galaxies evolve

100 Days in Houston

A lot can happen in 100 days…

At our Johnson Space Center, located in Houston, it has been busy since July 10. Here are six things that have been going on in Houston with our astronauts, the International Space Station and our next great telescope! Take a look:

1. Our James Webb Space Telescope is Spending 100 Days in a Freezing Cold Chamber

Imagine seeing 13.5 billion light-years back in time, watching the birth of the first stars, galaxies evolve and solar systems form…our James Webb Space Telescope will do just that once it launches in 2019.

Webb will be the premier observatory of the next decade, studying every phase in the cosmic history of our universe, ranging from the first luminous glows after the Big Bang, to the formation of solar systems.

On July 10, the Webb telescope entered Johnson Space Center’s historic Chamber A for its final cryogenic test that lasts about 100 days behind a closed giant vault-like door. 

Why did we put Webb in this freezing cold chamber? To ensure it can withstand the harsh environment it will experience in space.

The telescope has been in a space-like environment in the chamber, tested at cryogenic temperatures. In space, the telescope must operate at extremely cold temperatures so that it can detect infrared light – heat radiation – from faint, distant objects. 

To keep the telescope cold while in space, Webb has a sunshield the size of a tennis court, which blocks sunlight (as well as reflected light from the Earth and Moon). This means that the sun-facing side of the observatory is incredibly hot while the telescope-side remains at sub-freezing temperatures.

2. Our 12 new astronaut candidates reported to Houston to start training

Our newest class of astronaut candidates, which were announced on June 7, reported for training on August 13. These candidates will train for two years on International Space Station systems, space vehicles and Russian language, among many other skills, before being flight-ready. 

3. Our Mission Control Center operated for 2,400 hours

While astronauts are in space, Mission Control operates around the clock making sure the crew is safe and the International Space Station is functioning properly. This means workers in Mission Control work in three shifts, 7 a.m. – 4 p.m., 3 p.m. – midnight and 11 p.m. – 8 a.m. This includes holidays and weekends. Day or night, Mission Control is up and running.

4. Key Teams at Johnson Space Center Continued Critical Operations During Hurricane Harvey

Although Johnson Space Center closed during Hurricane Harvey, key team members and critical personnel stayed onsite to ensure crucial operations would continue. Mission Control remained in operation throughout this period, as well as all backup systems required to maintain the James Webb Space Telescope, which is at Johnson for testing, were checked prior to the arrival of the storm, and were ready for use if necessary.

5. Crews on the International Space Station conducted hundreds of science experiments.

Mission Control at Johnson Space Center supported astronauts on board the International Space Station as they worked their typical schedule in the microgravity environment. Crew members work about 10 hours a day conducting science research that benefits life on Earth as well as prepares us for travel deeper into space. 

The space station team in Houston supported a rigorous schedule of launches of cargo that included supplies and science materials for the crew living and working in the orbiting laboratory, launched there by our commercial partners. 

6. Two new crews blasted off to space and a record breaking astronaut returned from a stay on space station

Houston is home to the Astronaut Corps, some of whom end up going out-of-this-world. On July 28, NASA Astronaut Randy Bresnik launched to the International Space Station alongside Italian astronaut Paolo Naspoli and Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy. Joining them at the International Space Station were NASA Astronauts Joe Acaba and Mark Vande Hei who launched September 12 with Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin.

When NASA Astronaut Peggy Whitson landed with crewmates Jack Fischer of NASA and Fyoder Yurchikhin of Roscosmos, she broke the record for the most cumulative time in space by a U.S. astronaut. She landed with over 650 days of cumulative flight time and more than 53 hours of spacewalk time. Upon her return, the Human Research Program in Houston studies her health and how the human body adapted to her time in space.

Learn more about the Johnson Space Center online, or on Facebook, Twitter or Instagram.

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The First Galaxies: What We Know And What We Still Need To Learn

“As we look farther back in time, we find that younger galaxies formed stars at faster rates than galaxies do today. We can measure the star-formation rate, and find that at earlier and earlier times, it was more intense. But then we find it hits a peak when the Universe is about two billion years old. Go younger than that, and the rate goes down again.”

We’ve come incredibly far in our quest to learn how the Universe came to be the way it is today. We can see out in space for tens of billions of light years, to galaxies as they were when the Universe was only a few percent of its present age. We can see how galaxies evolve, merge and the stars inside change. And we can see to even before that, when no stars or galaxies existed at all. But how did we get from there to here? There are still plenty of gaps in the story. We’ve never seen the first stars or galaxies; we’ve never witnessed the start of cosmic reionization; we’ve never seen the star formation rate jump from zero to a real, finite number. Yet with James Webb and WFIRST on the horizon, these gaps in our knowledge may – if we’re lucky – all disappear.

Come get the story on what we know about the first galaxies, and what we hope and have left to still learn!

Inside the Coma Cluster of Galaxies : Almost every object in the above photograph is a galaxy. The Coma Cluster of Galaxies pictured above is one of the densest clusters known - it contains thousands of galaxies. Each of these galaxies houses billions of stars - just as our own Milky Way Galaxy does. Although nearby when compared to most other clusters, light from the Coma Cluster still takes hundreds of millions of years to reach us. In fact, the Coma Cluster is so big it takes light millions of years just to go from one side to the other! The above mosaic of images of a small portion of Coma was taken in unprecedented detail in 2006 by the Hubble Space Telescope to investigate how galaxies in rich clusters form and evolve. Most galaxies in Coma and other clusters are ellipticals, although some imaged here are clearly spirals. The spiral galaxy on the upper left of the above image can also be found as one of the bluer galaxies on the upper left of this wider field image. In the background thousands of unrelated galaxies are visible far across the universe. via NASA

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Adam Warlock & Gamora in GOTG S02E21
‘‘You’re dealing with a great internal pain… I felt it earlier.’‘
‘‘Stay out of my head!’‘

Gravitational waves from merging supermassive black holes will be spotted within 10 years

Survey of fast-spinning pulsar stars offers better estimate of when astronomers will first detect the strongest gravitational waves in the universe, which dwarf those previously detected from black hole mergers

Astronomers won’t have to wait much longer for their first glimpse of one of the biggest types of unions in the cosmos. New research published November 13 in Nature Astronomy predicts that gravitational waves generated by the merger of two supermassive black holes will be detected within 10 years. The study is the first to use real data, rather than computer simulations, to predict when such an observation will be made.

“The gravitational waves from these supermassive black hole binary mergers are the most powerful in the universe,” says study lead author Chiara Mingarelli, a research fellow at the Center for Computational Astrophysics at the Flatiron Institute in New York City. “They absolutely dwarf the black hole mergers detected by LIGO,” or the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, which first detected gravitational waves from colliding black holes in February 2016.

The detection of a supermassive black hole merger would offer new insights into how massive galaxies and black holes evolve, Mingarelli says. A lack of any such a sighting within the 10-year timeframe, on the other hand, would necessitate a rethink of whether and how supermassive black holes merge, she says.

Supermassive black holes live in the heart of large galaxies, including our own Milky Way, and can be millions or even billions of times the mass of the sun. For comparison, the merging black holes detected so far by gravitational wave detectors have been only a few dozen times the sun’s mass.

When two galaxies collide and combine, their supermassive black holes drift to the center of the newly unified galaxy. Scientists predict that the supermassive black holes will then close in together and merge over time. That get-together produces intense gravitational waves that ripple through the fabric of space and time.

While those gravitational waves are strong, they lie outside the wavelengths currently observable by ongoing experiments such as LIGO and Virgo. The new hunt for gravitational waves formed by merging supermassive black holes will instead leverage stars called pulsars that act like cosmic metronomes. The rapidly spinning stars send out a steady rhythm of radio wave pulses. As passing gravitational waves stretch and compress the space between Earth and the pulsar, the rhythm slightly changes. Those changes are then monitored by pulsar-watching projects on Earth.

Three projects currently read the timing of radio waves arriving from nearby pulsars: the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array in Australia, North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves and the European Pulsar Timing Array. Together, the trio forms the International Pulsar Timing Array.

Mingarelli and colleagues estimated how long those projects will take to spot their first supermassive black hole merger. The team cataloged nearby galaxies that may host pairs of supermassive black holes. The researchers then combined that information with a map of nearby pulsars to find – for the first time – the probability of a definitive detection over time.

“If you take into account the positions of the pulsars in the sky, you basically have a 100 percent chance of detecting something in 10 years,” Mingarelli says. “The bottom line is that you’re guaranteed to select at least one local supermassive black hole binary.”

One surprise from the results was which galaxies are most likely to offer the first glimpse of supermassive black hole merger. Bigger galaxies mean bigger black holes and therefore stronger gravitational waves. But bigger black holes also merge faster, reducing the window during which gravitational waves may be detected. A black hole merger in a massive galaxy like M87 would yield detectable gravitational waves for 4 million years, for instance, while a more modest galaxy such as the Sombrero Galaxy would offer a 160-million-year window.

A successful detection would give astrophysicists a better understanding of the astrophysics at the hearts of galaxy mergers, Mingarelli says, and provide a new avenue to study fundamental physics not accessible by any other means. The number of individual supermassive black hole binaries seen also offers a measure of how often galaxies merge, which is an important measure of how the universe evolved over time.

If a supermassive black hole merger isn’t seen, it could be because the black holes stall at around three light-years (or one parsec) of separation. This conundrum is known as the Final Parsec Problem. The two black holes close together gradually over time as their orbits degrade as energy is lost generating gravitational waves, but the process can take longer than the current age of the universe.

As to whether astronomers will detect a supermassive black hole merger, “it’ll be interesting either way,” Mingarelli says.

Cosmic Child [pt 2] (? X Reader)

A/N: I’m glad that the first instalment had such a great response! Hopefully I’ll think about which batbro this story will revolve around, in the meantime, you guys can give me suggestions on who you want it to be! I’m mostly considering Dick or Jason :)

Gotham bustled with gossip after it was revealed that Bruce Wayne had adopted another child. Journalists went wild with their ridiculous headlines, lies that ruined your reputation in the human world instantly. However, you couldn’t be bothered, partially because you still couldn’t understand the rational behind humanity’s social norms.

You also didn’t know how news could spread so quickly. One moment you were sitting by the window, the men of the house discussing plans for you and the next moment, everyone knew your name. Well, it wasn’t your name but the name that Bruce Wayne had given you; (Y/N).

Sitting on your bed in the room that had been given to you, you tried to recall what life was like before you’d ended up on Earth. You couldn’t remember much, just bits of whatever sort of “life” you’d lived. Eventually, you’d managed to piece together quite a lot.

You remember being in the sky after a great conflict. You were once part of a great goddess, a woman so vain that she was casted into the sky for everyone to see. You were part of her, and thus became part of the constellation she had been transformed into. You were the largest star in the constellation of Cassiopeia; you had been for a long time. You watched as the galaxy evolved, planets changed and stars lived and died.

You were particularly interest in the planet of Earth. In such a short amount of time, so much had happened to the tiny planet. You witnessed great wars which left many dead in their wake, watched as people came together every once in a while to celebrate a happy occasion.

You led a peaceful existence until the fateful clash between Zeus and Asteria. The God and Titaness fought over something trivial, their fight caused hundreds of planets in other solar systems to tear apart. While they never managed to damage anything too near to Earth, the raw power that was expelled from their clashes tore you away from your place in the universe.

You could recall nothing between seeing a bright flash of light, the energy that pulled you out of the solar system, and landing on Earth. It was as if the tragedy had occured in a split second. Looking around the large, beautiful room the Wayne’s had given you, perhaps “tragedy” wasn’t the right word to describe what’d happened.

Though skeptical and wary at first, you could tell the boys were starting to warm up to your presence; the first to do so being the oldest. His name was Richard Grayson, or Dick, as he asked you to call him.

Out of all of the Wayne boys, he was the kindest. The first night you’d arrived, after their family meeting was over, he walked up to you and took the hot mug out of your hands.

“It’ll hurt if you keep holding it like that,” he said kindly, placing down elsewhere. “Do you have a name?”

You shook your head; were you supposed to have a name?

“How about… (Y/N)?” Dick suggested, anticipating your response.

“That sounds… nice,” you smiled widely at him. The name didn’t sound like anything special to you in particular but since it had been bestowed upon you, you would treasure it forever.

Although Dick Grayson seemed the happiest most of the time, you could tell his past held dark secrets. You never pried but still hoped that perhaps he would trust you enough to share his stories with you.

You soon established Dick Grayson as the lovely one.

The next brother who warmed up to you rather quickly was Timothy Drake, or rather Tim Drake.

You could tell from the way he spoke that he was one who valued intellect quite a lot. He also often smelled like coffee, a beverage you heard was very popular on Earth.

He was the one who introduced you to this planet’s technology. Within one day, he’d patiently educated you on most of the things you should’ve known to survive on this modernised planet.

He also gave you a phone, and very willingly spent a whole evening teaching you how to use it efficiently. When it came to setting your wallpaper, you asked to take a photo with him and used that. His face was flushed but happy in the picture, you loved it very much.

Tim Drake was eventually established in your heart as the sweet one.

The third brother who’d warmed up to you was Jason Todd. While he was unruly towards you during the first few days, he eventually became very kind and concerning.

He was the one who taught you about weapons. Something that Bruce Wayne wasn’t totally supportive of, you discovered. Jason Todd didn’t teach you how to use them but gave you simple instructions on what to do when you saw any one of them. You could remember him looking at you intensely in the eye and saying, “whatever you do, do not fight and protect yourself no matter what, got it?”

He was also the one who was the most interested in your knowledge of the universe. One night he had trouble sleeping and spotted you star watching, you were surprised when he decided to join you. That night, for the whole night, you told him stories of the Gods and the history behind some of the biggest constellations in the sky. You could tell, during that personal time spent with him, that he, too, had secrets deep in his heart. Secrets you knew he’d rather forget. But he was acting so strong and brave, you hoped to know more about him.

You found Jason Todd to be the brave one.

The last brother hadn’t accepted you just yet, even after one week of staying in their home. His name was Damian Wayne, the blood son of your new adoptive father.

For such a young child, you never expected him to act so adult-like. He was mature in many aspects but not all. He tried to avoid you as much as he could so you never had any chance to talk to him. You felt sad but decided that he would approach you when he was ready.

You simply saw him as the youngest one, the one you hoped would open up to you just a little, like the others had.

As you sat on your bed, in your night clothes, or rather, pyjamas, you reminisced about the one week you’d spent with this family. Every moment you were around them, you found yourself loving them more and more.

Humans are weird

This something I wrote a few years back 

Humanity is a strange species when it comes to their interactions with other space fairing races they are somewhat coltish and hard-nosed with their dealings with other galactic nations, there are only two races that humans are apparently comfortable dealing with the first of these is the Dorgoan Serenity they value humanities ability and willingness  to free trade for the Dorgoa and humanity there is no trade posts or trading enclaves there is just trade and not only interpersonal and barter trade but Trade between corporations and stock market exchanges it is not uncommon to find Dorgoan ships in human space and human ships in Drogoan space as well as human enclaves on board Drogoa trade platforms. 

The Humans value the Drogoan willingness to work with them on space piracy and Slavery both races work together on stamping out these two activities in their space as well as this the Humans value the actions of the  Drogoan trade Barge “Wind of the Galaxy”. During the first Xerti incursion into human space at the battle of the Blue ridge system  the “Wind of the Galaxy”  engaged the attacking Xerti ships in support of the human ships in the system, after this the humans extended a branch of friendship to the Dorgoa which they accepted the two species have exchanged ambassadors and look set to continue their close friendship 

The other species that the humans are comfortable with are are the Akari whereas most the species of the galaxy have evolved normally there are some that have been uplifted by another much more advanced race usually for slave labour and so the more advanced race can enjoy being worshiped as gods. The Xerti are one of these races the Akari though were uplifted by the Race know as the Forerunner, the precursors, the Sky fathers and much much more,  They were not uplifted to serve as Slaves or to worship but to be the heirs of the dying race while in their formative years as an uplifted race they were used as the muscle of the Skyfathers they were always seen as the heirs of the first race of the galaxy as the Akari grew and matured as a race they were seen acting as more as diplomats and ambassadors as a sky father has not been seen for millennia we can only assume that they have all died out leaving the Akari as their heir  and if there are any left the Akari are living up to their name which In the Language of the Sky fathers means “Favored Child”, where do the Humans and the Akari friendship come? They share the same Genetic stock in the most based term the Akari are not humans but genetically there are closely related or the Species that the Akari were before their uplifting were a Human subspecies, this apparently some what of a shock to both species. 

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Does Dark Matter Exist, Or Is Gravity Wrong? The Answer Lies Billions Of Years In The Past

“If this result holds up with more and better data, this may provide a window into galactic evolution that finally allows us to discriminate between dark matter and modified gravity in a clear and robust way. These types of observations, to measure the rotation curves of galaxies many of billions of light years away, will be a prime science goal for new telescopes in the 2020s like GMT, E-ELT and WFIRST. Both sides will continue to argue for their interpretation of the data, but in the end, it will be the full suite of data that reveals how nature truly behaves. Will Einstein be superseded? Or will we all wind up joining the dark side? By time another decade goes by, the answer may finally be known.”

The dark matter wars rage on and on, with both sides – those in favor of modifying gravity and those in favor of adding an additional mass component to the Universe – claiming victories for their own side and defeat for the other. But one piece of evidence, hitherto elusive, might finally hold the key to distinguishing one from the other: early, young, less-evolved galaxies. Billions of years ago, not as much dark matter had fallen into the inner portions of galaxies, meaning that the outer portions of rotating spirals should display less dark matter in the past than they do today. Instead of flat rotation curves, the galaxies in the distant Universe should exhibit falling rotation curves. In a series of new papers, a team was able to observe 101 distant galaxies at relatively high redshifts, and what they found presented compelling evidence for exactly this phenomenon. As always, more and better data is needed, as it’s only a three-sigma effect so far. 

But as the first hint of this long-anticipated effect, it’s a compelling preview of what the telescopes of the 2020s will offer! Come get the scientific story today.

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Can we take a moment and talk about this thing for a second? Has anyone realized just how many pop culture references these things are stuffed full of?

Grey Aliens: The first evolution, Elgyem, is designed to look similar to the popular grey aliens.

Roswell: The pokedex says that they were discovered after a UFO crashed in a desert about 50 years ago. This is based off of the story that a UFO crashed in Roswell, New Mexico.

Close Encounters of the third kind: They communicate using the colored lights on their hands, similar to the large ship in the movie Close Encounters of the Third Kind.

Men in Black: Its second evolution, Beheeyem, can alter people’s memories. This is based on the movies Men in Black in which they use technology to alter people’s memories.

Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy: Elgyem evolves at level 42. This is the supposed answer to life, the universe, and everything in the book The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy.

Hidden Aliens: The second evolution, Beheeyem, has features that resemble a hat and trench coat which are clothing commonly used to hide. This is based on the theory that aliens are hiding among us.

anonymous asked:

au where stars are watching humans

 observer effect

i. stars get it wrong, of course–they assume too much phosphorus and not enough fear of death, pulsar instead of pulse. They leave out uncertainty, not knowing what it was above the subatomic level; the softer shades of melancholy and the gentler warmths. But they get the shape right, the brighthot of blood. They get that right too.

ii. all their metaphors are for burning, and they ascribe to soft tongues a taste for sulfur, fingers at the ends of spiral arms. They drink liquid helium from a cracked Dewar flask and wonder aloud if humanity is looking up, looking back.

(how cold they must be, the stars’ carbon cousins–wet and cold, and can humanity do arithmetic in parallax, do you think, counting parsecs between two stars in inexorable collision?

it’s called a kiss, cygnus X-1 says quietly. they call it a kiss.)

iii. they say when you feel your child’s protoplanetary disc first differentiate, you will cry tears of methane.

iv. it’s called the Kindling, when the faint sheen of protostellar mass catches alight, and burns with all the brightness of adulthood. Protostars of thirteen stand around bathroom mirrors, examining their helium layer for bright spots, looking for stray molecular clouds in their nail beds. All of them are in love with the astrophysics teacher, whose stellar wind sends flickers of light across the meteor fields.

late at night (but what is night to a star?) they trace the spiral arms of their evolving galaxies, and dream dry dreams of neutron star collisions hotter than blue hypergiants.

v. we are made of starstuff, says a man, craning his thread-slender neck, looking up into the abyss of wind and fire of the universe.

oh, breathes a star, squinting down at the infinitesimal speck of rock, turning and turning in the vastness of space. oh. 

we didn’t have a name for us, before.

Hubble Sees the Beautiful Side of Galaxy IC 335: This new NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the galaxy IC 335 in front of a backdrop of distant galaxies. IC 335 is part of a galaxy group containing three other galaxies, and located in the Fornax Galaxy Cluster 60 million light-years away.

As seen in this image, the disk of IC 335 appears edge-on from the vantage point of Earth. This makes it harder for astronomers to classify it, as most of the characteristics of a galaxys morphology the arms of a spiral or the bar across the center are only visible on its face. Still, the 45000 light-year-long galaxy could be classified as an S0 type.

These lenticular galaxies are an intermediate state in galaxy morphological classification schemes between true spiral and elliptical galaxies. They have a thin stellar disk and a bulge, like spiral galaxies, but in contrast to typical spiral galaxies they have used up most of the interstellar medium. Only a few new stars can be created out of the material that is left and the star formation rate is very low. Hence, the population of stars in S0 galaxies consists mainly of aging stars, very similar to the star population in elliptical galaxies.

As S0 galaxies have only ill-defined spiral arms they are easily mistaken for elliptical galaxies if they are seen inclined face-on or edge-on as IC 335 here. And indeed, despite the morphological differences between S0 and elliptical class galaxies, they share some common characteristics, like typical sizes and spectral features.

Both classes are also deemed early-type galaxies, because they are evolving passively. However, while elliptical galaxies may be passively evolving when we observe them, they have usually had violent interactions with other galaxies in their past. In contrast, S0 galaxies are either aging and fading spiral galaxies, which never had any interactions with other galaxies, or they are the aging result of a single merger between two spiral galaxies in the past. The exact nature of these galaxies is still a matter of debate.

European Space Agency
Credit: ESA/Hubble and NASA

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Spiral arms allow school children to weigh black holes

Astronomers from Swinburne University of Technology, Australia, and the University of Minnesota Duluth, USA, have provided a way for armchair astronomers, and even primary school children, to merely look at a spiral galaxy and estimate the mass of its hidden, central black hole. The research was supported by the Australian Research Council and has been published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Given that black holes emit no discernible light, they have traditionally been studied via highly technical observations of the stars and gas orbiting around them, which in turn provide a measurement of how massive they must be.

Now, new research based on these pre-existing measurements has shown that a black hole’s mass can be accurately estimated by simply looking at the spiral arms of its host galaxy.

Keep reading

You’re too vast to compare to anything the human race can ever comprehend. Your soul is like the universe, so beautifully endless, an ever-expanding space of wonder. You’re not just stars, you have entire galaxies; millions of galaxies, all growing, evolving and collapsing within you.
—  I want to tell you I love you but I’m scared you won’t say it back (via @poetryandcupsoftea)
Why 'Arrival' is wrong about the possibility of talking with space aliens

From “Close Encounters” to “Arrival,” Hollywood has long been fascinated with the idea of communicating with space aliens. But is it even possible? Or wise?

In recent years, a fierce debate has erupted over proposals to beam messages toward distant solar systems. Until now, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence – or SETI – has largely been limited to listening for radio signals from other galaxies. Having failed to detect a single peep, some scientists want to turn the tables and begin broadcasting missives from Earth into deep space.

But that creates two dilemmas.

Keep reading

Outside the borders of the ecumene, two species—humanity and the San'Shyuum—had already expanded well beyond their own respective cradle worlds, establishing colonies across their parts of the galaxy. Humans had evolved on Earth, while the San'Shyuum had sprung up on Janjur Qom—both lush and fertile planets. Eventually, these two species came in contact with each other and formed an alliance centered on a world called Charum Hakkor. It blossomed and grew at a remarkable pace.
- Halo: Mythos

All intelligent species in the galaxy evolved at similar times, all evolved along similar paths, and all developed civilization in similar ways. All that is, except for Humanity.

Located approximately 22,000 light-years away in the constellation of Musca (The Fly), this tightly packed collection of stars ‘” known as a globular cluster '” goes by the name of NGC 4833. This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the dazzling stellar group in all its glory.

NGC 4833 is one of the over 150 globular clusters known to reside within the Milky Way. These objects are thought to contain some of the oldest stars in our galaxy. Studying these ancient cosmic clusters can help astronomers to unravel how a galaxy formed and evolved, and give an idea of the galaxy’s age.

Globular clusters are responsible for some of the most striking sights in the cosmos, with hundreds of thousands of stars congregating in the same region of space. Hubble has observed many of these clusters during its time in orbit around our planet, each as breathtaking as the last.

Object Names: NGC 4833

Image credit: ESA/Hubble and NASA

Text credit: European Space Agency

Time And Space