gas cloud

@aculeatus replied to your post “@elynight replied to your post “@elynight replied to your post…”

this is making me think of tsuna finding out about cryptids and finding those detailed interviews/radio shows talking about specific ones like sasquatch.


tsuna trying to record/get copies to send back to hayato because in no au is hayato ever not a sucker for cryptids even though in this one he sort of technically is one himself. maybe when they get the 2-way universe travelling thing fixed hayato can pop over for cryptid night. just stick his head over and yell ‘I HEARD SOMEONE SAY SOMETHING ABOUT NESSIE I AM HERE I AM READY’

he’s got about half a dozen notebooks open and is taking notes on all of them because he just cannot write fast enough on one alone. tsuna encourages him. it’s nice to have good hobbies. (considering they are sentient gas clouds basically, any hobby is a good hobby.)

Gum 29

Gum 29 is a star forming region located about 20,000 light years away towards the constellation Carina. The clouds of dust and gas surround star cluster Westerlund 2, containing some 3000 stars.

These young energetic stars emit strong ultraviolet radiation, which, along with powerful streams of charged particles called stellar winds, carve away at the surrounding hydrogen gas cloud. This onslaught has shaped the nebula into fantastic shapes as well as powering its glow. The bright stars in this image, however, are not part of the region but actually foreground stars standing between us and the nebula.

Image and information from ESA.


V838 Monocerotis

V838 Monocerotis (V838 Mon) is a red variable star in the constellation Monoceros about 20,000 light years from our Sun. The previously unknown star was observed in early 2002 experiencing a major outburst, and was possibly one of the largest known stars for a short period following the outburst. Originally believed to be a typical nova eruption, it was then realized to be something completely different. The reason for the outburst is still uncertain, but several conjectures have been put forward, including an eruption related to stellar death processes and a merger of a binary star or planets.

The remnant is evolving rapidly. By 2009 its temperature had increased to 3,270K and its luminosity was 15,000 times solar, but its radius had decreased to 380 times that of the sun although the ejecta continues to expand. The opaque ejected dust cloud has completely engulfed the B-type companion.

Credit: NASA

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Falling Into a Black Hole

A gas cloud named G2 is about to collide with Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. A simulation shows how the cloud might be stretched and torn apart.

Black holes, the ultradense collapsed objects predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity, are often depicted as voracious feeders whose extraordinary gravity acts like a one-way membrane: Everything is sucked in, even light, and virtually nothing leaks out.

Now, for the first time, astronomers may have a chance to watch as a giant black hole consumes a cosmic snack.

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The Cat’s Paw Nebula in Infrared

Infrared view of the Cat’s Paw Nebula (NGC 6334) taken by ESO’s VISTA. NGC 6334 is a vast region of star formation about 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius. The whole gas cloud is about 50 light-years across. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of young massive stars in our galaxy, some nearly ten times the mass of our Sun and most born in the last few million years.


G34.3 - Cosmic cloud containing enough alcohol to keep the whole world drinking for a billion years.

In 1995, the gas cloud G34.3 was discovered 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Aquila. It’s absolutely massive, with a diameter 1,000 times the diameter of our entire Solar System, and contains enough alcohol to supply 300,000 pints (a pint = 473 ml) of beer every day to every single person on Earth for the next billion years. G34.3 was found by a team of British astronomers using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, which sits on top of Hawaii’s Mauna Kea Volcano. Ethyl alcohol - the principal type of alcohol found in our alcoholic beverages - was first discovered in interstellar gas in 1975, but the discovery of G34.3’s alcoholic content was the first time such a vast amount had been detected in a celestial body. At the centre of this cloud is a young star, and the team suggested that when grains of dust containing alcohol floated near it, they got so warm, the alcohol turned into gas and remained in that state within the cloud. It’s been almost 20 years since its discovery, but G34.3 remains one of the booziest clouds we’ve ever found.  


Bok Globules in the Carina Nebula

A Bok globule nicknamed the “caterpillar” appears in the top image. Its glowing edge indicates that it is being photoionized by the hottest stars in the cluster. It has been hypothesized that stars may form inside such dusty cocoons. The top of the Keyhole Nebula, the most prominent feature embedded inside Carina, is in the bottom image. Another Bok globule is in the foreground.

Credit: NASA/ESA/Hubble/N. Smith (University of California, Berkeley)

  • Orion Nebula in Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Image Credit Copyright: César Blanco González 
  • The Orion Nebula is among the most intensely studied celestial features.The nebula has revealed much about the process of how stars and planetary systems are formed from collapsing clouds of gas and dust. 
  • Astronomers have directly observed protoplanetary disks, brown dwarfs, intense and turbulent motions of the gas, and the photo-ionizing effects of massive nearby stars in the nebula.

Star Forming Region - NGC 3324

Located in the Southern Hemisphere, NGC 3324 is at the northwest corner of the Carina Nebula (NGC 3372), home of the Keyhole Nebula and the active, outbursting star Eta Carinae. The entire Carina Nebula complex is located at a distance of roughly 7,200 light-years, and lies in the constellation Carina.

The image also reveals dramatic dark towers of cool gas and dust that rise above the glowing wall of gas. The dense gas at the top resists the blistering ultraviolet radiation from the central stars, and creates a tower that points in the direction of the energy flow. The high-energy radiation blazing out from the hot, young stars in NGC 3324 is sculpting the wall of the nebula by slowly eroding it away.

Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

Dark Matter Protects Gas Cloud

Like a bullet wrapped in a full metal jacket, a high-velocity hydrogen cloud hurtling toward the Milky Way appears to be encased in a shell of dark matter, according to a new analysis of data from the National Science Foundation’s Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Astronomers believe that without this protective shell, the high-velocity cloud (HVC) known as the Smith Cloud would have disintegrated long ago when it first collided with the disk of our Galaxy.

f confirmed by further observations, a halo of dark matter could mean that the Smith Cloud is actually a failed dwarf galaxy, an object that has all the right stuff to form a true galaxy, just not enough to produce stars.

“The Smith Cloud is really one of a kind. It’s fast, quite extensive, and close enough to study in detail,” said Matthew Nichols with the Sauverny Observatory in Switzerland and principal author on a paper accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. “It’s also a bit of a mystery; an object like this simply shouldn’t survive a trip through the Milky Way, but all the evidence points to the fact that it did.” Previous studies of the Smith Cloud revealed that it first passed through our Galaxy many millions of years ago. By reexamining and carefully modeling the cloud, astronomers now believe that the Smith Cloud contains and is actually wrapped in a substantial “halo” of dark matter – the gravitationally significant yet invisible stuff that makes up roughly 80 percent of all the matter in the Universe.

“Based on the currently predicted orbit, we show that a dark matter free cloud would be unlikely to survive this disk crossing,” observed Jay Lockman, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia, and one of the coauthors on the paper. “While a cloud with dark matter easily survives the passage and produces an object that looks like the Smith Cloud today.” The Milky Way is swarmed by hundreds of high-velocity clouds, which are made up primarily of hydrogen gas that is too rarefied to form stars in any detectable amount. The only way to observe these objects, therefore, is with exquisitely sensitive radio telescopes like the GBT, which can detect the faint emission of neutral hydrogen. If it were visible with the naked eye, the Smith Cloud would cover almost as much sky as the constellation Orion.

Most high-velocity clouds share a common origin with the Milky Way, either as the leftover building blocks of galaxy formation or as clumps of material launched by supernovas in the disk of the galaxy. A rare few, however, are interlopers from farther off in space with their own distinct pedigree. A halo of dark matter would strengthen the case for the Smith Cloud being one of these rare exceptions. Currently, the Smith Cloud is about 8,000 light-years away from the disk of our Galaxy. It is moving toward the Milky Way at more than 150 miles per second and is predicted to impact again in approximately 30 million years. “If confirmed to have dark matter this would in effect be a failed galaxy,” said Nichols. “Such a discovery would begin to show the lower limit of how small a galaxy could be.” The researchers believe this could also improve our understanding of the Milky Way’s earliest star formation.

Image Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF