La manera como todos podemos evitar la sobrepoblación es siendo responsables con nuestra reproducción, evitando los embarazos en la adolescencia y planear el momento para ser padres. Iniciando el siglo XXI hay ya más de 6 mil millones de habitantes y desafortunadamente las familias que tienen más hijos son aquellas de más pobres recursos, justo en los países pobres. La sobrepoblación engendra más pobreza e ignorancia, y un pueblo ignorante no cuida el Planeta.

Simple Chemistry in Spellcrafting

My favourite kind of Spellcraft is that which combines the theories of scientific knowledge with the intent and mysticism of witchery. Let’s look at some very simple chemistry that can be incorporated in our day to day practice.

The Science

All chemical reactions either absorb or produce energy. My practice of witchcraft is often centred around this concept of energy - be it movement, internal will, a feeling of power or the energy of the things around me, I will try to mentally capture it, shape it, direct it, and then release it. There is a strong parallel in chemistry, and we can see the modern chemist over their test tubes and beakers as a reimagining of the wood witch over her bubbling cauldron.

Endothermic Reactions

The chemical reactions that absorb energy are called endothermic - they are non spontaneous (they need a kick from their surroundings to get them started) and often absorb heat. If you have a glass of ice water creating condensation and evaporating, you are witnessing an endothermic reaction. In fact, the simplest way to absorb heat energy into your surroundings would be to work up a sweat. You will be releasing your biothermic energy out from your own body.

Exothermic Reactions

Exothermic reactions release energy contained in the atoms and molecules added to the reaction. Exothermic reactions are spontaneous - they don’t need additional energy to get started - and often they can pack a real wallop. Most people think of explosions as exothermic, and they are correct, but often times spontaneous reactions are slow. The rusting of iron is an exothermic reaction that can take years.

The Magic

Originally posted by amethystslinky

To use these reactions in your spellcraft, first make clear your intent. Are you trying to absorb energy (endothermic), or release energy (exothermic)?

Endothermic/absorbing Spell Ideas:

- Self Love

- Recovery and Healing

- maintaining relationships

- attracting money or material wealth

- Renewing after curses and cleansing

- Warding off fatigue

- strengthening before a fight

- Self defense, shielding and warding

Exothermic/releasing Spell Ideas:

- Cleansing

- Forging a new path

- opening gateways/doors

- removing blockages

- curses or attacking spells

- spells that need large amounts of energy

- outward manifestations, like projection

- love spells for new lovers

Simple endothermic reactions:

1. Ice water in a container, allow the water to warm to room temperature. It’s now imbued with energy from it’s surroundings.

2. Vinegar and Baking Soda, the classic elementary school experiment, absorbs large amounts of energy, you can even witness the drop in temperature if you put a thermometer in the container where the reaction is happening. This is because it’s absorbing energy faster than the environment around it can give.

You can use the vinegar and baking soda reaction to draw sigils, ward doors or soak talismans in. Be careful with anything metal, many metals react with vinegar to create exothermic reactions. It may ruin the metal (not very likely), but it will definitely reverse the energy flow.

3. In fact, you can use any acid with baking soda. Lemon juice or lemon drink mix and Baking Soda can be consumed safely, and will taste pretty good if you add water and/sugar to it.

4. Epsom salts and water create an endothermic reaction as the salt absorbs energy from the water in order to melt. Bathing or washing with Epsom salts is a fantastic renewing activity. If you can, visualize the little H20 molecules releasing their energy around you, to be absorbed by the salts that are now all over your skin.

5. Any kind of cooking - baking and cooking adds heat from your stove into the food materials. The simplest is boiling water.

Simple Exothermic Reactions:

1. Burning. Fires, candles, burning paper, are all releasing energy. The larger the fire, the greater the energy. Campfires can easily get to hundreds and thousands of degrees Celsius.

2. Rust Iron. Put the iron in water or vinegar to speed up the reaction. Rusty nails and metal will give off energy for those spells that you want to have the slow manifestation over a long period of time. Handle them with care - rusty iron can give you a lethal neural disease called tetanus. If you puncture your skin, go to emergency for a tetanus shot immediately.

3. Aluminum and Silver Sulfide. Have you noticed that your silver or silver plated items get tarnished over time? The silver is reacting with the air to create silver sulfide - a black substance that sits on the surface. You can transform this black layer back to silver by using a simple redox reaction:

Put your silver item in an aluminum lined vessel, make sure the aluminum is touching the item.

Boil water, for each gallon of water add 1 cup of baking soda, several tablespoons of salt. The water will foam.

Pour hot liquid over the silver and add half a cup of vinegar. Watch as the black turns silver. This reaction absorbs 2 electrons and releases 6, adding an minute electrical charge to the surrounding space. Don’t worry, it won’t hurt you. When the reaction is done, You can pour the remaining liquid down the drain.

4. Growing foam from peroxide and detergent. ½ cup 3% hydrogen peroxide, ¼ cup of dishwashing detergent (like dawn), 1 packet of active, dry yeast, warm water and food colouring. Mix the peroxide, detergent and colouring together. Separately, Mix the warm water and yeast until the yeast is activated. Pour the yeast into the peroxide mix and watch it go crazy. It’s messy, immediate and can be coloured to tailor your spell. Plus, it looks awesome.

Exothermic and endothermic are the simplest ways to think of reactions and their energy systems. We already use many of these techniques, but I hope this knowledge helps to boost your visualization in your spellcasting as well as give you new ideas for harnessing or releasing energy.

Disclaimer: do not mix substances or chemicals that you have not researched. There are many household items that produce toxic gas or can explode when combined. This is especially true of crystals and minerals. Its safer to avoid crystal and potion/chemical combinations all together, including water.

Andy Cohen randomly has the only tweet you need about NAFTA.

Donald Trump has revealed he backed down on pledges to scrap Nafta after calls from the leaders of Canada and Mexico.

He said that he had received calls from the two countries’ leaders asking him to “renegotiate Nafta rather than terminate”. It came one day after he told leaders of the two countries that he wouldn’t end the trade pact, and just days after the White House said that the President was considering quitting it entirely.

The free trade agreement may still be terminated if “we do not reach a fair deal for all”, he posted on Twitter.

He claimed that the relationship between the three countries were “good”. It comes just two days after a series of rambling and confused attacks on Canada over its policy on milk.

(cont. Independent UK

In case you missed those tweets, never fear – Andy Cohen has you covered.

Keep reading

Appearing like a winged fairy-tale creature poised on a pedestal, this object is actually a billowing tower of cold gas and dust rising from a stellar nursery called the Eagle Nebula. The soaring tower is 9.5 light-years or about 57 trillion miles high, about twice the distance from our Sun to the next nearest star.

Stars in the Eagle Nebula are born in clouds of cold hydrogen gas that reside in chaotic neighborhoods, where energy from young stars sculpts fantasy-like landscapes in the gas. The tower may be a giant incubator for those newborn stars. A torrent of ultraviolet light from a band of massive, hot, young stars [off the top of the image] is eroding the pillar.

The starlight also is responsible for illuminating the tower’s rough surface. Ghostly streamers of gas can be seen boiling off this surface, creating the haze around the structure and highlighting its three-dimensional shape. The column is silhouetted against the background glow of more distant gas.

The edge of the dark hydrogen cloud at the top of the tower is resisting erosion, in a manner similar to that of brush among a field of prairie grass that is being swept up by fire. The fire quickly burns the grass but slows down when it encounters the dense brush. In this celestial case, thick clouds of hydrogen gas and dust have survived longer than their surroundings in the face of a blast of ultraviolet light from the hot, young stars.

Inside the gaseous tower, stars may be forming. Some of those stars may have been created by dense gas collapsing under gravity. Other stars may be forming due to pressure from gas that has been heated by the neighboring hot stars.

The first wave of stars may have started forming before the massive star cluster began venting its scorching light. The star birth may have begun when denser regions of cold gas within the tower started collapsing under their own weight to make stars.

The bumps and fingers of material in the center of the tower are examples of these stellar birthing areas. These regions may look small but they are roughly the size of our solar system. The fledgling stars continued to grow as they fed off the surrounding gas cloud. They abruptly stopped growing when light from the star cluster uncovered their gaseous cradles, separating them from their gas supply.

Ironically, the young cluster’s intense starlight may be inducing star formation in some regions of the tower. Examples can be seen in the large, glowing clumps and finger-shaped protrusions at the top of the structure. The stars may be heating the gas at the top of the tower and creating a shock front, as seen by the bright rim of material tracing the edge of the nebula at top, left. As the heated gas expands, it acts like a battering ram, pushing against the darker cold gas. The intense pressure compresses the gas, making it easier for stars to form. This scenario may continue as the shock front moves slowly down the tower.

The dominant colors in the image were produced by gas energized by the star cluster’s powerful ultraviolet light. The blue color at the top is from glowing oxygen. The red color in the lower region is from glowing hydrogen. The Eagle Nebula image was taken in November 2004 with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope.

Object Names: Eagle Nebula, M16, NGC 6611, IC 4703

Image Type: Astronomical

Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

Time And Space

anonymous asked:

Fun fact to take away your boredom: If you consistently fart for 6 years & 9 months, enough gas is produced to create the energy of an atomic bomb :D

KP: This is the best fun fact I have ever heard


Fusil Modèle 1866

Design and Production

The Mle 1866 was designed in 1863 by French Alsatian gunsmith Antoine Alphonse Chassepot, following an idea he had submitted in 1856 to his employer the Manufacture d’Armes de St-Etienne about the use of a rubber obturator that would produce a gas-seal in the new bolt-action rifles.
Although this new type of breech-loader had only been developed anecdotally in most of the world by people like l’Hermite or Greene, Nikolaus von Dreyse had been working on his Zündnadelgewehr since 1821, and in 1864 and 1866, 23 years after the Prussians adopted the weapon as the Model 1841, this gun changed the way wars were fought by winning Prussia two wars against Denmark and Austria whose armies still used muzzle-loading Minié rifles. Using the self-contained paper cartridge developed by Frenchman Prélat and Schweizer Pauly in Paris during the Napoleonic wars, the Dreyse M1841 could be loaded and fired from a prone position with both accuracy and speed.

Dreyse M1841 needle rifle

France of course understood the need to step up its game immediately, and Chassepot’s rifle was adopted, named after him and issued to all branches of the French army as the Mle 1866 ‘Chassepot’ rifle. Its maker would go on to receive the Légion d’Honneur, France’s highest decoration, as well as 30000Fr for his invention.

Produced in every major gun manufacturing centers in France like St-Etienne, Châttelerault, Tulle and Chassepot’s hometown Mutzig in Alsace, as well as in several other countries like by Steyr in Austria, the Mle 1866 was widely available by 1870. Older Minié P1851 were converted using the Tabatière système so they could be breech-loaded with metal-and-cardboard centerfire cartridge - this was necessary to provide a sufficient gas-seal, however their ballistic properties were very inferior to that of a Chassepot.

Tabatière (snuffbox) conversion close-up

On the 3rd of November 1867, the Mle 1866 ‘Chassepot’ makes its first appearance on the battlefield, protecting the pope against the troops of Giuseppe Garibaldi and cutting his troops to ribbons. The extreme velocity of the 11mm (.43) caliber 25g (0.88 ounce/385 grains) bullets inflicted even more devastating wounds than the Minié bullets ever did, far from the smaller calibers introduced at the end of the century. In the French parliament, it’s reported that « Les chassepots ont fait merveille  », and the Swiss guard cleaning corp mops up the mess. Garibaldi would go on as a military commander in the Franco-Prussian war three years later through a series of what I can only assume were wacky misunderstandings.

Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, battle of Gravelotte


The booming cigarette paper industry in France meant that there was no shortage of material to make munition for the French Chassepot on the eve of war, which was actually one of his main selling point, as Snider-Enfield rifles and similar guns’ metallic cartridges were more expensive to manufacture for lesser or about equal ballistic properties. Things looked good for the Chassepot, and if not for the overwhelming superiority of Prussia’s Krupp artillery, it would have definitely be the decisive weapon in this decisive war for both countries. Of course Germany won and the Second French Empire lost, and Alsace was the reason France jumped in WW1 43 years later (you can quote other official reasons too but trust me that’s the actual one).
The antiquated Dreyse, although upgraded several time, was still no match for the French rifle. It was plagued by several key features ; the percussion cap of its cartridges was seated deep inside the powder charge at the base of the bullet, in an effort to optimize the barrel’s resistance to fouling, meaning the needle was constantly corroded and blew up after less than 100 shots, requiring field stripping the gun after prolongated fire ; the gas seal was poor in the best cases and inexistent in most, resulting in German soldiers being unable to aim down their guns and resorting to hip fire for most of the conflict, else they burn their amazing moustaches off ; it simply wasn’t as good as the Chassepot.
The Mle 1866 on the other hand had double the effective range due to the gas seal allowing for higher pressure in the chamber and thus more velocity and a flatter trajectory for the bullet. This was a slight trade off as the rubber gas-seal had to be changed every 80 or so shots, a process however that took less than a minute. Fouling was also an issue, but rarely to the point of impairing the gun’s performance in a single battle. It’s to be noted that these gas issues were all solved with the adoption of metallic cartridges and a diet rich in fiber a bit later in history.

Mle 1874 Gras rifle with gravity-fed magazine modification

This weapon thus marked one of the first step toward the trend of massive firepower that would confirm itself during WW1, with an accurate, fast-loading rifle that slowly spelled the doom of lined battles. It would went on as the Gras 1866/74 using a 11mm metallic cartridge, serving up to WW1 in border units and attaining notoriety under this name within the Greek resistance up to WW2.
That’s also my favorite gun ever -bounces
I never did know how to end an article. I wrote all that shit from memory with help from Wikipedia for dates and stuff. Have some additional pics.

the Mle 1874 and Mle 1866/74 Gras were identical in everything but their origin.

a Chassepot bayonet, with the distinctive yatagan double-curvature

a Gras bayonet

Centaurus A is either an elliptical or lenticular galaxy (the type is currently under debate) and is home to a supermassive black hole whose mass is 55 million times that of the sun. This black hole ejects relativistic jets, which are beams of ionised matter that are accelerated to the speed of light. The ionised matter collides with the surrounding gas further out which produces X-Rays over 1,000 light-years long.