Foamy rock

Volcanic eruptions are powered by a release of pressure as buoyant magma rises towards the surface. As it does so it expands, pressurising the overlying rocks further until a breaking point is reached and the magma comes out onto the surface. How it does so depends on its chemical composition, those with more silica are more viscous and those with less more runny. As the magma rises, its capacity to hold dissolved gases such as water, CO2 or SO2 reduces, and bubbles come out of solution. If the magma is runny, no problem, the bubbles rise up and by the time the magma turns into lava it has mostly degassed, leading to spectacular lava rivers but (usually) not causing too much havoc. For the more viscous lavas, the gases can’t escape, and so the pressure builds up much higher, leading to spectacular explosions of cone shaped peaks like that of Mt St Helens in 1981 or Vesuvio in 79CE.

When a lava of any composition is cooled quickly, a glass such as obsidian or Pelee’s hair results. If it was very gassy you get pumice , a rock that is often so porous and bubble filled that it will float on water, sometimes as vast rafts in the oceans for months on end. Take the gassiness a stage further in a basaltic lava in a huge lava fountain, and you get this rock called reticulite. It consists of a fine mesh network of glassy walls that were once between now burst bubbles, and is very fragile. It is often carried large distances downwind before settling, as it is so light.


Image credit: 1 James Van Gundy/2 USGS


Uniform of private Gilbert Wien 1st Gas Regiment during the First World War on display at the Imperial War Museum

Previously the 13th Engineers, the 1st Gas Regiment of the American Army during the First World War was trained to use chemical gas attacks and flame throwers. Both weapons would have caused horrific injuries to those attacked and often to those using the weapons.

NO FURBALLS!  Clover the Bunny’s Guide to Gas/GI Stasis.

Since rabbits can’t vomit, gas/stasis can be caused by many things like excess fur in the gut, improper diet or a fright/shock to the system.  There are also genetic predispositions to stasis, but that’s it’s own issue.

First, it’s important to know the sound of your rabbit’s gut when he is healthy.  Press your ear against his side and listen.  You should hear an occasional, quiet, gurgling.  This is a normal bunny gut, digesting food and moving it along.  A bunny who has gas will have VERY LOUD tummy gurgles.  Clover once had gas that I could hear across the room.  NOT normal.  A bunny who is in stasis will have very little to no tummy gurgles.

Next you should know the usual signs of a bunny who is suffering from gas/stasis.  This is where it’s important to know your bunny’s personality.  Rabbits will become lethargic, will hunch up and/or press their stomach to the ground, not want to eat or drink and not go to the bathroom. The items pictured above are great treatments to help your rabbit pass his blockage/alleviate his gas.

Critical Care: This is to put fiber back in to the bunny’s gut and keep it moving.  Rabbit’s have very weak digestive muscles, which is why they need to constantly eat.  If there’s nothing in there for too long, or if something gets stuck, they will get sick.  Your rabbit will most likely not want to eat it on his own so you will need to force feed him by syringe.  I personally give Clover one syringeful every few hours.  Remember, it takes ~6 hrs. for food to enter bunny’s mouth, be digested, and turned into poo, so keep that in mind when scheduling feedings.  You want to make sure you keep everything moving.

Infant Gas Relief: SIMETHICONE ONLY!  There are many different infant gas meds with various active ingredients, but be sure to give only simethicone, preferably dye-free.  It is safe enough to give multiple times a day.  I give it even if bunny isn’t necessarily suffering from gas.

Coconut Water: Clover LOVES this!  It’s slightly sweet, but extremely hydrating.  Make sure to give UNFLAVORED coconut water only.  Since bunny probably won’t be drinking much, either, give this in place of or mixed with water.  Again it will keep him hydrated and keep things moving along.

Movement: You may have noticed how much I’ve mentioned the word “move”.  That’s because this is very important to helping your bunny recover.  Your bunny will absolutely not want to move, but you absolutely HAVE TO make him move.  Even if it’s only for a few minutes at a time, this will help kickstart the gut.  I recommend giving the Crit Care and gas meds and then force him for a run.

Prevention: Constant grooming, a proper diet of fiber (it should be 80% hay, 20% pellets, 20% fresh greens) and knowledge.  KNOWLEDGE IS POWER!  Knowing what to do can literally save your rabbit’s life.

It’s also important to remember these treatments are in no way meant to replace vet care.  If your rabbit doesn’t improve after trying these things, YOU MUST TAKE HIM TO A RABBIT SAVVY VET.  

So as you may have guessed, I’m writing this because Clover had a bought of stasis yesterday.  Thankfully, because of these treatments, I got him to pass the blockage.  I think a combination of his excessive shedding and the fact that he can’t eat as much hay as he should (because of his malocclusion) backed him up.  I thought writing up these tips would be more helpful than just stating he had it and taking a cute pic.  Please reblog this!


Explorer Sam Cossman’s Drone Footage of a Volcano in Vanuatu.

Using camera mounted drones, research was conducted in order for scientists to better understand the structure of these volcanoes.

Although two drones were harmed in the making of this footage, the team confronted lava and toxic gas to bring back these incredible images. Check out the rest at Nat Geo.

(Nat Geo)

I know this is long, but please read:

Tyler has struggled his entire life. He has “been poor as long as [he] can remember” and the one thing he wants more than anything in the world is to be able to provide a good life free of the worry and trite he has known, for whatever family he may have, and he has always known that the best way to do that is to receive an education and get a good job. Currently, he is not so sure he will be able to do that. In fact, he is almost certain that all the work he has done to get himself into school will be for nothing, because he can’t afford to finish his degree.

Over the course of the last year and a half, Tyler has been hit with obstacle after obstacle. Most of them revolving about money. He is trying and working so hard to be able to just get his Bachelor’s degree in math, but his parents are unable to help him financially, and so he is required to depend on work and financial aid. He’s had to move out of his parents’ house because it was simply getting too crowded, and is struggling every month just to make rent and the electric bill. On top of this, his roommate (who had no job at the time) asked him for money, and Tyler– having a tender heart always willing to help anyone he can– gave what little he had, hoping that his roomaye’s promise to eventually pay him back would not be forgotten.

The struggles have been tremendous for Tyler. He is behind on rent, electricity, and occasionally does not even have spare money for food if he wants gas money in order to make it to work. His student debt is piling up with interest alone to the point where he doubts he’ll ever be able to get out of debt and have a good life for his family. He is desperate to finish out his bachelor’s degree, but is struggling for money so terribly that he does not even think he can afford to finish school, and he is so close to finishing. He has begun falling into a hopeless kind of depression because his very faith and hope in a better future have been shaken. He can no longer see his situation getting any better. I am truly afraid of what may happen if things don’t change.

i realize this goal is a huge one, and there are causes much more worthy to donate to. But Tyler is desperate just to survive. He is desperate to not despair at wondering when he will be able to feed himself. This is my attempt at restoring his hope and faith. My attempt at showing him that things will be okay. If you personally cannot make any sort of donation, please at least direct others who may be able to, or may have the desire to. Help him not have to worry, at least for the time being. Help him finish his degree and know that his life is not as hopeless as he believes it to be right now.

Please. Please help him achieve the better life he has always longed for. He has known struggle, strife, brokenness, and poverty all his life. Help him to have a taste of hope.

Guys, even if you can’t donate anything, I am BEGGING you to reblog it. Signal boost this, please. I am so worried about my boyfriend and will do anything to help him… Please, guys. PLEASE help in any way you can, by donating or by taking the five seconds it takes to reblog.

The link to donate is here: http://www.gofundme.com/wy7n4ck

Georgia deputy asks to remain anonymous after amazing act of kindness

A local woman is thanking a Forsyth County Sheriff’s Deputy for a small act of kindness that will go a very long way.

Alex Davis, who is 27 weeks pregnant, was standing in line behind the deputy at a gas station in Cumming, waiting to pay for her gas. She barely had enough money to get home.  

“I was talking to my fiancé on the phone and told him I’d scraped up the last $10 I found in my car to get home and get to work tomorrow,” Davis told Channel 2 Action News.

That’s when something incredible happened.

“I got to the counter and the employee said, ‘That officer just paid for your gas.’”

Read more

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