gaines farm

halfmoonhead  asked:

Can you elaborate on your thoughts on urban farming/the rich vs poor?

I think there are three issues:

1. Who makes money? (As in, “the big bucks”)

I’ve talked about this a lot with sex and farming, in that even when there is a sizeable portion of female farmers (30-50%), less than 3% of operations of a large scale are owned by women.

As the article said, you could break down who actually makes money from urban farming projects (and vertical, hydroponic, and aquaponic systems especially), by race and sex. Overwhelmingly it’s young white males with access to investment capital who actually make the big bucks, while women and minorities tend to the non-profitable, community-building, soil-based farming projects.

This is a wage gap, and an opportunity gap.

2. Who can treat gardening like performance art, and who does it to survive?

Someone with an MFA and very little practical knowledge about plants can dream up a floating urban garden project, and have all their permits expedited and get grant money flowing in.

Immigrant grannies who live in inner city communities and know how to grow everything in their front yards are the ones who are more likely to face zoning violations, resistance from municipal authorities, and run up against architectural controls.

This is not even getting in to issues like gentrification and environmental racism, that also limit access to safe places to grow.

3. Who does the “urban farming is the future” paradigm, serve?

I think languishing rural communities really get thrown under the bus in all this: “urban farming” has a cool factor, whereas traditional farming conjures up words like ‘redneck,’ and ‘hillbilly.’

Rural communities are being de-populated by urbanisation, and family farms are being bought up by mega-producers, and this is something that is dangerous for the food system. It’s only allowed to happen more when agricultural innovation is seen as something synonymous with “urban.”

Moving out on to the land to do sustainable soil-based production doesn’t have the same cachet as building a rooftop project out of shipping containers, even if the productivity may be higher and environmental impact lower.


In essence I think it’s complicated, but it mostly boils down to the actually profitable business of “urban farming” becoming the domain of already-on-top urbanites.

anonymous asked:

How does tax works in westeros? Lets say im a Beesbury. How much do i pay for the Hightowers? Do i pay in coins or in honey? Then how much do the Hightowers pay for the Tyrells? Money or goods? Finally how much do the Tyrells pay for the King? Again, money or goods?

Typically taxes work both through goods in kind and coin, and like everything, depends on the time period. There are always exceptions that prove rules, but typically, the further back you go, the more taxes were paid in kind rather than in coin. The typical rate was 10% for the lord and 10% for the Church and based on property holdings, this was established as early as the 8th century. There was a poll tax of one shilling per head proposed in 1380 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, but poll taxes formed the Islamic jizya tax levied on Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians in the caliphates. Swedish taxes were assessed in equivalencies, such as coins or 16 kg of butter.

Medieval peasants often paid taxes as percentages of goods in kind, unfree labor, and coin which again, depended on the era and where you were. You would pay for using the lord’s mill to mill the grain with a percentage of the take, similarly you would press wine at the lord’s wine press and pay a percentage of the wine. There were certain amounts of days that peasants had to labor in the lord’s fields (24 in Sweden during the Late Middle Ages). You would also have your holdings assessed to see what the value was, and then contract out to tax farmers who would raise that amount of money via tax collection, and whether it was the Byzantine pronoia, the Muslim iqta, or the Western European fee-farm, the process was the same. The farmer would pay the crown (typically competing for the privilege similar to an auction) for the right to raise taxes from a particular area. The incentive was, once the farmer reached the desired amount, any extra was his to keep, which encouraged tax farmers to squeeze taxes out of the peasantry, first to make up the bribes and fees he paid to gain the revenue farm and then to profit. Kings in the 14th century, with the growth of centralized bureaucracy, came to rely more upon direct taxation.

Nobles typically had their obligations set out by the feudal contract and royal writ. In early feudalism, the tax was not monetary, but military service, just as the peasantry owed service to their lords. The vassalage contract stipulated what was owed on behalf of the vassal, and kings might forego the traditional feudal service of levies for a scutage, set by the king, this became true in the later Middle Ages. Emergencies would cause for additional taxes, such as the Saladin tax that King Richard the Lionheart levied for the Third Crusade.

@racefortheironthrone, anything to add?

Thanks for the question, Anon.

SomethingLikeALawyer, Hand of the King

all of superman’s powers are useful on a farm

-gains power from the sun (like corn)

-heat vision (a gentle beam could incubate eggs, a steady medium beam could defrost an engine during winter, etc)

-super longevity (the farm can run like clockwork for multiple lifetimes and keep the community fed)

-invulnerability (you get hurt a lot on a farm, but not if youre supes)

-flight (scope out the size and shape of your fields, spot problems in your crops with ease, take equipment directly to needed areas)

-super strength (need to work on the tractor? pick it up and get underneath)

-faster than a speeding bullet (uh oh, theres a fox in the chicken coop, now theres not. uh oh, theres a brush fire, now theres not)

-super intellect (absolutely nothing on the farm is beyond his ability to assess, maintain, and repair)

-super memory (something bad happened to the crop last year, lets remember that and not let it happen again)

-super breath (put out fires, cheat at using a windmill, etc)

-x-ray vision (see: fox in chicken coop, also good for spotting invasive species of insect)

-super hearing (see above)

like

he would run a perfect farm and serve the whole community with it and ma and pa kent would be so proud

smarmyanarchist  asked:

Er, alright. What are the general things I should know about Heathenry and the Aesir? I also don't really understand the differences between Aesir, jotun, vanir, etc so if you could tell me about that it'd be really helpful!!

Alright, so the classification of Aesir is pretty loosey-goosey to an extent. For one, who counts as a member of the Aesir changes over mythic time. For instance, Njord and other members of the Vanir can be considered to be Aesir as well as Vanir. In addition, one can have jotun parentage and still be a member of the Aesir. (See Thor, Heimdallr, Tyr, and Loki) So “Aesir” in particular doesn’t denote anything inherent to an entity. I tend to see it more as a descriptive term or as a professional identification to be quite honest. They’re described as or possess the profession of being Aesir, or gods, but it doesn’t speak of anything inherently unique about them other than this. So the Aesir are who were typically worshiped or had cults and were prayed to - they were the beings who had the jobs of being gods. This doesn’t mean only they had godlike magical powers but they were the ones officially with the job of receiving cultish worship. (Note: That we have evidence of. There’s slim evidence of jotun worship aside form Loki and Skadi but it’s very very slim.) 

Now, in Icelandic aka Eddic lore, the Aesir are generally described as a family and all the gods are related somehow. However, their relationships to each other are not necessarily clear. For instance, Heimdall’s father is unknown. So he has no known direct familial relation to the rest of the Aesir. Many of the non-Vanir Aesir however are descended from Odin: Thor, Tyr, and Baldr are his sons. Freyja is his wife and although nothing is known of her parentage, she’s still married to Odin and therefore part of the family. With this said, “Aesir” could also be envisioned as denoting a family group. But this only applies to Icelandic lore as far as we know; other countries had differing conceptions of the gods and Odin wasn’t the Allfather in them all. Not to mention, the Vanir are technically hostages so not exactly part of the family yet still referred to as members of the Aesir. So again, I stick more to envisioning it as a “professional” title. Profession: god. 

The Aesir as a group tend to embody humanity and civilization. As such, they tend to rule over things that are of importance to humanity and civilizations such as poetry, war, farming, justice, laws, and naval travel. Even the bits of nature that the Aesir-identified entities rule over are pretty civilization based: fertility, farming, sunshine, and rain. Thor is an outlier having his affiliation with thunderstorms as they’re a powerful and deadly natural phenomena. These things are normally reserved for the jotnar. See for instance, Njord is associated with the side of the ocean that benefits society (fishing, whaling, naval travel) whereas the jotnar Aegir and Ran rule over the ocean itself. Thor does have jotun parentage through his mother Jord (and technically also through Odin) but having jotun parentage doesn’t automatically pass on jotun traits really. For instance, Thor can’t shapeshift like the jotnar can. Tyr possess no nature powers and neither does Heimdallr as far as is known. He has heightened senses but those aren’t necessarily a jotun thing. So there’s some further distinction from between Aesir and jotnar: both possess mighty powers but only the Aesir are considered gods and worshiped. In addition, the Aesir tend to lack certain gifts that are common in the jotnar despite being direct descendants from them. 

The Vanir is a category much like the Aesir in that it’s somewhat of a familial denotation but it also has more of a “professional identity” side too. The Vanir we know about are all family members but considering there was an Aesir-Vanir war and there’s allusions to the land of Vanaheim, there are likely more Vanir than are known about so they aren’t necessarily all family. Like the Aesir, the Vanir are gods insofar as the possess powers and received cultic worship. Their rule tends to be over wealth and fertility especially over wealth gained from nature i.e. farming and whaling. They’re kind of like an intermediate between the total civilizational aspect of the Aesir and the total nature aspect of the jotnar. In practice and in god politics, they tend to serve this role of intermediate as well in my experience. Like the Aesir, they lack most of the powers of the jotnar. Freyja however can shapeshift but only into a falcon and only through the use of a feather-cloak unlike jotnar who generally can shift without use of tools.

The jotnar are the first beings and at least the Aesir all descend from them in some way. The jotnar represent nature and nature’s seemingly chaotic forces. They are wild forests teeming with beasts and they are natural disasters and they are nature’s reclamation of civilized areas. In addition, the trollish ones represent the fears and threats of society like outlaws and ethnic others. The jotnar in short then, represent all the forces acting against the current organized society which is the Aesir. Their ability to control natural forces, rule over natural habitats, rule over foreign lands, and ability to shapeshift with ease all reflect this. The jotnar were not gods; the had godly powers but they weren’t beings people wanted to worship and ask for help from. They likely received occasional appeasement offerings but formal worship? The evidence for that is still very slim. Because of their destructive nature, the jotnar were framed as adversaries of the gods and society. However, how great the enmity between the two sides was is hard to say due to Christian tampering. However, the lore constantly has tales of jotnar and other supernatural creatures being exploited by the Aesir in various ways. So the dichotomy to me reads of oppression and exploitation by society of nature and those deemed “lesser” leading to righteous indignation on the behalf of the jotnar being exploited which finally culminates in Ragnarok. I’ve written more extensively on this here.

Um, this is getting really long and I’m not sure what specifically might be useful to you in regards to the other question so I’m just gonna leave this like so and hope this rambling makes sense.

Some places to read on this:

  • Meeting the Other in Norse Myth and Legend by John McKinnell
  • “Wilderness, Liminality, and the Other in Old Norse Myth and Cosmology” Jens Peter Schjødt
  • “Supernatural Others and Ethnic Others: A Millenium of World View” by John Lindow
  • “The Giant Who Wanted to Be a Dwarf: The Transgression of Mythic Norms in Þorr’s Fight With Geirrödr” by Kevin J. Wanner
  • Giants in Folklore and Mythology: A New Approach by Lotte Motz

DIGITAL NEWBIE NÊN JOIN VÀO NHỮNG GROUP NÀO?

Có hai lý do để join vào một group nào đó trên Facebook:

1. Học hỏi
2. Tạo dựng quan hệ

Khi join vào một group nào đó, đây là những việc bạn cần làm:

1. Quan sát để hiểu nguyên tắc hoạt động, luật lệ, thái độ giao tiếp.
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Nguyên tắc của networking là givers gain, farming not hunting. Networking sẽ tạo ra nhiều giá trị trong việc phát triển bản thân, công việc. Đây là quá trình nuôi dưỡng lâu dài, vì vậy hãy bỏ đi những thói quen sau:

- bán hàng và làm mọi cách để bán hàng (dracula member)
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Hãy chủ động giao tiếp và giao tiếp chuẩn mực bởi tất cả những gì bạn thể hiện đều là hình ảnh cá nhân của bạn. Nên nhớ là dù thông tin của bạn tốt, sản phẩm của bạn tốt nhưng nếu người ta không tin bạn, không chú ý đến bạn thì người ta không và không mua.

Có các nhóm sau mà tôi giới thiệu cùng các bạn, phù hợp với người mới bắt đầu. Lưu ý là không phải bạn cứ bấm join là được chấp nhận. Hãy chứng minh bạn xứng đáng trở thành một thành viên của group. 6 group dưới đây yêu cầu bạn suy nghĩ cẩn thận trước khi bấm join

Một số nhóm khá hay nhưng tôi không giới thiệu bởi gia nhập các nhóm đó đòi hỏi bạn cần một cái đầu tỉnh táo cùng một nền tảng kiến thức vững chắc để phân biệt đúng sai.

Các bạn tự search địa chỉ group.

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- quy tựu hầu hết leader của các digital agency hiện nay
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2. Underground Agency Network
- gần giống group số 1
- các chủ đề thảo luận, cà phê offline hằng tuần mang tính thực chiến cao hơn

3. Launch
- đa số dân start-up từ Bắc chí Nam đều ngồi trong group này
- nhà đầu tư, nhà báo mảng công nghệ cũng vậy
- tham gia vào group sẽ thấy tám ngàn thể loại từ ngữ, chủ đề như của người ngoài hành tinh bởi vì tính đặc thù và chuyên môn cao của dân làm công nghệ
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4. VMCC
- Vietnam Mảketing & Communication Club là group của dân MarCom đông và chất lượng nhất hiện nay, group có mặt hầu hết dân MarCom kỳ cựu trong ngành
- là môi trường cực kỳ lý tưởng để học
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- là group có các hoạt động offline hoành tráng nhất đúng chất MarCom

5. Digital Marketing Freelancer Network
- group có mặt đông đủ dân làm digital marketing (freelance lẫn không)
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- thi thoảng có job freelance hoặc có lời mời join vào team nào đó

6. E-Commerce Group
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Life Updates

Well, it’s nearly official, we have found our dream bus and I will be headed to Portland in a few weeks to pick it up. It’s a 2008 Chevy Bluebird short school bus with a 6.6L diesel in perfect condition straight from a WA school district with only 120,000 miles!

For those of you who don’t know, we have been planning to convert a bus for quite a few years now, ever since we settled down from travelin and lost our last beloved van home to some petty mechanical issues. If everything goes as planned, we will complete the bus conversion this winter using as many recycled materials and renewable energy upgrades (namely, solar) as possible. Once I finish my degree, we will finally hit the road again to travel throughout North America working on farms, gaining management experience, and figuring out where we want to put down roots for our future farm and homestead. We will also be able to get most of our itchy feet taken care of for awhile by visiting all our favorite wilderness spots (plus many new ones), punk shows, bluegrass festivals, urban friends, farmers’ markets, fellow rural punks, and more.

In other news, everything on the farm is running smoothly. We just started the garlic harvest and have already reached week 11 of CSA. Unbelievable. The summer is slipping by so quickly; we try to cherish every moment of the abundant harvests and sunshine. We spend our nights and weekends out in the beautiful Montana landscapes, savoring it all before it’s covered in snow again. I will post bus updates and farm updates very soon. Cheers everyone!

The Biggest Boss: Part 7

As time progressed, I started to become disillusioned with life on Grasello’s fat farm. My gaining had leveled out around 250 pounds. This was somewhat intentional, as I was getting tired of my limited mobility. Nicoli continued to pile on the pounds. The fatter he grew the more bratty and demanding he became. He wanted me to wait on him constantly, bring him food, and pleasure his oversized body. When I was resistant, he became volatile and mean. Living in the lap of luxury had turned Nicoli into a spoiled hog.

Furthermore, Grasello was becoming increasingly possessive. I expressed interest in finding other boys to bring home, which Grasello was not happy with. We were his prize-winning piglets and he wanted us all for himself. He’d spent thousands of dollars stuffing us silly, and now that we were properly fattened, we were his property. After months of being unsatisfied I began saving money to move out. Once I had enough, I snuck out in the middle of the night and flew home to Orange County.

I didn’t want to spend the money on an apartment so I moved back into my parents home. They were aware I was living with friends, but had no clue the lifestyle I had been leading in Italy. Furthermore, I couldn’t muster the nerve to inform anyone of my nearly 100 pound weight gain. They were in for a shock.

My dad picked me up at the airport around 2am. I stood on the sidewalk of passenger pick up and watched as cars cruised by. I saw my dad’s PT Cruiser roll past me. He didn’t seem to notice me so I waved him down. He parked and got out to greet me.

“Jesus, I barely recognized you, Tim!”

I laughed and we embraced. My dad took a step back to look me up and down.

“Forgive me, but I’m certainly surprised.” He grabbed my hanging belly with both hands and gave it a squeeze. “This is new to me.”

“Well, you know the way Italian’s eat,” I said.

“Endlessly, it seems!” He exclaimed.

We loaded my luggage into his car and drove off.

“Look, Dad. I know I’ve gained some, well, a lot, of weight. But… I’m happy and like my body. I’ve been to the doctor and I’m totally healthy.”

“Good enough for me,” he said. “But good luck with your mother.”

Everyone was asleep when I got home, so I went straight to my room. My stomach was already burning with hunger. I had become accustomed to constantly eating something, and the car ride home had left me starving. I tip toed to the kitchen and was underwhelmed by the food options. I grabbed a box of Wheat Thins and retreated to my room. I couldn’t fall asleep so I rummaged through my closet until I found an old stash of grass. I smoked a bowl and laid in bed for awhile.

After half an hour the munchies began to set it. I quickly polished off the box of Wheat Thins. Now what? I made my way back to the kitchen and began munching on a bag of tortilla chips. Once that was gone I set in on some potato salad, then ice cream, half a jug of orange juice, several slices of buttered toast, a chocolate bar, and some mysterious casserole. Finally satiated, I retired to my room and passed out overstuffed and bloated.

I woke up the next morning with my erect cock pressing into my belly fat. Unfortunately I no longer had Grasello’s red, puffy lips to pleasure me every morning. I jerked off and got dressed for the day. As I headed into the living room I heard my mother ask Jeff, my brother:

“Who ate all the food?”

They both turned as I entered the room.

“My god. Well, mystery solved,” said my mom.

“Hey guys,” I said. “Been awhile.”

“Tim,” my brother began, “you look…”

“Positively fat.” Said my mother.

I explained to them that I had been eating a lot in Italy and that all the food there was carbs drenched in creams and oils. I told them I was healthy, but my mom was not happy. She lectured me on heart disease and diabetes. She even went so far as to say she was scared for my life. After the verbal beating, Jeff and I retired to the couch to smoke a bowl and watch TV. The couch creaked as I plopped my rounded and fat posterior on it.

“Careful, don’t break the couch,” Jeff laughed. “Man, I never thought I’d live to see my gay baby brother outgrow me. How’s it feel?” he asked. “You know, to be like twice the size you were a year ago.”

“Pretty fucking great,” I replied as I leaned back and slapped my gut. Unbeknownst to me, my shirt rode up to reveal my creamy white underbelly.

“Shit man! You must have been stuffing your face. You know you got stretchmarks? Hah, like a pregnant bitch!”

I hadn’t realized I had stretchmarks and struggled to pull my belly back to see them. There weren’t many mirrors at Grasello’s, and I frankly could barely see the underside of my belly on my own.

“Yeah man, maybe you’re pregnant with a butt baby. You should tell people that so they don’t think you’re just a lazy slob who drinks too much beer!”

“You’re an asshole,” I said. “I’m perfectly happy with my body the way it is. In fact, I’ve been having the best sex of my life with this beer gut.”

Jeff laughed. “Oh yeah? Can you even see your dick? Or maybe that’s what gays like. Let’s play find Tim’s dick! Count how many rolls you have to lift until it appears!”

Furious, I stormed out of the house. I couldn’t stay there much longer. I needed to find a job- and fast.

Flaws For Commoners

Flaws are an optional rule where you can acquire extra feats by taking a numeric penalty to some stat or in a specific situation. You may have up to 2 flaws, which gives you 2 extra feats. The flaws listed below are for people of the peasant class. You don’t have to have levels in the Commoner NPC class, you just have to be dirt broke and not have a noble title like everyone else. Credit to these goes to Ted Ragonstaff (Dragon Magazine, Issue #330, April 2005)
Warning: These flaws are full of silliness and should not be taken by anyone.

Chicken Infested
You’ve got a case of the chickens.
Effect: Whenever you draw a weapon or reach into a container, such as backpack or even a trapped hole in the wall, you have a 50% chance of drawing a live chicken instead. No, we don’t know where the chickens come from; it’s your character, you figure it out.

Corpse
Apparently you died
Effect: You’re dead. But hey, you got an extra feat!
Special: Undead and Constructs may not select this flaw.

Delicious
Someone cast Divine Flavor on you.
Effect: All monsters attack you if able to do so, regardless of their relationship with the rest of the party. In addition, you go down smooth (and are great with salsa). When subjected to a swallow whole attack, you’re treated as being two size categories smaller than you are.

Dirt Farmer
You farm the dirt. Now get back to work, you damn lazy serf!
Effect: You must spend 18 hours a day farming the land for your tyrannical liege-lord. If you fail to spend at least 18 hours a day farming, you gain the benefits of the Corpse flaw.

Incomprehensible Accent
Nubdy unstnds wu th hll yi se
Effect: Nobody can understand what the hell you’re saying. Your thick accent even baffles Comprehend Languages and similar magical effects.

Nagging Cough
You got down with the sickness.
Effect: You begin play afflicted with Mummy Rot. You’ve made no successful saves to kick the disease. No, we don’t know how you got the rot; it’s your character, you figure it out.

Peasant Hat
You are wearing a derpy peasant hat.
Effect: You suffer a -15 penalty on all Diplomacy checks. Other characters of higher social class than you (basically everyone, let’s be honest) can cast Command on you once per day, with no saving throw allowed.
Special: If you remove the hat, you take 1d6 points of Intelligence drain per round as crows pick at your exposed brain. Once the Intelligence drain reaches 0, you die. No we don’t know why your brain is exposed; it’s your character, you figure it out.

Pig Bond
You own a really big pig.
Effect: You must at all times carry a pig that weighs an amount equal to your maximum load. The pig refuses to walk on it’s own. If your Strength score increases, the pig gets fatter to match your maximum load. If your strength score decreases….. get a cart.
Special: If more than a few inches ever separates you and the pig, the pig instantly transforms into Zon-Kuthon and skins you (which may or may not kill you, he is the god of torture, after all).

Unimportant NPC
Nobody gives a #$%^ about you.
Effect: You have no name. You are never included when the group divides up it’s treasure. You always go last in the initiative order, if your DM even remembers that you exist.

Weresheep
You thought that mutton tasted funny.
Effect: You begin play afflicted with lycanthropy. Except instead of becoming a slobbering murderbeast, your animal form is a sheep, and your hybrid form is a messed-up amalgamation of your species and sheep. When in animal or hybrid form, you suffer the effects of the Delicious flaw.
Special: If you’ve seen the 2006 horror movie Black Sheep, you cannot take this flaw. Ever.

XP Farm
You’re going to make someone very happy.
Effect: You’re worth ten times the normal XP for someone of your challenge rating. No we don’t know why you’re worth so much XP; it’s your character, you figure it out.

anonymous asked:

You posted some stuff about GMOs and I just wanted to encourage you to do some research on them! You generally seem pretty well educated on food so I think it would benefit you! GMOs allow for the use of less pesticides and use 0 chemicals. (1/2)

Continued…..

In fact, the majority of GMOs is simply breeding different plants to make them yield more! It’s all just scientific engineering to make agriculture more efficient. Have a great day! Also, your post about corporation owned corn is misleading information! Monsanto breeds new strands and seeds of corn that have greater yield, so farmers opt to buy these because their return is larger. Same goes for wheat! They could use others But using other seeds mean using more land and water and pesticides for less yield! It’s economically and environmentally better to use genetically modified corn and wheat strands. Remember, GMO simply means organisms are bred together!

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As an environmental science major i have had to do a lot of research on GMOs and write too many opinion papers on them! I’m just going to copy and paste one of my essays here for you to read rather than writing it all out again! Thanks for this message though- i enjoy talking about things like this with people who actually are educated on the subject!!

With the turn of the century, the advent of GM foods have created a new divide in society: those for GM foods and those opposed to it. With the confusion over the new science, GMO companies like Monsanto have spread the use of their products with little resistance. Now, as the public has become more informed on the issues at hand, GM foods have been put under scrutiny. While GM foods boast advantages for agriculture, these advantages have major side effects that outweigh the positive effects and these coupled with their monoculturism and their spreadability make them a major threat to the farming industry rather than a benefit.

GM foods are said to have major beneficial factors that outweigh their negative effects. It is claimed that with increase in GM foods, pesticide usage will go down, however; this is untrue due to the use of glyphosate. Glyphosate, more commonly known as ‘Roundup’, is a herbicide that is commonly used to kill off weeds that are found around crops. Since the start of GM foods, Glyphosate-resistant crops have been invented, making the option for farmers to be able to spray Glyphosate to kill off weeds without harming their crops (GMO Crops). Although this seems like an excellent invention, it has had some serious unintended consequences. Rather than go down, pesticide use has grown because the new GM crops are unaffected by pesticides (GMO Crops), so farmers no longer have to worry about over spraying their crops. GM crops have been tested to reduce or eliminate nut allergies, even though this is a step in the right direction, they are also creating new allergies as well as worsening known allergies. New allergies are being created from the increase in herbicide use and the changing of DNA without being labeled (Institute for). GM foods have brought the ability to feed more people with less time, space, and money. While being able to feed the growing population is good, the GM foods have less nutritional value and the longterm affect on the human body is still unknown (8 Reasons).

Ever since the creation of GM foods, genetic diversity of crops have gone down. 100 years ago there were 307 types of corn being grown and consumed, today there are only 12, but most of the corn grown belongs to one of three of these types. This is the same with almost every crop grown today. As the usage of GM foods grows, crop diversity is diminishing (We Used). Along with the fact that we are loosing types of food, plants that have less diversity tend to have a harder time with survival. Wether this is through fighting off deceases, living through droughts, or warding away insects, natural plants have a better chance of living (8 Reasons). The mono-culturing of crops also depletes the soil of beneficial nutrients, which will cause a future decline in production.

GM crops are able to pass on their modified traits on to other species, many of which are not targeted crops. This can lead to the creation of a new species that have not been tested nor have been meant to be created (8 Reasons). This is a huge environmental risk because it can change certain genetic components of other foods making them unsafe to consume, as well as destroying a crucial source of food for other species. The Monarch Butterfly’s food, milkweed, has unintentionally been mixed with Bt corn. The corn seeds have drifted into milkweed crops and the two have crossbred to create a version of milkweed poisonous to the Monarch. This spread also takes away a consumer’s right to chose what they want to put into their body. As GM crops spread, companies like Monsanto gain power by seizing farms accidentally infected with GMOs (Pocket K).

GMO companies have a tight grip on agriculture and it will take a lot of informed opposition to loosen this hold. Much of the damage of GM foods will only be reversed with time, but first, production of these crops needs to be stunted if not stopped. Their obvious abuse of the environment will not only hurt the areas where they are used, but the larger environment around us, and no one is being held responsible for these actions. With the increase in pesticides, allergies, and crops with empty calories, global human health will deteriorate. The most damning point of evidence against GM foods is this: if GM foods were truly as good for us as advertised, why did Monsanto pump millions into not having food labels as “GMO” or “non-GMO” (What are).

Sources Sited

“8 Reasons GMOs Are Bad for You | Organicauthority.com - Organic Living.” Organicauthoritycom Organic Living. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Feb. 2014.

“Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?” Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2014.

“GMO Crops Increase Pesticide Use.” Farm Wars RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2014.

“GMO Myths and Truths Report.” 5.2. Myth: GM Crops Decrease Pesticide Use. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Feb. 2014.

“Institute for Responsible Technology.” - Genetically Engineered Foods May Cause Rising Food AllergiesGenetically Engineered Soybeans. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Feb. 2014.

“Pocket K No. 4: GM Crops and the Environment.” GM Crops and the Environment. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2014.

“We Used To Have 307 Kinds Of Corn. Guess How Many Are Left?” Upworthy. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Feb. 2014.

“What Are We Eating? - LabelGMOs.” LabelGMOs. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Feb. 2014.

Martyn is an awesome person, so I did some quick Fan Art.

The tree that never had to fight
For sun and sky and air and light,
But stood out in the open plain
And always got its share of rain,
Never became a forest king
But lived and died a scrubby thing.

The man who never had to toil
To gain and farm his patch of soil,
Who never had to win his share
Of sun and sky and light and air,
Never became a manly man
But lived and died as he began.

Good timber does not grow with ease:
The stronger wind, the stronger trees;
The further sky, the greater length;
The more the storm, the more the strength.
By sun and cold, by rain and snow,
In trees and men good timbers grow.

Where thickest lies the forest growth,
We find the patriarchs of both.
And they hold counsel with the stars
Whose broken branches show the scars
Of many winds and much of strife.
This is the common law of life.

Douglas Malloch