This painting was created in 1888 by Julius Grimm, a German scientific photographer whose techniques of mapping the surface of the Moon became famous when his acclaimed “Atlas der Astrophysik” was published in 1881. After meeting the Grand Duke Friedrich I von Baden, an astronomy enthusiast, Grimm decided to paint a representation of the Moon, based on his photographs, to be presented to the Grand Duke. The painting shows the Moon as it can never be seen in reality: fully lit across the entire surface at once. The painting’s highly textured surface faithfully represents the actual landscape of the Moon, which Grimm determined with precision by examining the shadows cast during the various lunar phases. When lighted from the direction Grimm indicated with a painted arrow, the ridges of paint cast shadows that create the photorealistic effect of the painting.