gallo roman

Cernunnos by Milek Jakubiec.

Cernunnos is the conventional name given in Celtic studies to depictions of the “horned god” of Celtic polytheism. Cernunnos was a Celtic god of fertility, life, animals, wealth, and the underworld. The name itself is only attested once, on the 1st-century Pillar of the Boatmen, but he appears all over Gaul, and among the Celtiberians. Cernunnos is depicted with the antlers of a stag, sometimes carries a purse filled with coin, often seated cross-legged and often associated with animals and holding or wearing torcs, are known from over 50 examples in the Gallo-Roman period, mostly in north-eastern Gaul.


♞ CELTIC MYTHOLOGY: Epona (/ɨˈpnə/)

↳ In Gallo-Roman religion, Epona was a protector of horses, donkeys, and mules. She was particularly a goddess offertility, as shown by her attributes of a patera, cornucopia, ears of grain and the presence of foals in some sculptures. She and her horses might also have been leaders of the soul in the after-life ride, with parallels in Rhiannon of the Mabinogion. Unusual for a Celtic deity, most of whom were associated with specific localities, the worship of Epona, “the sole Celtic divinity ultimately worshipped in Rome itself,” was widespread in the Roman Empire between the first and third centuries AD.

PSG Roundtable #9: Practicing Multiple Traditions

We’ll be talking about our perspectives on being someone who practices in multiple traditions.  Before I start, I want to make it clear that I’m coming at this with a series of biases.  I believe that:

  • The gods are separate, unique agents in and of themselves as individuals (hard polytheism);
  • Objects have, or can develop, their own spirits to varying degrees of animistic complexity;
  • Gods, guides, and spirits can communicate with us in a variety of ways
  • By its very nature, practicing in multiple traditions means acknowledging that no single tradition is the only “true” one;
  • My experiences are not reflective of everyone’s and what works for me and mine may not work for you and yours.  While I do have strong personal feelings on this subject, they’re still only my personal opinion.

I’m also approaching this as an Irish polytheist and Kemetic, among other things, who is part of an (offline) group of hard polytheists from various traditions of their own, including Bacchic Orphic, Gallo-Roman, Heathenry, and Santeria.

What does it mean to be “multi-trad” or practice in multiple traditions?

I use “tradition” to refer to any collection of beliefs and behaviors that is coherent and has a recognizable identity of what it means to be a part of that group.

To be multi-trad, then, is to be able to move between various traditions.  Think of a big, lovely house with a room for each faith tradition: when I’m in the Irish polytheist room, I follow its guidelines for interacting with the Tuatha Dé, leave votive offerings, celebrate the cross-quarter days, understand that words like ‘poetry’ and ‘satire’ have very different meanings in this context.  When I go to the Kemetic room, I might wake up the Netjeru in their statues and worship in specific “praise” postures, share in food and drink (and for me, maybe talk alchemy).  When I visit friends in the Santeria room, I change out of my default black to completely white clothes, greet the Orisha in a way very different from the Tuatha Dé and Netjeru, and try to keep up with a completely different etiquette and sense of hierarchy to show respect for the divine, dead, and living Santo communities.

Can I combine multiple practices?

In my personal opinion, combining multiple traditions into a single “one approach fits all” practice means losing the characteristics that empower those traditions as individual identities.  I mean, you could worship Brighid as a Triple Goddess of Maiden/Mother/Crone, but doing so means taking the Celtic tendency to triplify goddesses to emphasize power and turning it into something that misconstrues much of Brighid’s nature.  YMMV.

That doesn’t mean one practice won’t ever impact another.  Say it’s Samhain and I’m honoring the Morrígan; before beginning my rites for her, I might also acknowledge other deities with whom I share death-related work, like Anpu in his psychopompic aspect, and the spirit allies who help me handle the unhappy dead that come up through my work at the women’s center.  Or perhaps I’ll honor them all in separate rites, not because Samhain has anything to do with Anpu but because my own associations with Samhain overlap with my work with him and doing so doesn’t violate anyone’s etiquette.  In another instance, if you’re oathed to a deity and you agree to a task they give you, you might then turn around to your dead or your guiding spirits and say, “All right, troops, here’s the goal.  I’d like your help to get it done, please,” even if your dead or guides don’t come from that deity’s paradigm.

Can I have events, like rituals, for multiple traditions?

It’s definitely possible to have multi-trad events, but if you try that, you need to be careful that the different entities are getting what they need.  Make sure everyone gets an appropriate offering (within reason, of course - sometimes you have to negotiate, like, “Dude, you can’t have that whole bottle of $50 whiskey, how about a shot of Fireball instead?”) without someone feeling ignored because of another.  Don’t put the shrines of entities who don’t get along beside one another.   Make sure you share the Netjeru’s portion of food, but once you offer something to the Tuatha Dé, it’s theirs.  And so on.  It’s like…having a dinner party with finicky guests of wildly differing temperaments, complete with some cultural barriers.  It can be a lot of fun, especially if you have skillful mediums with you and/or dedicants who are knowledgeable in their respective paths, but it can be a lot of work.  I think it’s well worth it, but I know some people would disagree.

When my own group has multitrad events, we always make sure to have a shrine for each god or pantheon to which the humans have oaths or relationships and plenty of diverse offerings so we can provide proper hospitality for whomever chooses to show up.  We also put a huge emphasis on consent, both human and nonhuman, so we don’t assume who will or won’t be present and willing to work with us - we just make sure the ritual space is available.

If you decide to go the ritualistic route, the hardest part is making sure that your ‘ritual tech’ - that is, your methodology - doesn’t violate the rules of one of the traditions in question.  Some traditions aren’t very strict on some things, like perhaps your method of cleansing yourself spiritually, but there shouldn’t be actual conflict in ideology or application.  Divining for the input of the gods and spirits involved, and maybe asking the opinions of others with knowledge of them, can be invaluable.

How do I switch between the different paradigms?

I think it’s not unlike switching between different environments or groups of people.  When you’re at work, you behave a certain way according to your workplace’s guidelines; when you’re at school, you behave according to those rules.  Even with friends, you probably act one way with a particular group that’s different from how you act with another.  You wouldn’t behave the same way around your conservative grandparents as you do with your mates at the pub.  You’re not lying or ‘faking it’ in any of these scenarios: you’re adjusting your style of communication and behavior to match the requirements and expectations of your environment.  When you’re familiar with the rules, when you have solid relationships with those people, you can start bending those rules a bit and acting more familiar, just as you do with human people.

Does it always have to be so complicated?

Ha, nope.  The things that I do with my group are usually much more involved than what I do privately because there are more traditions being represented, but that also means there are more people present to share the physical and spiritual work.  I maintain only as many relationships as I feel is reasonable for me, my lifestyle, my resources, and my rather limited spoons.  I’d rather have deeper knowledge of a few traditions to make my practice feel that much richer and fulfilling for me than try to juggle many different ones (although having general knowledge is often useful).

But I do take these fewer relationships as seriously as I do human ones, and any kind of mutually beneficial, respectful, healthy relationship takes effort.

It’s too much work and research!

Many of us have busy lives: job(s), kids, schooling, and so on.  Some of us are limited by funds, spoons, or other factors out of our control.  But if your reason for not doing at least some research with the sources you have access to in order to have a baseline understanding of the paradigm from which a specific god is coming is just, “It’s too much work,” I don’t have much sympathy.  Isn’t the relationship you forge with a deity worth that extra effort, which can deepen and strengthen that relationship because of shared language and understanding?  This doesn’t mean you need to go back to school to have a scholar’s understanding, and the gods’ conception of time is different from ours; their sense of ‘hurry up’ is, I think, often very different from ours, and you can take the time you need.  Religion should fit into your life, not the other way around, but you do still have to do the work.

What are the benefits of all this work?

You’d have to ask other people, but for me, some things I’ve gotten out of this include:

  • Showing respect for the gods and spirits and developing deeper, more nuanced relationships because of it
  • Showing respect for the tradition’s ancestors and, if relevant, living culture
  • Enrichment of personal perspective, broadening of horizons, etc.
  • I mean seriously, the world is so weird and people and the gods are so amazing and complex and diverse, why wouldn’t you want to engage with them as they’ve revealed themselves to us rather than try pigeonholing them into something we think they should be?

Do I still need to think about cultural appropriation?


Do I still need to be initiated into things?

If initiation is part of the tradition you’re choosing to engage in, then yes.  Hanging out with Santeros, for example, does not make me a Santera myself, nor does it mean I have access to the mysteries of the tradition.  I would still need to undergo the same training and rites that every other Santero in this tradition has had to do.  As it is, I’m perfectly happy just being an invited guest.  Going back to my Big House of Faith metaphor, some rooms have more locked cupboards and drawers than others: initiations are the means by which you earn the keys to unlock them.  There’s actually a lot to be said about initiations, but that should probably be saved for another post.

Here are the “multifaith practice” tag, the resource blog @thepaganstudygroupresourcepage, and our collected links on various traditions and kinds of information.

Now that I’ve talked at great length - do my fellow mods who practice multiple traditions have their own experiences that they’d like to share?

- mountain hound

I don’t have much to add since I think MH covered a lot of the main points. As for my own experiences, you need to know that your discernment may still mean fuck all. If their myths and legends paint them as never getting along (for example, Korean deities versus Greek, though there aren’t any actual myths about that) it’s very fair to assume that if your UPG is that they get along swimmingly and don’t mind you mixing up the two traditions, you’re probably skewing something here. 

Like MH, I make sure to keep my Kemetic shrine in its own space and my Mugyo shrine in its own space. Keep in mind that each tradition may have particular regulations and rules that simply cannot be mixed. Forcing it together is an amalgamation and has a very high risk of offending the gods of both pantheons.

Being properly initiated is a huge deal. No matter what you read or watch as an outsider or fringe-member, you’re kept in the dark about specific hows and whys to the things we do inside the tradition. You’re always going to be missing something, some key information. So if you are able to get initiated into the tradition that you’re vetted for, you should do so.

- trueriptide

The PSG Roundtable Index


French national identity is based on the historical origins of the nation in Celtic, Gallo-Roman, and Frankish cultures. The name “France” originally was used to refer to several peoples in the lower Rhineland.

Few people realize that France has become a multiracial society, largely due to its African, Caribbean and Asian colonial past. But other European, North and South American countries also contribute to the French “melting pot".

buckyshattergirl  asked:

I'm going to the gallo-roman museum today and I'm trying to come up with Roman!Bucky headcanons but I'm getting all my history fucked up. I can only come up with Ancient Greek stuff lol! Maybe when I come back I can come up with some accurate stuff ahahah

I’m literally sitting here studying Roman history!

anonymous asked:

So what if our whole timeline is wrong? We know Claudia died in 2004, that sometime during the last ten years the Nemeton was cut down, Deaton left the Hales, Matt died, the happenings of Visionary, Malia's accident and the Hale's were burned - what if all of this is connected? And it either started with the Nemeton being cut down or Claudia dying (likely the latter as it's the only thing with an actual year). Plus Stiles thinks he killed his Mom - so either his Mom died and that's why they cut

And that’s why they cut the Nemeton or cutting the Nemeton killed Claudia - so either his Mom could be the guardian of the Nemeton and(bit of a stretch, I know)Stiles being the avatar of the Nemeton? Claudia made him/it human to save it causeing her to die and him feeling responsible - fitting in with a lot of things, like his abilities and everyone being wary of him but also the whole Nogitsune plot not adding up because Chris actually said cutting the Nemeton would cause despair and all that!


Linking Claudia Stilinski to the Nemeton is a theory many of us have toyed with quite a bit. And the things you point out here certainly fits. i’m not touching the timeline stuff because i don’t really think we need to rock with that to make a connection that works.

One thing we’ve come back to a few times is that Claudia might have been the goddess Nemetona

Nemetona is a very ancient Goddess of the Celts, specifically those in Gaul (what is now France). As well, She is thought to have been the eponymous deity of the Nemetes, a group of Germano-Celtic people living by the Rhine in an area now called Trier in Germany. The Celts, in general, did not build temples, but rather practiced their spirituality in sacred groves and Nemetona personifies this belief in the sacred land. Her name literally means ‘sacred space’, from the Celtic root ‘nemeto’ which means ‘sacred area’. She is related to the druidic concept of nemeton, the designation of sacred spiritual space

So far so good  - and that would make Stiles half human and half sacred tree spirit. a demigod if you will. which brings to mind this article where Jeff Davis compare Stiles to Perseus who is also a demigod

Here’s the relevant part:

AX: I knew Stiles has this frustration that he has no powers, but in a way you can’t give him powers. You need to have at least somebody who isn’t a hunter or a werewolf. He has to be himself.

DAVIS: He has to remain human and humans in supernatural stories, can for a time wield supernatural objects and be empowered by them. He needs to be ordinary in a way. He needed to be Perseus, given a sword and shield by the Gods, but he has to rely on his own wits when he faces the monster, in the same way Perseus chased Medusa and used his own wits to show her own reflection and turn her to stone. That is Stiles. You give him mountain ash, he can spread a circle around it, but he has to rely on his own wits as well. I go back to Greek myth quite a bit. I love the whole Hitchcockian idea of an ordinary person becoming extraordinary by being thrown into extraordinary circumstances. That’s Stiles. I believe Stiles always has to remain human in this series.

And we’ve also seen that in the mirror verse Stiles has a book of Percy Jackson and the lightning thief very prominently on display in his mirror room. Percy = Perseus. 

Nemetona is also associated or accompanied by Mars Loucetios which also has some interesting light and lightening traits…  

In Gallo-Roman religionLoucetios (Latinized as Leucetius) was a Gallic god invariably identified with the Roman Mars. About a dozen inscriptions in his honour have been recovered, mainly from eastern Gaul, with a particular concentration among the Vangiones(a Rhenish tribe). Mars Loucetios is often accompanied by Nemetona

The name Loucetios may be derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *leuk- (“shine”). It is presumably analogous to Oscan Loucetius, “light-bringer,” an epithet of Jupiter.[2] The Gaulish and Brythonic forms likely derive from Proto-Celtic *louk(k)et-, “bright, shining, flashing,” hence also “lightning,”[3] in reference to either a Celtic commonplace metaphor between battles and thunderstorms (Old Irish torannchless, the “thunder feat”), or the divine aura of the hero (the lúan of Cú Chulainn).

light-bringer… Remember this

As Scott’s loyal and trusted best friend, Stiles brings the brains and often the humor to the operation. Always willing to risk his life to help his supernatural friends, Stiles is the light of Beacon Hills. But this season being part of Scott’s pack will bring new challenges and their friendship will be tested.

And Loucetios is a lightning god and also associated with sacred groves

Even Loucetios, a lightening god, is associated with sacred groves, as the druids associated lightening with sacred trees, in particular oaks. It is very possible the Loucetios would have been associated with ‘drunemeton‘: the sacred oak grove.

Many seem to think Stiles is a druid. I don’t think so. Druids seem to have limited powers, uses the nemeton as a tool and needs to perform rituals etc to tap into it. Stiles seems more to be an extension of the Nemeton - like it flows from him. 

which would also explain why he seemed to be the one with the closest link to it, especially after the ice bath sacrifice. it calls to him, he reaches for it.

and assuming the telluric currents with energy from the nemeton is flowing out in beacon hills, i believe stiles can tap into these energies at will. and that might be why we see him display such a wide range of abilites from telekinesis, strength, faster healing, immunity to electricity etc. 

If Claudia is connected to the Nemeton then i think cutting it down was what killed her. As the tree died so did she. Trees typically doesn’t just keel over and die like humans and animals. which also give new insight to this little piece of wording from stiles


Stiles: Wha-okay, so what, I’m just supposed to wait around for someone else to die, then? I’m just supposed to sit there and watch them die? Just wait for them to wither up and die right in front of me?

Lydia: Wither?

Wither up and die - now that sounds like something a tree would do.

there are many teories as for what could be the root of Stiles’ guilt, because i definitely think he’s carrying around a lot of that. But whether he feels guilty because he believe he killed his mother or because his dad seems to blame him is another question altogether. 

no matter, this is fascinating stuff. And i’m going to tag obviouslystiles in this because Rachel was the one who really opened my eyes to the nemetona possibly being something. 

and i know i’ve also got theories about Stiles possibly being connected to Dr valack somehow, especially with the I see you drawing on his wall. But lately i’ve been wondering if this might be a hint that Dr Valack sees Stiles and not that Stiles necessarily sees like he does. Not sure that made any sense. oh well, i’m gonna stop here anyway before i dig myself a too deep meta hole. 

(and yes, i do think claudia was a guardian of the nemeton)

Emeralds and oxygen: Back to the source.

Finding out where emeralds come from is a tricky business. Laboratory gemmologists asked to write a coloured stone origin report and archaeologists wishing to trace stones in ancient jewellery need this knowledge, and a variety of techniques are used in combination in order to arrive at a robust conclusion.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

Hi,Do you know much about the celtic gods/deities? I come from a place where there are deep celtic roots and kinda wanted to learn more about it but don't know where to begin. Thanks again :) Ella x

It really depends on what you had in mind. There are many Celtic cultures and mythologies. Here are a few resources:

Online Resources:


Celtic Polytheism on Wikipedia - Wikipedia’s portal for Celtic polytheism
CR FAQ - Celtic Reconstructionism Frequently Asked Questions, a nice go-to resource
Celtic Texts on the Sacred Texts Archive - Lots of books and documents well worth a read
CeltNet Celtic Pages - I’m pretty sure this site has literally every Celtic deity in its index
Earth, Sea, and Sky - An e-publication for Celtic Reconstructionism
e-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies - what is says; plenty of articles on Iron Age culture and archaeology, with an entire volume devoted to the Celiberians!
Imbas - General CR resources
Kelticos - reenactment-centric forum for the Celtic Iron Age, lots of info
Mary Jones - Home of the Celtic Encyclopedia and the Celtic Literature Collective
Proto-Indo-European Religion - not Celtic, but a good reference for PIE religion and deities for comparison

Gaelic Polytheism:

Gaol Naofa - Gaelic polytheism resources
Ireland Abroad - myths and topics in indexed form
Irish Mythology on MyGuide Ireland - neat page on the survival of Irish mythology in modern times
Mythical Ireland - Irish mythology, sacred sites, and archaeology
The Myths of the Gods: Structures in Irish Mythology by Alan Ward - a nice long analysis on of deity types and classifications in Irish mythology, with cross-Celtic and Indo-European comparisons
Tairis - Gaelic polytheism resources
Voices from the Dawn - ancient monuments in Ireland and their folklore

Gaulish Polytheism:

Acy-Romance - Detailed interactive site on the territory of the Gaulish Remi, their sacred sites, history
À la recherche des fêtes celto-romaines - a short but very useful essay collecting dates of Gaulish deity insciptions across Central Europe
Calendrier Gaulois Astronomique Restitué : Siècle gaulois de -0151 à -0122 - digital version of the Coligny Calendar taking into account the time span between 151 and 122 BCE
Cernunnos: Origin and Transformation of a Celtic Divinity by Phyllis Fray Bober, American Journal of Archaeology - an article on Cernunnos on JSTOR
Condēuios - a Gaulish reconstructionist polytheist’s scribd page full of essays and data on the gods and Gaulish religion; lots of articles in both English and Portuguese
David Ficker-Wilbar - Cernunnos: Looking Another Way - a useful resource on Cernunnos
Deo Mercurio - a very excellent Gallo-Roman resource focusing on the religion of the Treverii - website devoted to Epona, the Gaulish goddess of horses, and perhaps a few other things as well
Télécharger Coligny - Coligny Calendar app with moon phases included
Gaulish Polytheism Facebook Community - Community for Gaulish polytheists on facebook, full of several good resources
L’Arbre Celtique - Great resource if you can read French, though not particularly aimed at religion
Maruadiat es Gaul - an online group on the site Ancient Worlds devoted to discussion of Gaulish history and archaeology

Welsh and Brythonic Polytheism:

Dun Brython - Brythonic polytheism site, aimed at Iron Age religion rather than medieval; many shared concepts and deities with Gaul
The Mabinogion - a website devoted to the Welsh Mabinogion and its history

Offline Resources:

General Celtic:

The Ancient Celts by Barry Cunliffe
Celtic Ornament in the British Isles by E.T. Leeds
Celtic Warrior: 300 BC – AD 100  by Stephen Allen and Wayne Reynolds
The Celtic World edited by Miranda J. Green
The Celts edited by Venceslas Kruta et. al.
Chronicle of Celtic Folk Customs by Brian Day
Coinage in the Celtic World by Daphne Nash
Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise by Xavier Delamarre
Fiery Shapes: Celestial Portents and Astrology in Ireland and Wales 700-1700by Mark Williams
The Forts of Celtic Britain by Angus Konstam and Peter Bull
The Gallic War by Julius Caesar
The Historical Atlas of the Celtic World by John Haywood
The Life and Death of a Druid Prince by Anne Ross and Don Robins
The Philosopher and the Druids by Philip Freeman
Rome’s Enemies (2): Gallic & British Celts by Peter Wilcox and Angus McBride
Rome’s Enemies (4): Spanish Armies by Rafael Martinez and Angus McBride
War, Women, and Druids: Eyewitness Reports and Early Accounts of the Ancient Celts by Philip Freeman
The World of the Celts by Simon James
The World of the Druids by Miranda J. Green

Celtic Myths and Folklore:

Albion: A Guide to Legendary Britain by Jennifer Westwood
Celtic Fairy Tales by Joseph Jacobs
The Mabinogion translated by Lady Charlotte Guest
The Tain translated by Thomas Kinsella

Celtic Religions:

Celtic Curses by Bernard Mees
The Celtic Gauls: Gods, Rites and Sanctuaries by Jean Louis Bruneaux
Celtic Myths by Miranda J. Green
Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend by Miranda J. Green
The Druids by Stuart Piggot
The Gods of Roman Britain by Miranda J. Green
Les dieux de la Gaule by Paul-Marie Duval
Monnaies gauloises et mythes celtiques by Paul-Marie Duval
Pagan Celtic Britain by Anne Ross
Symbol & Image in Celtic Religious Art by Miranda J. Green


Senlis, France. Photo by Amber Maitrejean

Coming up on my blog, a visit to the ancient city of Senlis. The city was settled by the Sulbanectes, an agricultural Gallic tribe. Around the year III the city was occupied by the Romans who renamed it Augustomagus and then later, Civitas Silvanectium. In the 3rd century, in response to attacks by the Franks, the Gallo-Romans protected the city with a fortified wall, 7m high and 4m thick with 30 watch towers. The wall remained in use into the 13th century. In 1153 the first stones of Cathédrale Notre-Dame were set, then later consecrated in 1191. In later centuries the city was a royal attraction because of its close proximity to the forest of Chantilly, rich with venison. All of the kings of France from Hugh Capet (who was elected king in Senlis in 987) to Charles X lived there. In the 12th century as the city expanded, a second, higher rampart was built by Philippe Auguste that enclosed 40 hectares. The wall still remains today as a rich historical and architectural heritage in this amazing ancient city.

Mythology’s Goddesses - Epona

“In Gallo-Roman religion, Epona was a protector of horses, donkeys, and mules. She was particularly a goddess of fertility, as shown by her attributes of a patera, cornucopia, ears of grain and the presence of foals in some sculptures. She and her horses might also have been leaders of the soul in the after-life ride. Unusual for a Celtic deity, most of whom were associated with specific localities, the worship of Epona, "the sole Celtic divinity ultimately worshipped in Rome itself,” was widespread in the Roman Empire between the first and third centuries AD.“(x)

anonymous asked:

I'm still new to paganism and recently I think I've been feeling guilty. Specifically, I'm a black girl who was raised on stories about greek and celtic mythology and such and I was drawn to Gaia and Kernunnos as patron deities for various reasons. But I've seen various people say that since I'm black I should try to stick to the gods and goddess of my heritage like the Yoruba or Egyptian Gods. But I don't feel any connection to those gods AT ALL. Do you have any advice for me?

What those people are telling you is straight-up bullshit.  The Greek and Celtic polytheisms are open to anyone regardless of culture, ethnicity, race, or other identity. 

Disclaimer: I am white in both passing and identity and have never experienced what you have.  However, I’m a Celtic polytheist.  A few, though not all, reasons on why these various people are wrong:

  • Being black doesn’t automatically disclaim you from a Greek or Celtic-based heritage.  It’s entirely possible for someone with dark skin to have stronger blood ties to a Greek or Celtic culture than someone with white skin.
  • However, blood ancestry is not a requirement to be a Hellenist or Gaulish/Celtic polytheist.  There’s a reason we Celtic polytheists (and others) use the address “ancestors of blood and spirit.”
  • Cernunnos is a Gallo-Roman deity, and we all know how much the Romans loved spreading their culture and syncretizing their deities to everyone else’s.  Restricting Gaulish polytheism on the basis of skin color is protecting an ideal that never existed in the first place.
  • The Greeks did this too, especially in the Hellenic era.
  • This also has nothing to do with your nationality.  What if you were born and raised in Greece and identify as Greek?  Or in France and as French?  You have as much right to your nation’s heritage as anyone else who shares your national identity.  (The concepts within race are also different in Europe than they are in America, so that undoubtedly changes historical and contemporary views about your question depending on where you live and who you’re talking to.)  Ethnicity, ancestry, nationality, and culture are all different things, though definitely related.
  • For them to tell you which religions are okay or not okay for you to practice because you’re a black girl sounds like an expression of colonialist privilege and assumption.
  • Both religions are open as long as respect is paid to their original cultures, both the historical and the contemporary, which should be true for every religion anyway.  There may be small, individual groups who have initiatory requirements, like dedicated priesthoods, but they are not representative of the broader communities.

It’s possible some of these people mean well.  Maybe they think that ‘encouraging’ you to stick to what they assume, correctly or otherwise, is your ancestry is being supportive.  Doesn’t change how wrong they are.

There’s also a theological conflict here.  Again, I can’t speak for Hellenics, but:

  • Some of the most important principles in the Celtic polytheisms include honor (which admittedly can be defined in various ways), right action and judgment, and hospitality.  If any of the people excluding you because you’re black are Celtic polytheists, they are in contempt of their faith and their gods.  There is no honor, justice, or community in gatekeeping “since [you’re] black.”
  • The Celtic polytheisms are orthopraxic, which emphasizes conduct over ritual or ‘purity of faith.’ Conduct that violates the principles that define so much of what many of us practice is hypocritical just in general.
  • This is all true even if the gatekeepers themselves have blood ancestry.

I would much rather have someone like you, who seems to be respectful and sympathetic person, standing beside me in a ritual ráth than a racist and hypocrite with a fancy ~Celtic~ pedigree.

Anon, you have as much a right to walk a Hellenic or Celtic path as anyone else. You read up on Hellenic and Gaulish etiquette and patron deities, go chat up Gaea and Cernunnos, and ignore the squeaking of rats.

- mountain hound

Whoever is telling you that because you’re black you “should look to Yoruba or Kemeticism instead” clearly don’t know either religions very well. Just because you’re black doesn’t mean you’re able to proclaim the title of Mambo in Vodun. Just because you’re black doesn’t make you a priestess in Kemeticism. Yoruba is a tradition that is heavily protected and has a solid structure that needs to be followed, whether you’re black or not (as far as from what I’ve seen said by Yoruba practitioners).

Ancient Egyptians had quite a few different ethnicities, including Nubian, Middle Eastern etc. Kemeticism itself is an open religion seeing as Ancient Egypt was imperialistic and colonialist, because they viewed their way of life as the most civilized way to live.

You are free to go where your heart leads you especially considering your heart is leading you to gods that will most certainly welcome you with open arms.

- trueriptide

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history meme: 03/09 kings/queens | Clovis I

Clovis (c. 466 – c. 511) is considered as the first King of what will become France.
On his 16th birthday, after his father’s death, Clovis became King of the tribe of the Salian Franks but immediately set out to consolidate his position among the other various Frankish tribes. By 486, he had significantly expanded his own kingdom by defeating rival tribes and annexing neighboring domains and principalities. By the age of 21, he was a force to be reckoned with, and he was soon planning even more ambitious projects. In 486, he defeated the last Roman governor of Gaul, and captured his capital at Soissons. By uniting all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, he changed the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. He is the founder of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled for the next two centuries. Because of his conversion to the Roman Catholic faith, France –or the precursor of modern France– became the first nation to enter catholicism (since then, France is known as “the Eldest Daughter of the Church”) and it ensured him of the support of the Catholic Gallo-Roman aristocracy in his later campaign against the Visigoths, which drove them from southern Europe to expand his Kingdom. By the time Clovis died in 511 at the age of 45, his “Holy Roman Empire” encompassed nearly all of modern France and Germany.