functional support

Neurons - Anatomy Overview

Going to be covering nerves and synapses this week so here’s a recap!

  • Soma (cell body) contains the nucleus which produces RNA to support cell functions, + organelles surrounding the nucleus which are mostly made of up endoplasmic reticulum. Supports and maintains the functioning of the neuron.
  • Dendrites - cellular extensions with many branches ‘dendritic tree’. majority of input occurs via the dendritic spine. The sum of all excitatory (neuron fires) or inhibitory (prevents firing) signals determines whether the neuron fires or not. If firing the action potential is transmitted down the axon.
  • Axon - fine, cable-like projection that can extend thousands of times the diameter of the soma in length. The axon carries nerve signals away from the soma (and also carries some types of information back to it). Can undergo branching - communication with target cells. 
  • Axon hillock - where the axon emerges from the soma. the part of the neuron that has the greatest density of voltage-dependent sodium channels - therefore the most easily excited part of the neuron and the spike initiation zone for the axon - most negative action potential threshold. Can also receive input from other neurons.
  • Axon terminal where neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft to signal the next neuron

Myelin sheath

Myelin is a fatty material that wraps around axons and increases the speed of electrical transmission between neurons. It is broken up by nodes of Ranvier, between which electrical impulses jump. Myelin is produced by schwann cells in the PNS and oligodendrocytes in the CNS.

Classes of neurons

Sensory neurons bring information into the CNS so it can be processed.

Motor neurons get information from other neurons and convey commands to  muscles, organs and glands.

Interneurons,found only in the CNS, connect one neuron to another. 

Types of neuron

Multipolar neurons have one axon and many dendritic branches. These carry signals from the central nervous system to other parts of the body eg muscles and glands.

Unipolar neurons are also known as sensory neurons. They have one axon and one dendrite with branches. Pass signals from the outside of the body, such as touch, along to the central nervous system.

Bipolar neurons have one axon and one dendrite branch. They pass signals from one neuron to the next inside the central nervous system.

Pyramidal neurons have one axon and two main dendrite branches. These cells pass signals inside the brain and tell the muscles to move.

Purkinje neurons are found in the cerebellum, controlling balance, coordination, and timing of actions. They have one axon and a dense and complicated dendrite arrangement.

Your Awards

Pairing: Evan Peters x Reader

Description: One day, you see something crazy on tv leading to cuddles with your favorite superhero.

Warnings: Fluff. So much fluff. Also adorably clumsy Evan. Also insecure Evan?


“EVAN THOMAS PETERS!! GET YOUR FAMOUS BUTT IN HERE!!”

Your boyfriend flew into the room with a wild expression and hair sticking in different directions. “ARE YOU OK? ARE YOU HURT? WHAT IS HAPPENING?” Evan panted as he checked you over, making sure you were alright. “I’m fine you idiot. Look at the tv.”

You happened to be flipping through channels when your boyfriends name read across the screen.

“..and the nominees can be viewed on MTV.com.” You dove for your laptop, threw open the cover and furiously began typing.

“Babe, what’s going on?” Evan was thoroughly confused by the way you were acting. “SHH!” You finished typing and started to busy yourself with clicks and scrolls. You seemed to find what you were looking for and practically threw the laptop in poor Evan’s face.

“Look! Look! Oh my gosh, look!!” Evan caught the computer midair and scrutinized the view that was presented on the screen. The page read, ‘MTV Movie Awards. Best Comedic Performance Nominees.’ “No. You’re messing with me.” You laughed at Evan’s expression. “This is all very serious Ev. Oh and go back a page.”

He did as told and it basically said the same but with Action Performance. “TWO?! Holy crap!” “Babe this is so huge for you. Being nominated for two big awards? SO PROUD!!”

Evan suddenly became quiet. He looked at you with an unreadable expression. Extremely confused and a little worried, you asked, “what’s eating you, babe?”

He slowly set the laptop down and stepped over to where you were sitting on the couch. “You,” he said.

“Me?” you asked. “You. These are your awards.”

By now you were very worried and reached to check his temperature. He was probably just overexcited.

“Babe. I don’t believe you’re thinking straight. What’s up?” “This is your award. You’re the one who got me out of bed every morning even if I was being an arse about it. You made sure I was fed and hydrated so I could function at work. You supported me every night I felt I wasn’t doing Peter justice. You were.. are my rock. I wouldn’t even have got the audition if you hadn’t pushed me to. So yeah, these are your awards.”

The room fell into a calm aura, setting your emotions skyrocketing. “Sure I helped you, but that’s just it. I helped. Who’s the one who read scripts until three in the morning making sure he wouldn’t screw up his lines? Who went to the gym even though he hated it there so his character would look the part? Who acted the same scene for sixteen plus hours one day and was just as excited to do the same thing the next day? That was all you, baby. So if you want to call the awards partially mine, I’ll let you, but they are yours and you did everything to deserve them. You are a great actor and your coworkers tell me they’ve learned a lot from you. I’m so proud, baby. I’m so proud.”

Evan was practically in tears now. He always questioned his acting ability yet you always could reassure him. He could never tell you how thankful he was for you. He just couldn’t do it without you by his side. Someday he’d ask you to be with him forever. Just not yet.

“Thank you, baby girl. I love you so much.” “I love you too my Quicksilver.”

That day ended in cuddles watching his X-Men movies.

anonymous asked:

Recently there's been some discourse going around the HTTYD fandom about the times Astrid has playfully punched Hiccup. Some see it as abuse, while others don't. I don't see it as abusive since she doesn't do it with the intent of hurting him and Hiccup knows that. It's just playful and neither of them see it as malicious. That's how it looks to me anyway, but I was wondering what your take on it is.

Check out this link for my long analysis on the topic of Hiccstrid and abuse. My statement is that Hiccstrid is clearly not abusive.

It is to note that abuse is not defined by intent. Someone can be abused regardless of what the abuser intends; what makes abuse abuse is that there is a victim. It’s also to note that many individuals who have been abused (including myself, back in the day, when I was in an abusive relationship) try to deny that this is abuse, or might not want to see it as abuse. But you are right - what Astrid is doing is playful, Hiccup knows it, and he’s not emotionally impacted negatively by her actions. The key is that neither Hiccup nor Astrid feel that her little punches are abusive *and* no one is negatively psychologically impacted by this action. Contrarily, they live in an extremely functional, supportive relationship.

Astrid never crosses any boundaries when she gives her “punches.” Though Hiccup gets a little irritated every once in a while, there is no indication she crosses any lines when she acts this way. Astrid’s “punches” are just as abusive as if I decide I want to pull a harmless prank on a friend that makes them a little bit irritated once they’re pranked, but it’s understood within our friendship that I can still prank them. They could prank me back, I might grumble a bit, but I won’t have any qualms with what they did either. It’s within the bounds of our friendship that we mutually know we can get back and forth at each other. Hiccup and Astrid live in a mutual understanding that what she’s doing is okay, not off-limits. Hiccup is not emotionally screwed up by what Astrid is doing, he’s not asking her to stop, but on the contrary he says at the end of HTTYD that, “I could get used to this.” These two are at a mutual understanding that little teasing punches are okay. There are even instances in which Astrid gives her little friendly punch and Hiccup just smiles back at her (ex: end of Heather Report Part 2). This definitely isn’t abuse.

And again, to reiterate, Hiccstrid demonstrates signs again and again of a healthy relationship. They tease one another and laugh with carefree spirits, able to relax and enjoy themselves around one another. They listen to one another’s struggles and provide support when needed. Astrid encourages Hiccup when he loses Toothless in the first movie; Hiccup encourages Astrid when she momentarily loses her sight in Blindsided. They are able to enjoy company with one another and relate to one another deeply through both happy and challenging times. This is a stable relationship. This is a good relationship. This is a relationship that is founded on trust, mutual understanding, love, dedication, loyalty, and happiness.

I do encourage everyone who is not triggered by abuse topics to read the full link. It’s a much more thorough and complete response, going into everything from psychological traits of abusers, psychological traits of victims, and every bit of evidence we could see for/against abuse. It tackles many of the common arguments I’ve heard from attempted abuse claims, and points out where I find these arguments flawed. I talk about Astrid’s actions in the Cove (which, to note, are before they enter a relationship), her actions during Riders and Defenders of Berk, and up to How to Train Your Dragon 2. So check out that analysis! I hope it helps! Take care and have a wonderful day.

It’s not too much to ask. Though I may have drawn this for reasons other than this prompt.

I do love their relationship a lot. They contrast each other pretty well. They’re pretty opposite in the sense that one is the straight man that grounds the group, while the other is the wild card that can’t be held down by anything. Despite that they seem to get along pretty well and it’s always fun to see them interacting with each other.

Choromatsu needs to cry more.  

anonymous asked:

CAN I JUST TELL YOU THAT YOU'RE MY FAVORITE WRITER, BACK TO US IS MY FAVORITE FANFIC EVER,,, I LITERALLY SCREAM AND RUN AROUND THE HOUSE EVERY TIME YOU UPDATE THEN MY SISTERS ASK ME WHY IM SCREAMING,,, I LOVE YOU

*Squints at ask* I feel like I’ve seen this before…something about sisters…

Anyway, thank you, “Nonny”. :D

Start using support levels instead of functioning labels!

For the uninformed, functioning labels are terms like high functioning autism, low functioning autism, mild autism, severe autism. Other words like moderate or level 1, level 2, etc may be used too.

Functioning labels are extremely offensive because they’re placed on autistic people based on observation from the outside. This is problematic for three reasons.

  • Functioning labels determine how autistic people are treated. People associate “low functioning/severe” with incompetence or infancy and they end up treating the autistic person like a pet or a baby. High functioning/mild gets stereotyped as people who are just a little quirky and their difficulties get ignored as laziness or intentional stubbornness.
  • Functioning labels imply brokenness and treat people as if their intrinsic value is determined by what they contribute to society rather than the fact that they are a living being with oxygen in their lungs and blood in their veins like everybody else.
  • Functioning labels create a dichotomy as if there are differing “levels” of autism or that people exist on different areas of the spectrum. NO, NO, NO, that’s not how it is.

Think of spectroscopy and how the elements create their own signature color lines. Now put peoples’ names in place of the elements: Hydrogen/Harold, Helium/Henry, Lithium/Luke, Oxygen/Olga, Carbon/Carol, Nitrogen/Nadine.

Autism is like that. We’re all on the same spectrum and all that is unique is how we display our symptoms, our sensory issues, our splinter abilities and so forth.

In light of that, I want to change the language. Let’s start pushing for support levels instead of functioning labels.

High support: Anyone who isn’t able to live independently and needs help with some or all of their basic daily living skills such as eating, bathing, basic grooming, putting on makeup, getting dressed and completing tasks. Can be abbreviated online or in writing as HSP for High Support Person or HSAP for High Support Autistic Person.

Usage in speech: Clarissa is a high support autistic person and needs assistance with getting dressed and taking a shower.
Abbreviated usage online: I’m a HSAP and I’m really into physics, so the poor sucker who signs me on is gonna hear a lot about it when they hand me my iPad! 

Medium support: Anyone may or may not live independently and doesn’t need help with basic living skills, but needs help with other things like cooking, completing some tasks, transportation if unable to drive and assistance for things like grocery shopping. Can be abbreviated online or in writing as MSP for Medium Support Person or MSAP for Medium Support Autistic Person.

Usage in speech: Kevin is a medium support autistic person and needs some assistance to prepare meals and shop for the wood he uses for his carpentry projects. His boyfriend, Max, usually helps him with those.
Usage online: I’m a MSAP and I’m looking for info about saws. Any fellow auties know what’s best for cutting oak? 

Low support: Anyone who more often than not lives independently and may only need assistance with minor things like balancing a checkbook, getting started on some tasks like organizing a garage sale or arranging to move from one house to another. Can be abbreviated online or in writing as LSP for Low Support Person or LSAP for Low Support Autistic Person.

Usage in speech: Jesse is a low support autistic person and she only needs help keeping her checkbook balanced.
Usage online: I’m a LSAP and I’m thinking about moving to Seattle. What’s the weather and traffic like there? 

Reasons support levels are better:

  • They don’t make assumptions about intelligence
  • They don’t encourage infantilization or pity
  • They sound more respectful and dignified

Ditch functioning labels and start using support levels. These terms can apply to practically every kind of disability, not just autism.

For the record, I’m a MSAP.

Please reblog this whether you’re disabled or not. Make this viral.

Spoilers: The Accountant

So what I liked about The Accountant was that some of the typical format for the “high functioning autistic” movie was subverted.

First off the main character. Christian Wolff is an accountant who cooks the books for criminals. The typical plot would be the brainy guy who needs to be protected, and that gets flipped right off the bat. He’s a badass who can shoot a cantaloupe from a mile off and defends others around him, rather than the other way around.

Second there’s his relationship with (SPOILERS) his brother. It wasn’t the typical patronising keeper kind of relationship, but it wasn’t ambivalent either. And in the end when (SPOILERS) they’re after the fight, you’re kind of expecting them to hug it out, because that’s how emotional reconciliation goes down in Hollywood. That doesn’t happen, because Christian doesn’t like hugs or physical contact, and Brax respects that. It’s a nice change to see the autistic person being accommodated, not the other way around.

Lastly, and honestly this one is my favorite, it portrays low functioning, high support autistics so much better than I have ever seen. In the end it is revealed (SPOILERS) that the voice is Christians high support autistic sister, who is communicating with him and masterminding most of his deals and clients through her digital communication aid from a home for autistic people. She’s a big player and a hero, despite the fact that she is nonverbal and high support. You don’t see that a lot in movies. *EDIT* turns out she wasn’t his sister, she was his friend, the kid of the therapist that runs the home. Thanks to @meowmart01 for pointing that out!

Point being, it’s a good movie. It’s surprisingly good representation, and is definitely worth a watch.

anonymous asked:

Hey! Do you know how I can get custom fonts to work on my themes? Not Google Fonts, but ones from Dafont and whatnot. Everytime I've tried, they don't seem to work for my followers :/

Hello! Here’s what I do with my custom fonts. It might be a bit complicated but I’ll try to explain ti!

First, you can go to Font Squirrel’s online generator and upload your font, then it will generate files that are suitable for the web page. You can ignore the rest of the settings, but here’s the options I will suggest:

After the process is done, download your files and unzip the folder. Your files will probably look like this: (the highlighted ones are the ones we’re going to use later)

But first, let’s open the file “stylesheet.css”. If you don’t have Dreamweaver installed, it will probably be opened with Notepad. But either way, just copy the code and paste it to your theme under the <style type=“text/css”> tag

Ok so for some reasons, Tumblr’s theme asset function doesn’t really support web fonts. I’ve tried uploading fonts to Tumblr’s theme asset and even though the links can be generated, it just won’t work. Therefore if you have a dropbox account, I will suggest you to use it instead.

Upload all the highlighted files to your dropbox:

Click “share” on your files and create a share link for each of them

Now you replace all the file names with the links you copied, but remember to change “www.dropbox.com” to “ dl.dropboxusercontent.com” in your links and remove the “?dl=0″ at the end

And now if you wanna use this font, just put “font-family: ‘your font’s name’; ” in the element

YAY!!!!

I hope this can help you out :)

bittyparse NHL social media au

Kent and Jack are functional exes (pry this from my cold dead hands tbh) who live to chirp each other. At first they mostly just text, but then Kent throws some shade at Jack and the Falcs on Twitter. Our poor Canadian walks timidly into the Falcs PR office like, can someone remind me how to mention people on the Twitter because I have to clap back?

Bitty, the social media guy, is just like “no worries I gotchu,” and he shows Jack how to @ Parse but also starts chirping Kent and the Aces hard from the Falcs Twitter. And our boy Kenny is so impressed (and lbr, turned on) that he calls Jack like, “tell me about the person who runs Falcs Twitter, I want to punch them in the mouth with my mouth, softly.”

Somebody write this for me, I am far too lazy!?

anonymous asked:

What's did difference between socialism and communism? (it would be greatly appreciated if it were explained in simple terms and examples were provided)

Sorry if I got to this late, but I really didn’t notice that I had asks (bc the Tumblr app is a mess).


Socialism is, in the simplest terms, where people own the stuff they need to work. In capitalism, your boss owns it, and uses your labour to make money off of it. We don’t think this is fair, and we recognize that it causes a whole ton of problems, so we want the people who use and need the equipment to own it.

For a quick example: when you go into your office, then you’re probably not allowed to replace the company computer, repaint the walls, and choose a new style of work and pick a totally different project. This is capitalism, because your boss owns all that stuff and arranges it to make the most money out of you. Under socialism, you could do everything you wanted with the place, because you’re the one who works there, so you should know how you can work best, to be comfortable and productive.


Communism is, on the other hand, a big ‘ol shakeup of society. Most importantly, it appears when we remove a few things:

  1. Class: Social class is when you have more than one “type” of person, and one of those types is valued more than the other. Right now, the types are lower, middle, and upper class. Lower and middle class people usually are forced to work for someone for money, while upper class people do little work but make money anyway. In media and culture, you often see upper class people praised and lower class people insulted. Additionally, the upper class have a lot more power than anyone else.
  2. Currency: Right now, you get things by spending money. In communism, there would be a general stockpile of stuff that people can have, so if they need it they get it. Instead of money being the only reason to work, people would support and contribute to everyone around them.
  3. Government: Under communism, you don’t need a country or province or state ruling over you. People can manage their own lives without being restricted.
  4. Private Property: Private Property is something you own that you don’t use, but instead make money off of other people using. For instance, if I owned a factory but didn’t work in it, that would be private property, because I am making money off other people’s work. This is different from personal property, which is stuff you use on a day to day basis: your car, your house, your phone, etc.

To put these in perspective: Currently, you probably consider yourself middle or lower class. That means you don’t have as much money as you’d like, and depending on your life you might not have everything you need. You own no private property, and probably work in somebody else’s. The government keeps you down, either by scaring you with the police, bullying you with taxes, or cutting your benefits while they keep the rich rich.

Under communism, you wouldn’t have a class. You’d have just as much access to what you need as everyone else (keep this in mind - you don’t necessarily have exactly as much as everyone else). You would be equal to everybody you meet, regardless of race, religion, age, whatever. Everything that you use you own, either together with other people (e.g. your workplace) or by yourself (e.g. your toothbrush). Government doesn’t really exist, because you can function with and support other people even without it.


I think I got to just about everything, but if you need any clarification on anything then feel free to ask, and if you have anything to add then please do!

Ti as a dominant, auxiliary, tertiary and inferior function

Ti as a dominant function:

ITPs use Ti as their dominant function. They identify patterns based on logic and have a good eye on spotting logical inconsistencies. ITPs apply their talents to outer world by spotting connections and prefer hands on approach. They are collecting pieces of a puzzle to understand the world.

Ti as an auxiliary function:

ETPs have Ti as their auxiliary function. It supports their dominant function by using the logical systems that their dominant function spots from the environment and then manipulating them to ETPs advantage. They use their auxiliary Ti to turn the situation to their favor.

Ti as a tertiary function:

IFJs manifest their tertiary Ti as backing up their decisions with logical format. They can use their Fe/Ti pairing on spotting inconsistencies from their Fe values. They use Ti to find proof to back up what their dominant function has picked up and judge that information together with Fe.

Ti as an inferior function:

EFJs can find their inferior function hard to cope. Ti uses its skeptical nature to find sometimes hard truths from people. In healthy use EFJs can use the information that Ti picks up to help others rather than manipulating them. Ti makes observations from other people for EFJs.


More about Ti:

My introduction to Ti

Ti vs Te

Ti vs Fi

Review - 13x19

13x19  What’s Inside – Review

Hey guys, @jordan202 here. Another week, another episode, this time with much less Omelia development than we would have appreciated but as I said before, I take what I’m given.

Originally posted by greyshepherdmontgomery

This week’s episode starts with Meredith and Amelia talking as they watch Maggie over her mother’s grave. This is an interesting scene because it points out the dynamics of what we’re seeing now. The three sisters are reunited, living together again and it’s distinct how Maggie stands out compared to Meredith and Amelia where grieving is concerned.

For having had a functional, supportive family, Maggie is supposedly more balanced and emotionally wiser than Meredith and Amelia, who not only have had dysfunctional childhoods, but have also gone through an insane amount of crap throughout their entire lives. I see a lot of people praising this relationship among the trio. Personally, I am not a big fan of this friendship and later on I’ll explain why.

Keep reading

A technical and not-at-all-sexy guide to 1920s/30s lingerie for people intending to write Fantastic Beasts steaminess

During this period, women wore three basic item categories under their clothes for most purposes, consisting of some next-to-the-skin layer (layer A), some shapewear layer (layer B), and stockings.  You needed all three layers to be properly dressed…and no, this does not mean women were constantly overheating.

Layer A’s purpose was manyfold.  It protected your skin from the structure of your shapewear.  It protected your shapewear and clothes (both of which were laundered only with difficulty; they wore a lot more wool and silk then) from your sweat. It might keep you warm in winter, though the vast majority of surviving ones are very sheer and would not have contributed to overheating.  There were several options for this “layer A”, including slips (exactly like the full slips of today), teddies, camiknickers, and step-ins (think full slip but with a strap to connect the front and back hems between the legs, which most often could be unfastened with a button), a combination of camisoles and French knickers (like teddies/camiknickers but separated at the waist), and a combination of camisoles and bloomers (the latter being pant-like garments that gathered just above the knee, almost always worn with sporting gear).  Based on Tina’s propensity for trousers, she probably wears camiknickers or camisoles and bloomers.  Queenie, obviously, wears slips but might own a teddy or two.  One thing should pop out at you: the lack of a true equivalent garment to today’s panties.  This is really important.  There’s a practical reason why “true panties” didn’t develop at this point that we’ll explore when we discuss layer B, but the real reason there wasn’t an equivalent is that womankind literally hadn’t seen the need for such a garment yet.  The “drawers” worn by prior generations were all completely open at the crotch.

(If you’re wondering how women could have possibly handled That Time Of The Month without modern-style panties, they pinned rather long sanitary pads—either disposable ones made of cellulose like today or reusable ones made of rags—to elastic belts worn under layer A. Think kind of like a modern thong where you can change out everything but a waistband.)

Layer B was shapewear…and yes, even in the liberated 1920s, women wore shapewear.  Like layer A, there were options.  Corsets were still worn in the 1920s, mostly by women who had reached adulthood when corsets were the be-all-end-all of shapewear, but by this time they extended from the underbust to the hip.  Corselets were cut along the same lines as a slip but were much snugger.  Girdles extended from the waist to the low hip.  All of these options would have garters (suspenders for you Brits) at the bottom to hold up one’s stockings, and all of them were designed to help achieve the ideal banana figure of the era, not a tiny waist.  Queenie most definitely wears a corselet, and Tina probably wears a girdle but might also wear a corselet depending on the scenario.  Now for the important bit: remember that layer B fits snugly to the body in order to do its shapewearly duty, and you’d have to remove it before you removed your layer A.  If you’re going to use the bathroom, you either have to completely disrobe, or you’re going to have to remove no garments whatsoever…and this is where the open-crotch lingerie designs come in handy, because you only need to pull up your skirt to use the facilities.

(A quick word on brassieres: while they existed during this period, brassieres in the 1920s provided almost no support, functioning mostly like a layer A piece to conceal nipple topography under thin dresses, and they were altogether pretty rare since the other layer A styles worked better to protect dresses from sweat.  They became more popular in the mid-1930s, particularly among younger women, and they provided some more support…but not by much.  Busty women of this era would have been stuck with corselets.)

Stockings were mandatory for everyday wear, full stop.  This is an era before shaved legs, so they were essential to get a smooth look.  Stockings basically all came in the same style, fully-fashioned with a back seam coming to mid-thigh, where they would be held up by the garters/suspenders attached to the shapewear layer.  That is, unless you were a mid-1920s flapper.  For the flappers—who, it needs to be noted, were a counterculture that did not describe the majority of women in the 1920s—there was a short-term fad for women to wear elasticized garters below the knee and roll their stockings down to that level.  This was so they could go without shapewear and its garters, but I stress again—this was a short-term fad.  Even flappers returned to their girdles after about two years, and stockings held up by garters were the only real option throughout the 1930s.

Thoughts re next Star Wars animated series

With season 4 being the final season of Star Wars Rebels, I was thinking…  You know how all the major characters of Clone Wars have made an appearance in Rebels, even functioned as supporting characters…  Well, we don’t know what’s coming next, but isn’t there a good chance we haven’t seen the last of the Ghost Crew?  :)  I mean, aren’t you curious where they all end up?  How about, say, what an older Ezra Bridger is like?  Or want to see Kanan and Hera’s kids?  ;)

Dogs on airplanes

I have taken a number of airplane trips over the past month or so, and I noticed, on each of the flights I took, that there were dogs on board — not in carriers, but sitting on the laps, or in the arms, of their owners. It struck me as odd, and now, thanks to an interesting and informative article by Karen Elliott and Rebecca Lightle in The Washington Post a few weeks ago, I have an idea about what’s going on.

They’re all, apparently, “service dogs” — though from the look of it, they didn’t appear to be performing (or capable of performing) any particular service, nor did their owners appear to be disabled in any way. As Elliott and Lightle explain, the Americans With Disabilities Act requires places of public accommodation such as restaurants and transportation carriers to allow service animals — which can be dogs or, oddly enough, “miniature horses” — that assist people with disabilities.

That seems fair enough (though the “miniature horses” part seems a little peculiar). The problem, though, is in determining whether any particular animal qualifies as a service animal — and in doing so without running afoul of the ADA’s restrictions on the questions concerning disabilities that the ADA also imposes.

To meet the ADA’s definition, a dog must be individually trained to perform specific tasks that directly relate to a person’s disability. For instance, a service dog may be trained to assist with navigation or alert its handler to safety concerns. However, if a dog provides aid only by its natural behavior, then it lacks the individualized training necessary for ADA accommodation. This standard means that the ADA does not apply to many dogs that function as therapy, emotional-support and companion animals.

So how should a business assess whether a customer’s dog is a service animal? Federal regulations instruct that if it is readily apparent that a dog is aiding a person with a disability — for example, by leading a person who is blind — then staff members should simply allow the dog in as a service animal. But if the dog’s function is not apparent, then the ADA permits only two types of inquiries. First: “Is this dog required because of a disability?” And second: “What specific assistive task or tasks has the dog been trained to perform?”

Not surprisingly, many people are gaming the regulations, claiming “service animal” status for Fido just as a way of getting around restrictions on dogs in restaurants, apartment buildings, etc.

And the situation for airplanes is even worse. The federal Air Carrier Access Act (ACAA) provides even broader protections for service animals.

Unlike places of public accommodation governed solely by the ADA, commercial airlines must accept ID cards, other documentation, apparel or “credible verbal assurances” as evidence that a service animal is legitimate (although an airline may prohibit “unusual” service animals such as reptiles, rodents or spiders). Further, if a passenger with a disability produces appropriate documentation from a licensed mental health professional, the ACAA requires airlines to accommodate emotional-support animals that would not be protected by the ADA.

Service animals accompanying commercial air travelers must be permitted in any seat space where their passenger-handlers are permitted to sit. But federal regulations also instruct airline staff to assess whether a service animal presents a direct threat to the health and safety of others or a significant threat of disruption to the airline service in the cabin. If a dispute arises with a passenger as to whether the animal should be permitted, staff are to refer the matter to the airline’s mandatory complaint resolution official (CRO). Commercial airlines must provide a written explanation to any passenger whose service animal has not been accommodated under these rules.

So just a “credible verbal assurance” books Fido a trip to San Francisco for the weekend. But he better not be sitting next to me. File under “regulatory overreach.”



Originally Found On: http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2017/01/09/dogs-on-airplanes/
Relationship Headcanons : Kageyama Tobio
  • is like 200.02% flustered and blushing whenever you say his name or holds his hand, because this boy doesn’t know how to function properly
  • also 3000% supportive of everything you do, and you are 3000% supportive of him; you just want to see each other happy
  • the most caring person, like, he would literally move the earth for you
  • kageyama loves to shower you in attention and love, and he tries to make you feel included in his life because he want to share everything with them
  • he will teach you volleyball, because it’s such a big part of his life that he wants to share with you
  • master chef kageyama takes up the mantel of making the meals
  • movie nights where you two just watch whatever is on the television; or you force him to watch the mummy, because both of you have an obsession with ancient egypt
  • sometimes you’ll find a carton of milk in your bag and it’s always kageyama who puts it there because he knows you run out of water to drink around noon
  • winter scarf sharing and eskimo kisses
  • cuddles where you can rest your head on kageyama’s chest and he rests his chin on your head gently, and cuddles where you can stare into each others eyes, and just cuddles
  • kageyama does the thing where if you two are in a quiet place, he’ll hug you from behind and do the nuzzle thing in the crook of your neck
  • interlocked hands and blushing faces
  • whispered confessions as you leave in the mornings
  • sweet ‘I love you’s’ that don’t need to be said to be heard, but are conveyed with sweet kisses, hugs, hand holding and ‘did you have a good day’s’
  • both of you being literally so happy just because you’re both in such a good place and you have each other for support and love and it’s just so pure