function-addition

lifeandthoughtsandtravel  asked:

I know that you are a reptile tumblr but I was wondering if you knew if it were healthy for dogs to be vegans? I'm just curious because of some vegans that have animals and they make them vegans... is it harmful towards the animal or is it completely safe? thank you :)

It’s an absolutely horrible idea. Dogs cannot be vegans and thrive. They’re not vegetarians and they’re not even really omnivores in the same way we are- while dogs will eat everything we do (and more), feeding them a vegan diet is terrible for their health. A lot of vegans who make this decision will blather on about supplements in the vegan food or about how you can make artificial amino acids or how dogs can survive on it so therefore it’s safe, but dogs can also survive eating Ol’ Roy, the worst dog food in the world. Surviving isn’t the same thing as thriving! A dog’s biological structure means that eating plants and only plants isn’t going to work well in the long run- so let’s look at some of the reasons why dogs need to be fed a diet based in animal protein. 

1. The canine digestive tract is not good at digesting plant matter.

Plant matter is really tough to break down! Meat, on the other hand, digests quickly. Carnivores and herbivores have differently structured digestive tracts that work with their diets. Let’s look at a rabbit’s digestive tract and a dog’s.

See how a rabbit has a functional cecum, while the dog’s is just a little snub of a thing? The cecum is an organ that plays a really important role in non-ruminant herbivore digestion. It’s a large pouch where cellulose and tough fibers in plant-based food get broken down. Dogs, like humans, don’t have one that’s functional for digestion. 

In addition, herbivores like rabbits have very long, complicated digestive tracts. Their food sits in there and breaks down over a long period of time. An average adult rabbit (with a body of about 40 centimeters long, we’re not talking the giant breeds or the dwarf breeds here) has about three meters of small intestine. In American units, that’s a 15 inch animal with almost 10 feet of intestines. A dog, on the other hand, has a small intestine that’s about two and a half times the length of its body- so for instance, a dog that’s two feet long would have about five feet of small intestine. There’s neither enough time nor space in the canine alimentary canal for dogs to fully extract the nutrients they need to survive. 

2. Dog drool doesn’t have amylase.

Amylase an enzyme that converts plant starch and glycogen into simple sugars. Herbivores and omnivores typically have amylase in the saliva, which starts to break down those starches immediately. This means by the time the starches hit the intestine, they’ve already started to convert into something that’s actually useful. Dogs, however, only produce it in the pancreas. There’s no salivary amylase in dogs or any other carnivore. This means that digesting plants and converting their energy into something that’s actually useful is really inefficient for dogs; they can only get something like half of the energy and nutrients they’d get from a comparable amount of meat. It also means that to digest plant material, dogs’ pancreases have to go into overtime to make enough amylase, which can lead to severe pancreatic strain.

3. Dogs can’t digest cellulose.

While the dog pancreas makes amylase, something it doesn’t make is cellulase. Granted, herbivores don’t make it either- in fact, very few animals do. Termites are one of the only animals that make their own cellulase. Herbivore digestive tracts have a reservoir of symbiotic bacteria that produce plenty of cellulase. We’ve actually talked about it- it’s what goes on in the cecum! The bacteria in carnivore ceca, however, is linked to the lymphatic system, not the digestive system. 

There’s also the issue of their teeth not being adapted for a plant-based diet or even the way they eat being good at taking in plants- but the same is true for anything that’s not animal carcasses, including kibble and wet dog food. That’s just evidence that defines them as opportunistic carnivores; what makes a vegan diet so bad for dogs is their digestive biology.

There is one exception to this rule, and that is when a vet prescribes a vegan diet for an animal with significant food allergies or other dietary issues. This is not something vets do unless it’s the best course of treatment for the animal. 

Veganism isn’t the same thing as being an herbivore. Herbivores don’t have a choice; their bodies aren’t built for eating meat. While they might take in animal protein on occasion (deer, for instance, will eat birds sometimes), their teeth, their digestive systems, and their metabolisms all work together to make eating plants the best way for them to survive. A rabbit’s not a vegan- it’s an herbivore. Only humans can be vegans. To be a vegan is to make a choice; it’s to evaluate your place in the world around you and to renegotiate your relationship with all sorts of things- your own body, the food industry, the people around you, and of course the animals you don’t eat. Responsible vegans understand that humans can thrive on an all-vegetable diet; they know that we evolved to be really, really flexible when it comes to the source of our nutrition. While humans are biologically omnivores, we can make that choice.

A dog can’t, and it’s not humanity’s place to force that on them. There are some pets that thrive on an all-vegetable diet. Rabbits, tortoises, finches, hamsters, snails- but not dogs. 

If you’d like more information, this is a fantastic write-up, complete with sources! This is a good, short article written by a vet. This is a blog post that talks about some of the other nutritional deficiencies, particularly involving D3. This is another great writeup with diagrams!

also I noticed a lot of people (i.e. liberals) framing the discussion around love and violence as if fighting oppression or oppressors (including in immediate self-defense) was somehow antithetical to being a loving person, or to being committed to loving ourselves and other people in our communities, or to recognising love as a revitalising and necessary force in activism and in life in general, such that we need to utterly shun violence as something that’s always morally reprehensible (and thus, to shun people who commit violence in self-defense as morally reprehensible) in order to be capable of love

and I started thinking about how a lot of edgy radicals & leftists essentially agree with this but in the opposite direction–as if we need to utterly shun love as a necessary & revitalising force in order to be capable of revolutionary action or self-defense

in the same way that liberals will say “we must love and see the humanity in our oppressors, so that we cannot use violence against them even if we are ourselves the targets of violence” (or–more likely, since these kinds of people aren’t likely to be people who have ever been seriously targeted by violence–”more immediately & materially marginalised people shouldn’t use violence even if they are themselves the targets of violence”), edgy radicals will say “we must be prepared to use violence against our oppressors, and therefore we must hate and demonise them, as if they are somehow essentially, ontologically evil by virtue of their identities.” & I think that both of these approaches are fundamentally misguided

of course we must be prepared to use violence in self-defense against institutions that commit violence against us–but ultimately, the basis of revolution or whatever cannot be hatred and it cannot be the romanticisation of violence for the sake of violence (and again, a lot of these edgelord-y people have probably never been seriously targeted by violence, don’t have bodies that are marked out for violence–they just like the thrill of it all). it has to be love–love for ourselves & each other & for the future that we have to believe is possible–& that will include love for the people who used to be our oppressors. because otherwise what is the point?

to me “love your oppressor” doesn’t mean that you can’t fight back against violence and it doesn’t mean that you can’t hate the people who hate you or else you’re just as bad as they are and it doesn’t mean that you can’t be angry… what it does mean is that you have to have some kind of fundamental respect & empathy for people’s humanity

it means that, rather than just assuming that all white people are evil by some kind of mystical biological necessity and thus The Revolution requires killing them all or something (I’ve seen this suggested, which is… terrifying), you’ve got to try to understand the material and psychological factors that play into white people behaving in the way that they do (such as, applying class analysis to the racism of poor whites–see, the psychological wage of whiteness, etc.). that attempt at understanding is what I mean by “empathy”

and of course this has a necessary practical function in addition to a theoretical and psychological one–because how can you hope to fight a system that works to fragment and divide the people whom it oppresses without understanding & fighting against the reasons for that fragmentation?

so in all of these ways I see the willingness to empathise & love and the willingness to fight against oppression, not as antithetical, but absolutely necessary to, each other.

Synetic Theater’s Unforgettable Watery Worlds

In 2013, Arlington-based Synetic Theater took their signature cinematic style to a new level when they flooded the stage with water for a production of The Tempest.

The physical theater company, well known for their wordless productions of Shakespeare plays, had previously created a water stage for their 2010 production of King Arthur. Known for their creative use of mixed media, Synetic Theater utilized the water to add an extra layer of magical realism to that production.



The Tempest was to be the 9th installment of  Synetic’s popular Wordless Shakespeare series and Founding Artistic Director Paata Tsikurishvili was inspired to use a water stage by the way in which water is closely tied to the plot.

“The exiled Prospero is sent to an island, surrounded and inundated by water,” Tsikurshvili said. “His power and magic grows from it, and even the inciting action is created by water when Prospero uses a storm to bring his enemies to him.”

Water is a versatile theatrical element, conveying a variety of emotions and feelings. It can be at once dramatic, comical, magical, and lyrical. Additionally, the hypnotic combination of water and physical theater captivated audiences’ imaginations in a totally new way.


Once Tsikurishvili decided on the watery world his Tempest would be set in, he tapped Synetic’s Resident Stage Manager Marley Giggey and Technical Director Phil Charlwood to figure out the logistics of getting water into a pool onstage. “It was the strangest combination of terror and excitement I have ever experienced,” Giggey said of her first meeting about working on a water stage.

Technical Director Phil Charlwood had worked on King Arthur three years prior, and this time he strove to improve circumstances for the actors. The biggest challenge was keeping the water at a comfortable temperature. By using large heaters, Charlwood was able to keep the water warm during performances. 

Charlwood also used his innovative design and building techniques to create one of the most compelling elements of the production, a piano fountain that served as an important piece of the set.


Filling the pools and keeping the water clean and safe fell to Giggey. "The water came from several hoses running from two sinks in the laundry room backstage and in the lobby,” she said. “The drain was a series of PVC pipes that connected together and went to a hose. We would bring out all the pipes and connect them - going out the loading dock door and leading to a floor drain in the parking garage that could accommodate all that water!  Before each performance I would do a half drain and fill.

“We would drain about half of the pool and then fill it back up to show levels with hot water.  On Fridays and Sundays we did a total drain of the pool and a very through scrub and clean. Then we let it dry for at least 12 hours before refilling.  It was a time consuming process, but keeping the pool safe and clean was key.”

Once the water was on stage, Giggey was faced with more challenges. The stage lights made it difficult for the actors to consistently see the spike marks. This problem was solved with a grid system that allowed the actors to line themselves up with the left and downstage points.

The actors movement in the pool created a lot of splashing into the audience. Synetic offered branded ponchos to patrons in this “splash zone” and those seats became the most popular for the production.

Lighting designer Andrew Griffin enjoyed working with water and overcoming the challenge the water gave him in designing a light plot for the show.

“The light would reflect and refract because the water floor was reminiscent of a mirror,” he said. Griffin used several low-angled sidelights to exploit the angles of light that would scrape across the floor, rendering less of a reflected impact on the architecture of the space. This effect made it seem as though the water was dancing along with the characters. "Through a lot of careful planning, we created some pretty great effects,” said Griffin.


When working with water, there was also the question of mold and mildew - particularly concerning costumes. The costumes were all treated with camp spray to help waterproof them. "Cleaning the costumes was very tricky,” Giggey said.  “They had to be thoroughly washed so we turned the back room of the theater into a ‘dry room’ with fans blowing from all directions and drip buckets to catch all the water.  The last thing any actor wanted was to put on damp costumes or shoes when they came in the next day.”


Working with water required Synetic’s creative team to master a free-flowing element that is not easy to control consistently. Synetic was able to overcome many obstacles and use the water to their advantage with the help of various theatrical elements, all while taking the necessary steps to protect their performers.

The hours of maintenance required to keep the pool clean and functional and the additional challenges of working with water in a theatrical setting paid off. “It was a moment that was so immersive and dramatic that it was difficult to believe it was happening live in front of you,” Giggey said. "The energy in the theater as the actors were jumping, spinning, and splashing was electric!”

Overall, the creative team, crew, actors and audiences appreciated and valued this rare experience. The professionalism, ingenuity, and talent of the production crew, actors, and artistic team helped to make The Tempest Synetic’s highest grossing show to date.

hey hey hey everyone!! as a self-proclaimed mathlete & absolute math nerd, i figured i could share some quick little tips for such an amazing subject! soooo here you go:

practice, practice, practice!!

I always say that practice is the most essential aspect of studying & learning math- and many other subjects! This can take the form of homework (mini tip: always do your homework if you are able!!! it’s only to your benefit! even if it’s not for a grade, try your best to work on it anyway), practice problems from a textbook or workbook, old questions from a past quiz or test, etc. Even just a couple of practice problems every day, or some quick q’s before a test, can help a lot. Remember, repetition is a key form of revision!

take active notes

Math is a very active subject, so it’s important for your notes to reflect that. Basically, if you’re working on an example problem in the middle of your notes, write it down too. These problems can come back in quizzes or tests, and they really help reinforce material when you’re reviewing. Another way to keep your notes active is by drawing diagrams!! Diagrams can be essential for certain topics, so please don’t ignore them, even if you think you can remember what that graph looks like. Also, if you ever need to jot something down in the margins of your notes, do it! All of this will really help when you review.

know your calculator 

Whether you need to know how to use one, or how to survive without one, calculators are pretty much always relevant when it comes to math. If the subject you’re learning allows it, you should always have a calc nearby, and you should know its basic functions. That doesn’t mean know how to add & subtract (unless that’s all that’s necessary for you), it means being able to work the graphing function, or how to enter data into your calculator for statistical evaluation, how to find certain functions in your calc, etc. It’s also very important to know how to work without your calculator. As you progress in math, there will be certain things that you just need to know how to do, because they take too long with a calc. Basically, make sure you understand what you’re doing with your calculator, so that you can understand how to do it without your calculator.

keep track of everything!

Math is a lot of data & different steps that you need to keep track of. When working on something, know where your numbers (or other forms of data) are, make sure you aren’t missing any! Do your best not to skip steps, even if you’re great at working in your head. Missing data & skipped steps are major sources of error and tiny mistakes that can mess up a whole problem. Also, know your common errors! Do you tend to skip a certain step because you think you’ve got it? Do you sometimes misinterpret graphs or data? Once you’ve figured that out, be extra careful with the specific problems that you have trouble with. Keeping track of your work & your mistakes can help you improve a lot!

memorize what needs to be memorized

A lot of math can be done with basic understanding of how to work a problem & the process to find a solution (these things are generally memorized with practice!) but there are some things that just need to be memorized. Whether it’s elementary functions like addition & division, or basic trigonometry, if it’s not a process you can learn through understanding, and need to know, make sure you know!! Some things can be memorized with practice, and others require different methods of memorization (I typically write & rewrite things multiple times). You can find some great posts on memorization here!

more masterposts!!

i really love math & i wish everyone could see it like i do, so i hope this was helpful! keep shining like the star you are and don’t forget to be awesome today!!

- Aza

Endocrine cells in the brain influence the optimization of behavior

A person exposed to stress can usually rapidly adapt the own behavior to the specific situation. Biochemical messenger substances in the brain or so-called neurotransmitters play a central role in this rapid transformation process. We know that hormones also have a stress-regulating function, but that their effects are more slowly apparent. However, recent findings reported by the team under Professor Soojin Ryu, leading researcher at the German Resilience Center of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany, indicate that this may not actually be the case. Using a combination of genetic and optical techniques, the research team has been able to demonstrate that corticotrophs, the cell populations that stimulate the adrenal cortex and produce the stress hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, can rapidly influence avoidance behavior immediately after the onset of a stress situation. This insight may contribute to the development of effective treatments that can facilitate the management of acute stress-induced reactions or might even be able to alleviate acute stress-related conditions. The findings have recently been published in the eminent journal Nature Communications.

The human body is controlled by two well-orchestrated systems, i.e., the hormonal system and the nervous system. The hypothalamus located in the middle of the basis of the brain has a key role here providing the link between the body and the other regions of the brain as well as directly and indirectly controlling a series of essential physiological vegetative functions. In addition, it is the most important control organ of the human endocrine system (hormonal system), because it regulates when and how much of a hormone is produced. Both the hypothalamus and its production of hormone are also subject to the influences of emotional stress. The pituitary gland or hypophysis is connected to the hypothalamus and together they form a single functional unit called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.

Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus include the so-called releasing hormones, such as the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). This stimulates the production of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTCH) in the pituitary gland. ACTH is a hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary and it regulates the production of other hormones, such as the stress hormone cortisol (hydrocortisone).

It can be basically assumed that the neurotransmitters of the central nervous system rapidly determine whether fight or flight behavior is to develop in a given situation. To date, medical science has conjectured that the stress-regulating effects of the hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis come into play far more slowly. Stress researchers found it very problematic to establish the concrete role of the HPA axis in the rapid adaptation of behavior in a stress situation in more detail in standard animal models. This is because the location of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in mammals makes them difficult to access. To overcome these obstacles, Professor Soojin Ryu’s work group at the German Resilience Center at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz decided to create an innovative optogenetic research technique. They managed to develop a genetically modified zebrafish larva in which they were able to manipulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis using light and thus observe the resultant changes to the reactions of the modified cells.

Two original concepts have been brought together in the new technique of Professor Soojin Ryu’s group: On the one hand, it employs optogenetic methods, i.e., a combination of optical and genetic techniques. This makes it possible to precisely control, in a targeted and extremely rapid manner, the functional reactions of genetically modified cells. The process first involves the modification of light-sensitive proteins using genetic techniques. These are then introduced into specific target cells or tissues. The functioning of these proteins can then be regulated using light and the reaction of the modified cells can be controlled. In addition, Ryu’s approach also pioneers the use of a new animal model in stress research, here the zebrafish. The advantage of the zebrafish, especially the transparent larvae of these small tropical fish of the group of teleosts, is that their development in the embryonic phase is similar to that in humans. They also mature very rapidly and are thus ideal for the purposes of genetic research. Moreover, the transparency of the larvae makes it easy to observe the tissue sections of their bodies.

The researchers at the German Resilience Center in Mainz introduced a synthetic enzyme into their animal model that elevates the levels of the intracellular messenger substance cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) only in the corticotropic cells of the HPA axis. Their elevation is important for the release of hormones in the corticotropic cells of the anterior pituitary. The levels of the resulting so-called transgenetic animal stress hormones can be increased by means of exposure to light. This means the researchers can thus observe the accompanying changes to behavior.

The newly published research results of Professor Soojin Ryu and her team at the German Resilience Center show that the corticotropic cells in the pituitary become directly active on the onset of a stress situation that is perceived as distressing. These then influence both locomotion and avoidance behavior as well as the sensitivity to the stimulus. The researchers interpret this as evidence that the corticotropic cells in the pituitary play a significant role in the rapid adaptation of behavior to local environments perceived as antagonistic.

anonymous asked:

Recently you talked about reflex sights - what are the differences/pros and cons of reflex vs red dot vs holo sights?

The short, slightly sarcastic, and not completely inaccurate answer would be, holo sights cost a lot more.

Reflex sights are optics that use a semi-reflective surface to provide targeting information. These will bounce a light off said surface, usually a red or green LED, which when viewed from the appropriate position, will tell you roughly where the object is pointed. I’m phrasing it like this because reflex sights are actually used for a lot of different things, including nautical navigation tools, telescopes, and even some disposable cameras.

The advantages for reflex sights are that they’re relatively cheap, and they usually have a fairly substantial battery life. The internals are just an LED and a reflective glass layer. (Technically, there are a few variations of the technology; for convenience I’m describing the one used with firearms.)

Holo sights are, as the name suggests, actually holographic. They use a laser diode to create the targeting reticle in three dimensional space. This opens up some additional functionality that’s either difficult or impossible to obtain with a reflex sight. The big feature is the ability to adjust for range and windage. Finally, unlike reflex sights, they don’t need to have a tinted layer to catch the reflected light, so the optics are slightly clearer.

The most common firearm reflex sights are red or green dot sights. These use a red or green LED to create the targeting point. That said, some holo sights use a dot aim point. In that sense a red dot sight is more descriptive than an identifier.

Picking a color comes down to user preference. In general, red light has the least affect on night vision. Also because of the prevalence of ruby lasers and red LEDs, some people do approach firearms with the feeling that red is the “right” color.

The human eye is more sensitive to subtle differences in green than any other color. This is part of why some night vision setups display their feedback in green monochrome. In theory, this makes green dot sights easier to see. For some people this honestly seems to be the case. Also why you’ll sometimes see green lasers used as targeters on firearms.

Red and green aren’t the only options. Common LEDs include blue, white, and yellow, so if someone wanted an amber dot sight, that is an option. (Though, you’re going to be paying extra.)

There are other factors. Red was used because red LEDs were very cheap to produce until relatively recently. Blue LEDs only date back to the 1990s. There’s also the direct physiological factors. Historically red light has been believed to produce limited or no eye adaptation, and had the least effect on night vision. My understanding is, that’s not really true, and that green/blue light actually interferes less with night vision, but this is a discussion I’m not fully versed in.

The idea of a dot sight, as opposed to other reticles is purely preference. A dot has a cleaner profile, but provides less information to the user. Just a simple, “bullets go here (we think).” Ring sights, or lines can be useful for judging drift, and can help the user adjust their aim. Alternately, the reticle selected may simply be to speed up target acquisition. This one really is about personal preference. A ring sight isn’t better than a dot sight, it’s about which works for the user.

On more expensive reflex sights (and most holo sights) it’s fairly common to have the ability to switch out the reticle on the fly. So, picking the right one is sometimes about choosing what’s right for this moment, not just picking one and sticking with it.

I will say, video games tend to gloss over these things. I can’t remember the last time I played a game that actually tinted the window for a reflex sight (maybe Far Cry 4), and I don’t think I’ve ever played one that attempted to display a holo sight properly.

Incidentally, some stuff that you can, technically do, includes open reflex sights, where the glass layer exposed to the air. You probably wouldn’t want to do this, because of the potential for damage, but it is a real option, and (partially) open reflex sights do exist. Ultimately reflex sights do need a surface to bounce off of. The name “reflex,” is a shortening of, “reflective,” not a reference to the user’s ability to react quickly.

One thing you can’t do is have a free floating hologram over the weapon. Existing technology doesn’t really allow for this, so you can’t have those neat holographic heads up displays you’ll occasionally see in sci-fi. That said, it’s just not something we can do today, not something that’s impossible.

-Starke

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With approximately 14% of American adults being functionally illiterate, and an additional 29% being at below 5th grade reading level, there is a real need for an Anarchist literacy campaign. 

With literally tens of millions of people who are food insecure, it is time to think of a campaign for mutual food aid and self-sufficentcy all over America. Who has the resources to do this?

As millions of people are losing their access to healthcare, it is time to launch a campaign for the establishment of community clinics that are free and can serve the poor.

As millions loose access to activities or places to be, it is time to build Anarchist community centers that can give poeple the oportunity to simply exist for a while in freedom, and to work together for common goals.

Which orgnization now has the resources to do this vital work? The IWW? Black Rose? 1st of May Anarchist Federation? Redneck Revolt? If the answer is “no orgnization”, then that is a clear problem that needs adressing. Increased co-ordination and dedication, a clear focus on constructive work, and a willingness to sacrafice for the movement, is now demanded of the American anarchists. There is, at this time, no other choice, if we wish to demonstrate our relevance in people’s everyday life, if we wish to make people used to not depending on the State or capitalism, if we wish to let people learn to self-manage demoratically - in short, if we wish to win.

We live in dramatic times, and we live in times of suffering that show no signs of getting better. If anarchists are to get out of our isolation in the squats and violent demos, our self-imposed prisons, then we must dare think big.

6

Blue Palace Terrace

picked this up after @mrsnakestone posted about it. unless my mod order has gone totally nuts, this mod also opened up the entryway to the Blue Palace (as you see in the first) and now I cannot believe it should have been any other way. This is really better. and that’s before you go out to the back garden!

I did have to do a couple fast tes5edit changes - it had some weird characters in the worldspace name. I’ve seen that before, I’m guessing it’s a ck bug. no functional problems, very nice addition.

(ps: I forgot to put the mod in my profile with dyndolod so everything in the distance looked like shit so I hid it with bokeh. now you know!)

greatfay  asked:

How much do you believe an actor's stage presence contributes to type impressions? Sometimes if an actor (or even voice actor) is more emotive than the script calls for, it can mess up my perception on their functions, or they can give an introverted character an energy that comes off as extroverted.

A fair amount.

I had to laugh, because just the other day I had a conversation with a friend who doubted Jeff Goldblum is capable of playing a withdrawn introvert. His ENTP comes on STRONG. Can he NOT flirt with anyone in the room? No, so he does, and that makes even his introverted characters more… well, extroverted.

My personal favorites are the feeler actors who are handed thinker roles. They bring so much depth, nuance, and “hidden emotion” to the part – often the Fi-doms do this with their eyes, so even if the character itself is very detached and emotionless on-screen, there’s a hidden world of the soul in their gaze. Some of the stronger Fe’s, though, can soften a character so much, the natural cognition blurs (like Jeremy Northam’s Mr. Knightley in Emma; he takes all the sharp corrections/bluntness and gives them rounded edges and flirtations).

Audrey Hepburn, an ISFX (ISFJ?) said the hardest part she ever played was an extrovert – it was deeply uncomfortable for her to move outside her comfort zone like that, even in “make believe.” And indeed, she does have what I rather consider the “introvert zone” going on in her performances – they are a little more poised / self contained / not as ‘occupying’ as an extrovert’s performance.

Many introverts (like Ralph Fiennes, Al Pacino, Renée Zellweger, or Audrey, or Stephen Dillane) turn out incredibly deep, nuanced, layered performances all the time – but an extrovert occupies more space. They figuratively, literally, metaphorically, and personality-wise… sprawl across the screen (like Hugh Jackman, Jeff Goldblum, etc) and often engage in more “scene-stealing,” because the higher Fe’s have SO MUCH PRESENCE it’s effortless for them.

For characters, that’s why it’s best to look for function stacking in addition to the overall characterization – because the actor’s “tone” or “presence” is piling on top of what the script calls for, and their interpretation of it changes things.

- ENFP Mod

6

Mle 1822/67 Tabatière rifle

Produced by the Manufacture d’Armes de Saint-Etienne c.1822-41 and later converted c.1867-70.
17,5mm brass and cardboard Tabatière centerfire cartridge, single shot, breech loading, the breechblock double as an extractor.

Because it’s called the 1867 Tabatière people just assume it’s a copy of the 1866 Snider conversion, let’s just get that out of the way : it was developed in 1864 so the jury’s still out.
It’s an otherwise very similar modification in concept, with the main functional difference being the addition of a groove running from the breech along the back of the stock on the Tabatière conversions to load rounds more easily.
Such conversion were realized in France to supply the army with more breech loading rifles than the production of Mle 1866 Chassepot needle rifles alone could offer, resulting in the army tapping in the three previous types of percussion musket. This one was a Mle 1822 T bis.

This resulted in pretty big guns firing pretty big cartridges.

Scientists Catalogue “Parts List” of Brain Cell Types in a Major Appetite Center

Using Harvard-developed technology, scientists at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) have catalogued more than 20,000 brain cells in one region of the mouse hypothalamus. The study, published in Nature Neuroscience, revealed some 50 distinct cell types, including a previously undescribed neuron type that may underlie some of the genetic risk of human obesity. This catalog of cell types marks the first time neuroscientists have established a comprehensive “parts list” for this area of the brain. The new information will allow researchers to establish which cells play what role in this region of the brain.

“A lot of functions have already been mapped to large regions of the brain; for example, we know that the hippocampus is important for memory, and we know the hypothalamus is responsible for basic functions like eating and drinking,” said lead author John N. Campbell, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of co-corresponding author, Bradford Lowell, MD, PhD. “But we don’t know what cell types within those regions are responsible. Now with the leaps we’ve had in technology, we can profile every gene in tens of thousands of individual cells simultaneously and start to test those cell types one by one to figure out their functional roles.”

Each cell in an animal’s body carries the same genetic information. Cells take on specific roles by expressing some genes and silencing others. Drop-Seq technology – developed by study co-authors Steven McCarroll, PhD, and Evan Macosko, MD, PhD, both geneticists at Harvard Medical School – makes it possible to assess every gene expressed by individual cells. The automated process means the BIDMC researchers could profile tens of thousands of cells in the same amount of time it once took to profile about a dozen cells by hand.

Campbell and colleagues profiled more than 20,000 adult mouse brain cells in the arcuate hypothalamus (Arc) and the adjoining median eminence (ME) – a region of the brain that controls appetite and other vital functions. The cells’ gene expression profiles help scientists determine their functions.

In addition to identifying 50 new cell types, the researchers also profiled the cell types in adult mice under different feeding conditions: eating at will; high-fat diet (energy surplus); and overnight fasting (energy deficit). The technology allowed the researchers to assess how changes in energy status affected gene expression. The cell types and genes that were sensitive to these changes in energy status provide a number of new targets for obesity treatment.

“Sometimes a cell’s true identity doesn’t come out until you put it through a certain stress,” said co-corresponding author, Linus Tsai, MD, PhD, an assistant professor of medicine in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at BIDMC. “In fasting conditions, for example, we can see whether there is further diversity within the cell types based on how they respond to important physiologic states.”

Finally, the scientists analyzed previous human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that revealed gene variants linked to obesity. Noting which brain cell types express such obesity-related genes, the researchers implicated two novel neuron types in the genetic control of body weight.

Campbell and colleagues have posted their massive data set online, making it available to researchers around the world. The open-source information should accelerate the pace of scientific discovery and shape the research questions asked in the field of obesity research.

“The classic way of doing science is to ask questions and test hypotheses,” said Lowell, who is a professor of medicine in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism. “But the brain is so complex, we don’t even know how much we don’t know. This information fills in some of the unknowns so we can make new hypotheses. This work will lead to many discoveries that, without these data, people would never have even known to ask the question.”

“We have ‘free’ education through grade 12 as a basic human right in the U.S. And what is it? A system set up for processing, grading and sorting human raw material into an input for corporate HR departments. The first statewide public school systems were set up in New England because mill owners needed hands who’d been taught to be punctual, line up on command, eat and pee at the sound of a bell, and cheerfully obey instructions from an authority figure behind a desk. As a majority of people moved into white collar jobs, this basic function persisted — with the additional task of schooling students to prioritize tasks set for them by an authority figure over their own self-directed interests, and to regard as a trivial ‘hobby’ anything not assigned by a boss.”
—  Kevin Carson, “When Basic Services Are Guaranteed As a ‘Right’”

Apptober: The Third Day

I’ve got the Binary object more polished than it was yesterday. The following changes have been made:

  • Made the Binary values signed.
  • Added functions for concatenation, checking if a Binary object is negative, and converting a Binary value to an integer.
  • Added operators for >, <, ==, !=, and –
  • Updated some functions, like caching Binary value lengths to avoid multiple function calls and changing the iterative method used.
  • Fixed the + operator and updated for the signed values.
  • Added some exception throws in

Keep reading

Genetic Discovery Provides New Insight into Cognitive Disorders

An international team of scientists, led by Todd Lencz, PhD, professor at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research at Northwell Health and Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, have unlocked some of the genes responsible for cognitive ability.

Dr. Lencz and fellow researchers studied the genes of 35,000 people and discovered new genetic variations related to cognitive ability. The findings bring scientists a step closer to developing new – and potentially better – treatments for cognitive disorders of the brain, such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The findings were published online in Molecular Psychiatry.

The team of 60 international scientists is called the Cognitive Genomics Consortium (COGENT). COGENT researchers measured brain function of the participants through tests of learning, memory and other components of cognitive function. In addition to zeroing in on a few specific genes related to cognitive ability, the team also showed a significant genetic overlap between risk for several psychiatric disorders and reduction in cognitive ability. Impairments in general cognitive ability, such as reasoning, problems solving, learning, and memory, are critical components for a number of serious mental illnesses, including schizophrenia.

“This research provides new clues into how the brain works at the molecular level,” said Dr. Lencz. “Our long-term goal is to identify potential new targets for treatments of cognitive disorders of the brain, such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).”

COGENT scientists also discovered for the first time a molecular genetic overlap between cognitive ability and personality. Specifically, they found that a genetic predisposition towards higher cognitive ability was associated with greater “openness to experience.” This means that some of the genes that make people more likely to be curious about new ideas and trying new experiences are the same as those that enhance cognitive function.

Dr. Lencz and the COGENT team are currently working with partners in Europe to expand the collaborative team. Their goal is to increase the size of the study to more than 100,000 DNA samples. Dr. Lencz notes, “Today, we know of hundreds of genes related to traits such as height and weight, but only a few related to cognitive ability. We have a lot of work to do if we want to understand the molecular basis of brain function.”

A Message to Each of my Functions; finals week addition (ENFP)

To Ne: “I know, I know. Just wait till June. You apparently need a degree.
Here’s a colouring book while you wait.”

To Fi: “Don’t worry. Te has it all under control. Kind of.”

To Te: “Girl I need more. Let’s move move move. The others need you to get this bitch over with for me. Here are 10 things I need done by Wednesday. And you’re gonna need to schedule in water because Si didn’t tell me I was dehydrated. Thanks I know you can handle it. But make sure you don’t overexert. We don’t want a reinstalment of The Freshman Incident.

To Si: "Good work on telling me i was getting a cold. That was good work. You can go back to bed now.”

To MBTI gods: “oh great ones, why do last functions even exist.”

anonymous asked:

What about some stuff about good ol' mummies?


GOOD OL’ BANDAGE BOYS. (AND GIRLS)


Dust well, and dust often; though they’ve been out of the desert for months now, they still shed sand like they’re made of it. Which, you know, maybe they are in some sense.

Some mummies may be more… meaty? than others, and as such are slightly more suitable for physical affection and can withstand (and give) massive hugs and snuggles. Thinner/more rickety mummies should be treated with kid gloves to avoid having to reassemble your S/O on a regular basis. Smooches and light hugs are usually good for that.

Their bandages are unusually strong, and depending on the mummy, may actually function as an additional appendage. More often than not, thinner mummies have this ability to save themselves from harm, but on occasion, larger/more buff mummies can have this as well. By the way, if you should ever express admiration for their bandage abilities, they WILL show off for you as much as possible. They’re very proud that they have something unique that makes you happy.

They’re NOT slow, most of them, so long as they were properly preserved and escaped their confines within a millenium or so; older mummies are typically thinner and move slower. They can walk, run, and (for effect) shamble at pretty decent speeds. Larger mummies are more prone to physical dominance by carrying you around on their shoulder(s). Smaller/thinner mummies will be more often to hold your hand with either hand or bandage, with the latter being far more secure.

Abuse and Memory Problems

Since someone submitted a question about this, I thought I’d go ahead and make post about it. Here I’ll be referring specifically to memory problems caused by interpersonal abuse.

Disclaimer: I’m not a Doctor or a Psychologist and nothing I say here should be taken as medical advice. This is merely a guide based on my own experiences and independent research. I’ve done my best to present accurate information, however I cannot guarantee that everything here is correct.

Many survivors of abuse experience memory issues. The problems are variable and can include; large chunks of time missing entirely, fogginess around a specific time period, lack of memory before a certain age where memories should’ve began (usually this is around the age of two years old), and difficulty making new memories, among other things.

The causes of these problems are numerous. One is a psychological defense mechanism; when we experience a traumatic event (or repeated traumas), our brain can’t handle it as it would cause us too much psychological harm. This is called Dissociative Amnesia or Psychogenic Amnesia. The memories around the abuse that cannot be accessed are often referred to as repressed memories. It’s worth noting here that the existence of repressed memories is disputed by some psychologists, however, the existence of Dissociative Amnesia is recognized in the DSM-IV. 

An individual with dissociative amnesia may not be aware that they have it, and may live their lives never knowing they experienced a trauma of having negative psychological effects from it. Some people are aware of memory gaps, or don’t have memories before a certain age and don’t know why. Some people know they went through a trauma but can’t remember it. People with this kind of amnesia may never recover their memories, though many do. This can happen incrementally, often at times where they feel their life is going very well. This is because the subconscious decides that they can now cope with it, however it can be very upsetting to survivors, who feel as if they’re ‘going crazy’ or 'getting sick again’ after finally feeling well. As difficult at it can be, processing these memories and healing from them can result in a greater level of well-being than they had before. Memory recovery can also happen spontaneously, often triggered by external stimuli (e.g. a familiar smell, visiting the place where the abuse happened). Some people may have some memory of abuse or trauma but have 'gaps’ where they don’t know what happened. These gaps, like repressed memories in general, may be permanent or may emerge later on. 

In addition to memory problems surrounding a traumatic event, survivors may also experience retrograde amnesia. This means they’re unable to retrieve memories before the trauma and the onset of the memory problem. As mentioned before, some people cannot retrieve memories before a certain age; they may well be experiencing retrograde amnesia. This kind of amnesia can also result in multiple gaps in memory, particularly during childhood and adolescence. The condition can also lead to 'fugue states’, where an individual loses all memory relating to themselves and their identity. Thankfully, fugue states are temporary.
Some people also experience Anterograde Amnesia, which is the inability to form new memories after an event which causes amnesia, however this is usually associated with other issues unrelated to interpersonal abuse and trauma, such as overuse of certain drugs and brain injury.

In addition to psychological coping mechanisms associated with memory loss, trauma in itself often prevents the formation of new memories. This is because the body secretes certain hormones during times of extreme stress, and these hormones interfere with memory creation. Most notable of these hormones is cortisol, known as 'the stress hormone’, which activates anti-stress pathways in the brain. This is why we may be in an abusive situation for days, weeks, months or even years and be unable to describe what happened; while our minds and bodies are focused on survival, memory becomes a lower priority. In addition, many people who experience abuse suffer from post-traumatic stress. Post-traumatic-stress is a normal response to trauma, however, if it continues without improving and begins to interfere with everyday life, it may become post-traumatic stress syndrome. This disorder can itself interfere with both memory recollection and new memory creation. If you think you may be experiencing post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD), see a Doctor if you can.

In addition, many people who experience abuse also have brain injures. Survivors of physical violence may experience concussions, pass out due to lack of oxygen from smothering or strangling, and a variety of other physical attacks. Some people may experience a concussion (now called a traumatic brain injury) but not realize they were unconscious, and some don’t lose consciousness at all. However minor an injury may seem, it can still have an effect on the brain. Currently there are few medical treatments for brain injuries, but there are exercises that individuals can do to improve their memory and brain function. In addition, new research is showing that the brain has the ability to heal itself, even in adulthood. If you think you may have experienced a brain injury, see a Doctor as soon as possible if you can.

All of these reasons and more account for memory problems in survivors. Unfortunately, difficulty in recalling abuse or forgetting/confusing details are often used as evidence, both by individuals as well as the legal system, as evidence that the victim is lying when in fact, they signify the exact opposite. Survivors may recover memories over time, and there are things you can do to help you do this if that’s what you feel is best. Spending time in the place where the abuse occurred (or where you expect it occurred), writing down what memories you have every day, and asking someone you were close to at the time can all help, as can counseling from someone with experience and training helping people with trauma.

Perhaps most importantly, understanding why you have these issues can help you accept the limitations on your memory. If you are missing memories or having trouble creating new memories, you can rest assured that it’s not your fault. Your memory issues have a sound psychological and physiological basis.

References:

[x] [x] [x] [x] [x]

anonymous asked:

I can't tell if I'm neurotypical or not, but I catch myself fidgeting and stimming sometimes, plus I watch stim videos to relax. I space out a lot too. Any advice?

zoning out and fidgeting are things that most people do, anon. i know that people even without ADHD/autism/etc. watch stim or asmr videos to relax. unless these two tendencies impede on your ability to function (and you meet additional diagnostic criteria), you’re probably neurotypical. feel free to look into it more, though!!

- arlinn 🐺

youtube

Behind-the-scenes look at how I made my Constellation Dress!

The skirt is a NASA-accurate map of the northern hemisphere, so it’s a functional star chart (in addition to being super cute :) ).