This is the oldest of the Chinese classics in existence. Some folks claim it dates back to 1100 BCE; others are more conservative and claim it was only compiled back in the 800s BCE. This thing’s so old, its supposed author, Fuxi, is sometimes depicted as a half-snake demigod.
An ancient painting of Nu Wa and Fu Xi (right) unearthed in Xinjiang. China (mid-700s) [Source]
The book consists of 64 chapters, each devoted to a hexagram - i.e. a combination of six broken and unbroken lines; the oldest depiction of binary numbers in existence. These represent the interplay of yin and yang, positive and negative:
Using divinatory practices (e.g. drawing yarrow sticks, flipping coins, or just opening the damn book), you’re supposed to figure out which number you’ve got, consult the corresponding chapter, and figure out what it means for your specific situation. And good luck with that, because the symbols are pretty damn obscure. Whatever you want to see in there, you’ll see. Have fun with it.
For centuries, scholars within and beyond China have been studying it, trying to make sense of it - the Song Dynasty folks kind of gave up and decided it was more useful as a springboard for other philosophical questions. The early European views are especially interesting:
[German inventor of calculus] Leibniz, who was corresponding with Jesuits in China, wrote the first European commentary on the I Ching in 1703, arguing that it proved the universality of binary numbers and theism, since the broken lines, the “0” or “nothingness”, cannot become solid lines, the “1” or “oneness”, without the intervention of God.
This was criticized by Hegel, who proclaimed that binary system and Chinese characters were “empty forms” that could not articulate spoken words with the clarity of the Western alphabet. In their discussion, I Ching hexagrams and Chinese characters were conflated into a single foreign idea, sparking a dialogue on Western philosophical questions such as universality and the nature of communication.
In the 20th century, Jacques Derrida identified Hegel’s argument as logocentric, but accepted without question Hegel’s premise that the Chinese language cannot express philosophical ideas.
The Westerners who most famously played around with the I Ching, however, were the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and the American composer John Cage.
Using the oracle with his patients in psychotherapy Jung could remember a great deal of meaningful answers. He recalled the story of a patient stuck between ambivalent feelings related to a girl he wanted to ask out (actually the patient suffered from a mother complex). The response of I Ching was hexagram # 44, entitled Coming to Meet, which worn saying: One should not marry such a maiden.
But how this book manages to give us such inspired answers, asked himself Jung? And he answered: …A certain curious principle that I have termed synchronicity, a concept that formulates a point of view diametrically opposed to that of causality. Since the latter is a merely statistical truth and not absolute, it is a sort of working hypothesis of how events evolve one out of another, whereas synchronicity takes the coincidence of events in space and time as meaning something more than mere chance.
Translation of I Ching by Richard Wilhelm and Cary F. Baynes, with foreword by Carl Jung UK (1949) [Source]
I’ve gotta confess, though - unlike the Tao Te Ching and the Zhuangzi, the I Ching is not an easy read. And I personally find the whole Western embrace of it as a source of Eastern wisdom kind of creepy.
Mural of Fu Xi at Fu Xi Temple, Tianshui, Gansu China [Source]
Now we’ve talked about Nü Wa, I figure we ought to spare a thought for Fu Xi / Fu Hsi / 伏羲. He’s her brother… and her husband!
Fuxi (/fu˧˥ɕi˥/; Chinese: 伏羲) or Fu Xi, also romanized as Fu-hsi, is a culture hero in Chinese legend and mythology, credited (along with his sister Nü Wa) with creating humanity and the invention of hunting, fishing and cooking as well as the Cangjie system of writing Chinese characters ca. 12,000 BCE. He was also known as Paoxi (t 庖犧, s 庖牺), also romanized as Pao-hsi. Fu Xi was counted as the first of the Three Sovereigns at the beginning of the Chinese dynastic period…
According to the Classic of Mountains and Seas, Fu Xi and Nü Wa were the original human who live on the mythological Kunlun Mountain (today’s Huashan). One day they set up two separated piles of fire, and the fire eventually became one. Under the fire they decided to become husband and wife.
Fuxi and Nü Wa used clay to create offsprings, and with the divine power they made the clay figures come alive. These clay figures were the earliest human beings.
There’s a fair bit of theorising that Fu Xi represents a patriarchal god supplanting a purely matriarchal culture. But it’s telling that after all this time, Nü Wa is still far more popular and more recognised as the creator of humankind. :)
Still, he is more recognised as a bringer of technology.
Fu Xi taught his subjects to cook, to fish with nets, and to hunt with weapons made of bone, wood, or bamboo. He instituted marriage and offered the first open-air sacrifices to heaven…
Traditionally, Fu Xi is considered the originator of the I Ching (also known as the Yi Jing or Zhou Yi), which work is attributed to his reading of the He Map (or the Yellow River Map). According to this tradition, Fu Xi had the arrangement of the trigrams (八卦 bāgùa) of the I Ching revealed to him in the markings on the back of a mythical dragon horse (sometimes said to be a tortoise) that emerged from the Luo River. This arrangement precedes the compilation of the I Ching during the Zhou dynasty. This discovery is said to have been the origin of calligraphy.
Guo Xu Fu Xi looking at his drawn trigram China (1503) [Source]
Fu Xi is also credited with the invention of the Guqin musical instrument, though credit for this is also given to Shennong and Huangdi…. Fu Xi is said to have lived for 197 years altogether and died at a place called Chen (modern Huaiyang, Henan), where a monument to him can still be found and visited as a tourist attraction.
It is a little telling, though, that he’s not often depicted as a half-snake being as Nü Wa is. Instead he’s got this whole wild man thing going on with a leopard skin and leaf skirt.
I guess if you invent writing and cooking and hunting, you’re a little less superhuman than if you fix the entire sky with a heavenly tortoise leg.
It also means you’re easier to co-opt. Turns out a bunch of 16th-17th century Jesuits in China called the Figurists, Fu Xi was just another version of the Judaeo-Christian prophet Enoch.
Once I saw yellowfur allowed us to create our own lil’ Fauxi, I just couldn’t hold back! They’re just way too adorable ;V;!! So made this lil’ guy <3 Naming him Cherou. And yes, he got a floppy year :3
Rosa confetto, fuxia, lilla e viola! La primavera esplode ai vostri piedi con un mix di toni ultra-femminili abbinati a cristalli, tacchi stiletto e linee stilistiche ideate per esaltare il vostro stile e la vostra femminilità. Spring is coming…
Nüwa appeared in literature no earlier than c. 350 BC. Her companion, Fuxi, was her brother and husband. They are sometimes worshiped as the ultimate ancestor of all humankind, and are often represented as half-snake, half-humans. It is sometimes believed that Nüwa molded humans from clay for companionship.