galician-portuguese

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Saudade – a Portuguese and Galician word for a feeling of nostalgic longing for something or someone that one was fond of and which has been lost. It often carries a fatalist tone and a repressed knowledge that the object of longing might never really return. It was once described as “the love that remains” or “the love that stays” after someone is gone. (insp.)

ive-heard-the-music  asked:

Is there a word for the feeling you get when you want to return to a place you can no longer return to, like missing an old house that's been sold or a time when you were young?

Hiraeth is a deep, wistful, nostalgic sense of longing for home — a home that is no longer or perhaps never was. 

Pronounced [hɨraɪ̯θ], this Welsh word is defined as a yearning and wistful grief for people and things long gone, a homesickness tinged with grief or sadness over the lost or departed. 

It is a mix of longing, yearning, nostalgia, wistfulness, or an earnest desire.

Hiraeth bears considerable similarities with the Portuguese concept of saudade, Brazilian Portuguese banzo, Galician morriña, Romanian dor, and Ethiopian tizita.

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Saudade:
a Portuguese and Galician word for a feeling of nostalgic longing for something or someone that one was fond of and which has been lost. It often carries a fatalist tone and a repressed knowledge that the object of longing might never really return. It was once described as “the love that remains” or “the love that stays” after someone is gone.

Germanic influences in French

As many of you know, French is a member of the Romance languages, daughter language of Latin, just like Italian, Romanian, Portuguese or Catalan. 

Each of these languages are split into different branches of the family:

The distinctions into sub-branches mean that there are many differences between Romanian, Catalan or Lombard, because they do not belong to the same category. However, dissimilarities can also be accounted for by the influence of another language. For instance, Spanish had strong influence from Arabic, Romanian from Russian and/or other Slavic languages and French received mostly Frankish influence. 

French also experienced some influence from Gaulish, with regards to vocabulary and phonemes. This influence of Gaulish on French often overshadows the influence from the Franks. This is probably mirrored in the French educational system which has for a long, long time put the emphasis on and traced back the history of the country to the Gauls. This element is part of a larger trend that dates back to the late-19th century, “le roman national” (”national novel”). In a few words, it was a vision of the French history that was meant to idealise the past and entice French citizens to develop love for the motherland. (I invite you to read in French [my apologies for those who can’t read the language] this article from Slate, which deals with the subject.)

The Frankish language belongs the Low German sub-branch. Its exact ancestry and relationship with other Germanic languages of the time is left to debate. It is assumed that Frankish and Old Dutch were one unique language or cousin/sister languages. Nevertheless, even if both languages were separate, they were extremely close.

In essence, the influence of the Frankish tribes has received little attention in history classes and most people do not necessarily know about how their language influence on the ancestor to modern French. Contrary to Gaulish, which had a minor impact on phonology and a deeper one on lexicon and most likely non-existent on syntax, the Frankish language transferred some elements on these three categories. 

Lexicon

Many, many words arrived in the ancestor of French from Frankish. After the Roman Empire crumbled, in the 3rd century, Frankish groups travelled to settle mainly in the north of France, with its southern-most limit being the Loire river. After the unification of the tribes in 486 by Clovis and and the expansion of the kingdom at the hands of  Charles Martel and Pepin the Short. 

So, with intense and prolonged exposure to a Germanic language, the local Gallo-Roman tongue borrowed many words from Frankish. Maybe at this point, after seeing the words so many time by now, you have already linked two things together: France and Franks. Yes, that’s it, France comes from the name of the Franks. You can find this etymology in the name of the country in various Germanic languages:  Frankreich (German), Frankrijk (Dutch), Frakkland (Icelandic) or  Frankrig (Danish). France, in these languages, is the land or the realm/kingdom of the Franks. 

Another important influence regarding names can be found in the name of one of today’s regions: l’Île-de-France. Depending on your mother tongue or your knowledge of phonology, maybe you have already noticed it. No? Let me show you, Île-de-France, literally means “Island of France”. If you clicked on the link, you saw that this region has nothing to do with an island, it is not surrounded by water. So why this name? Because it actually comes from Lidle/Liddle Franken (Little Franconia). The Frankish name came to be re-analysed through the Romance-oriented lens, where “Lidle” came to be parsed as “l’Île de”. You can see how this confusion could arise. Notice how close “liddle” and “little” looks. 

I am not going to list all the words coming from Frankish, it would take a lifetime and you’d be bored after 2 minutes. You can have a look at this list and this one which are very interesting.You will notice that many of these words concern agriculture/nature-related matters (bois, étrier, galoper), manual work (broyer, maçon)  or even social organisation (baron, bâtard). 

Phonology

Onto my favourite subject, the sounds of a language! I had done previously a post about the “Germanicality” of French phonology, here it is if you want to explore the subject

Frankish influence on Old French phonology may be the culprit behind its front rounded vowels /y ø œ/. French had most likely sequences of the following type /e/ or /ɛ/ followed by /w/. By assimilating these two sounds, front rounded vowels appeared. The presence of the phoneme /y/ is thought to be part of the legacy from Frankish, transferring or reviving a declining sound in Old French. 

Frankish also had a big impact on the stress system and loss of final vowels in French. With the centuries-long exposure, the strong Frankish stress system came to transfer onto French. Germanic stress is most commonly a fixed thing; it is found on the root of a word, usually in the beginning. With a strong emphasis on the onset of a word, the final sounds were most likely weakened and reduced. This is why French lost its final vowels while languages like Italian or Spanish still have them. E.g.: “hand”: main (French /mɛ̃/ )  vs mano (Italian and Spanish /mano/ ) ; “earth”: terre  /tɛʁ/ (French) vs terra and  (Portuguese /teʁa/  and Sicilian /ˈtɛʐʐa/ ). 

This phonological influence is not restricted to vowels. French had a few words affected by the final-consonant devoicing phenomenon. For instance, the word for “new” neuf is the base, masculine form pronounced /nœf/ while the feminine form is neuve /nœv/. The final <e> is now mute but when it was still pronounced as a schwa /ə/, it was the reason why the voicing of the fricative was kept. This affected mainly adjectives like oisif/oisive (idle), primitif/primitive or qualitatif/qualitative. (In French, read a bit more about it here)

Syntax

This one is more speculative in appearance. The hypothesis originates from the fact that Old French displayed a higher number of V2 constructions than other Romance languages.  

The V2 principle requires the finite verb (the verb inflected for person) to appear in the second position of a declarative main clause or the given clause and the first position is occupied by a single major constituent which functions as the clause topic.

This principle is still active in Germanic languages and to a lesser extent, English. For instance, in questions (”Where does she live?”. Here with do-support) or construction such as these “No sooner had they closed the door that the cat meowed to go out”. 

Look at these examples:

a.Old French    Longetemps fu ly roys Elinas en la montaigne

Modern French Longtemps fut le roi Elinas dans la montagne
(‘Pendant longtemps le roi Elinas a été dans les montagnes.’)

English For a long time was the king Elinas in the mountain
('King Elinas was in the mountains for a long time.’) 

b.Old French Iteuses paroles distrent li frere de Lancelot

Modern French Telles paroles dirent les frères de Lancelot
('Les frères de Lancelot ont dit ces paroles’)

English Such words uttered the brothers of Lancelot
('Lancelot’s brothers spoke these words.’)

c.Old French Atant regarda contreval la mer

Modern French Alors regarda en bas la mer
('Alors Il a regardé la mer plus bas.’)

English Then looked at downward the sea
('Then he looked down at the sea.’)

V2 is mostly a Germanic phenomenon in Europe, with the documented heavy influenced of Frankish on French, it might not be too far-fetched to assume that this higher V2 propensity in Old French stems from contact with Frankish. 

tl ; dr So despite being relatively overshadowed by the Gaulish, Frankish contact with Old French speakers had an equally, or even, greater impact on the areas of lexicon, phonology and syntax of French. Frankish gave words still in use regarding nature, manual work or social organisation. It possibly is behind the rise of front rounded vowels and the loss of final vowels, as well as final consonant devoicing. Frankish may also be the reason for the higher number of V2 constructions in Old French, compared with other Romance languages.

Thanks for the read! 

Sources and further readings:

List of French words of Germanic origin

V2 word order

Final-obstruent devoicing

Old French

Frankish language

Substratum

Gaulish language

Language contact

Search for “V2″ in this document. Let me know if you can’t have access to it. 

Language Resources in America

spanish: you can find grammar rules on your local diner napkins and a history of the entire language in every bookstore; the streets are riddled with pamphlets

french & german: go to a bookstore anywhere and you’ll find what you need :)

russian: why dont you wanna learn the Big Three™ ??? no?……. sounds fake… but here’s a very basic grammar and the first 100 words

portuguese/catalan/galician/: so like… spanish

mandarin chinese: ummm.. why? oohh for work

cantonese/wu: um excuse me but there’s only one chinese

arabic: we’ve got some shit from like 1906 that we’d just love for you to have :)

any nordic language: isn’t that just exotic German? 

any indigenous language: nobody speaks those anymore :) you dont even need them for commerce! tsh

youtube

Cantiga de Santa Maria 100: “Santa Maria Strela do dia”

Performed by: Early Music Circle (Galician-Portuguese) 

Spanish:

Santa María, estrella del día, muéstranos la vía para Dios, y guíanos.

Porque haces ver a los errados, que se perdieron por sus pecados, y les haces entender que son culpables; pero que Tú los perdonas de la osadía que les hacía hacer locuras que no debieran.

Debes mostrarnos el camino, para ganar por todos modos la luz sin par y verdadera que sólo Tú puedes darnos; porque, a Ti, Dios te lo concedería y quería darnósla por Ti, y nos la daría.

Tu juicio puede guiarnos, más que en nada, al Paraíso donde Dios tiene siempre gozo y sonrisa para quien quiso creer en El; y me placería, si a Ti te place, que fuese mi alma en tu compañía.

English:

Mary, magnified be,
with Daystar beside thee;
show the way where bide we
true to God and thou our guide be.

For thou art light that lost souls driven
near perdition, e'er with sin ill striven,
know that they with guilt sore riven
stand; but throught thee are forgive
and from their pride free
where they ne'er idly
let passion denied be
bout did all sense defied see.

Thou canst reveal to us wyfaring 
paths to tread in grace full sharing
to peerless Light, the trugh declaring,
that thou alone art graced in bearing;
for God would abide thee
and all provide He
but ne'er thee denied see
nor for thee grace e'er belied be.

Wel for us thy wisdom guiding
till in Paradies abiding
where God all joy and mirth providing
waits ever those in him confiding;
then would my joy descried be
shouldst thou but deign provide me
that rest on high beside thee
my soul where doth abide he.

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Here it is folks, a 13th century text named “Notícia de Torto” (Notice of damage/offense/injury" in Galician-Portuguese) that is used to study archaic portuguese in historic linguistics that is literally just a list of all the mean things some people did to this guy named Lourenço Fernandes da Cunha.
👌👏
A+ for historical drama in portuguese society.

hey y’all

As I moved my studyblr/langblr to an independent account my dash is very much dead! I’d like to ask you to reblog this if you post about following languages or topics:

  • Spanish
  • Portuguese
  • Galician
  • Welsh
  • Zulu
  • Cherokee/Tsalagi
  • Yiddish
  • Conlangs (in general, klingon, lojban, your own conlang)
  • Art (your own, famous artists, history)

I will check out your blog and follow so please reblog and if you’d be so kind include in the tags which of these applies for you

Have a productive day!

[despite the time of evening, he’s just jammering away in a flurious mezcla of Spanish, Catalan, Galician, Basque and Portuguese– Lord help whomever he’s talking to–]

4.2.2 - Weight stress patterns

Left-oriented stress (first three syllables) - icelandic, faroese, norwegian, danish, swedish, german, nepalese, malayalam, yupik, central yupik, aleutian.

Right-oriented stress (last three syllables) - english, portuguese, galician, spanish, occitan, calatan, italian, romanian, greek, mari, modern standard arabic, hindi-urdu, marathi, gujarati, sindhi, telugu, malay, chamorro, javanese, sundanese, fijian, tongan.

Unbounded or unpredictable stress - hassanya arabic, serbo-croatian, turkish, azeri, russian, somi, udmurt, turkmen, pashto, mongolian, salishan and wakashan languages.

Fun fact: Sperm whales are called like that because their heads contain a milky white substance, so whalers thought those big heads were huge tanks for sperm.

Luckily we got science now and science tells us that the white thing is actually there to help the whale generate its incredibly powerful clicking sounds.

Not only that, it is also thought to help it swim into the depths of the sea. When cold water enters the organ which contains this waxy liquid (the spermaceti organ) blood vessels constrict, reducing blood flow, and, consequently, temperature. So the white liquid (spermaceti) solidifies and reduces in volume, allowing the whale to dive with less effort.

Names for these whales in other languages include Cachalote (“big head” in Portuguese, from Galician-Portuguese “cachola”), Capodoglio (”oil head” in Italian) and Pottwal (literally “pot whale” in German, from the Low German/Low Saxon word for “pot”).

ph: Amila Tennakoon / cc

youtube

Destino (the Galician, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian word for “destiny”) was originally storyboarded by Disney studio artist John Hench and artist Salvador Dalí for eight months in late 1945 and 1946; however production ceased not long after. The Walt Disney Company, then Walt Disney Studios, was plagued by many financial woes in the World War II era. Hench compiled a short animation test of about 17 seconds in the hopes of rekindling Disney’s interest in the project, but the production was no longer deemed financially viable and put on indefinite hiatus.

In 1999, Walt Disney’s nephew Roy E. Disney, while working on Fantasia 2000, unearthed the dormant project and decided to bring it back to life. Disney Studios France, the company’s small Parisian production department, was brought on board to complete the project. The short was produced by Baker Bloodworth and directed by French animator Dominique Monfréy in his first directorial role. A team of approximately 25 animators deciphered Dalí and Hench’s cryptic storyboards (with a little help from the journals of Dalí’s wife Gala Dalí and guidance from Hench himself), and finished Destino’s production. The end result is mostly traditional animation, including Hench’s original footage, but it also contains some computer animation. The 17 second original footage that is included in the finished product is the segment with the two tortoises (this original footage is referred to in Bette Midler’s host sequence for The Steadfast Tin Soldier in Fantasia 2000, as an “idea that featured baseball as a metaphor for life”).

vimeo

Here’s a video I made a couple of days ago with the languages I know (the password is “duolesbian”).

Saudade is a Portuguese and Galician word that has no direct translation in English. It describes a deep emotional state of nostalgic or profound melancholic longing for an absent something or someone that one loves. Moreover, it often carries a repressed knowledge that the object of longing may never return.

2.4.2 - Palatal lateral approximant

Only present in European languages, Australian aboriginal languages, Quechua, Aymara and Mapudungun, Oshivambo and some papuan languages. In Europe: portuguese, galician, asturian, northern and central castillian dialects, some peruvian, colombian, argentinian, all bolivian and paraguaian spanish dialects, italian, catalan, occitan, basque, breton, serbo-croatian, slovak, slovenian, northern hungarian, greek, bulgarian, macedonian, latvian, northern norwegian dialects, faroese, scottish gaelic, sami skolt, nganasan, komi, udmurt. Some languages with a similiar sound (palatalized alveolar lateral approximant) are russian, ucranian, belarrusian, lithuanian.

saudade

is a Portuguese and Galician word for a feeling of nostalgic longing for something or someone that one was fond of and which has been lost. It often carries a fatalist tone and a repressed knowledge that the object of longing might never really return. It was once described as “the love that remains” or “the love that stays” after someone is gone. 

The linguistic area of the Asturian language within Iberia

Hohenes:

In the bottom right legend:

  • TC = Castilian transition area.
  • TG = Galician-Portuguese transition area.
  • G = Galician/Portuguese speaking area.

0% (estintu s.XX) = Means it was spoken in that area but the language disappeared during the 20th century.

The legend is in the Astur-Leonese language. I don’t speak this language but I’m a Spaniard (Madrid) and I know Spanish, so it’s fairly easy to catch, and also something very easy to being in love with (iberian languages are incredibily rich!).