fulb

Comment: samibalty said “#cultureAfrique #Mbororo plus connus sous le nom français de #peul (langue #poular ), aussi appelé #fulbé ou #fulani ( langue #fulfuldé). l'une des ethnies africaine la plus étendu.
#mali #senegal #mauritanie #guinée #guinéebissau #gambie #tchad #burkinafaso #centreafrique #niger #nigeria #cameroun #soundan #sieraleone #burkinafaso #togo #civ … Et plus récemment au Nord Est de la #RDC”

youtube

this documentary von Werner Herzog is really beauttifull. About the Wodaabe, (who are fulanis or Peul in  french), and their fest Guérewol

(The Fula people or Fulani or Fulɓe (Fula: Fulɓe; French: Peul; Hausa: Fulani; Portuguese: Fula; Wolof: Pël; Bambara: Fulaw) are one of the largest ethnolinguistic groups in Africa, numbering approximately 20 million people in total. They are one of the most widely dispersed and culturally diverse of the peoples of Africa.[5] The Fulani are bound together by the common language of Fulfulde, as well as by some basic elements of Fulbe culture, such as the pulaaku, a code of conduct common to all Fulani groups)

A significant proportion of their number, (an estimated 13 million), are nomadic, making them the largest pastoral nomadic group in the world

Fula or Fulani or Fulbe (the latter being an Anglicization of the word in their language, Fulɓɓe) are an ethnic group of people spread over many countries, predominantly in West Africa, but found also in Central Africa and The Sudan of east Africa. The countries in Africa where they are present include Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, The Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Niger, Togo, the Central African Republic, Ghana, Liberia, and as far as Sudan in the east. Fulas are not a majority in every country they live, but in Guinea they represent a plurality of the population (largest single group).

There are also many names (and spellings of the names) used in other languages to refer to the Fulɓe. Fulani in English is borrowed from the Hausa term. Fula, from Manding languages is also used in English, and sometimes spelled Fulah or Foulah. Fula and Fulani are commonly used in English, including within Africa. The French borrowed the Wolof term Pël, which is variously spelled: Peul, Peulh, and even Peuhl. More recently the Fulfulde / Pulaar term Fulɓe, which is a plural noun (singular, Pullo) has been adapted to English as Fulbe, which some people use. In Portuguese it’s Fula or Futafula.

Related Groups
A closely related group is the Tukolor (Toucouleur) in the central Senegal River valley. These people are often referred to together with Fulɓe of the region as Haalpulaar'en (Pulaar-speakers). Fula society in some parts of West Africa features the “caste” divisions typical of the region. In Mali, for instance, those who are not ethnically Fula have been referred to as yimɓe pulaaku (people of the Fula culture). The Woɗaaɓe, also known as the Bororo, are a subgroup of the Fula people.

Traditional Livelihood
The Fulani are traditionally a nomadic, pastoralist, trading people, herding cattle, goats and sheep across the vast dry hinterlands of their domain, keeping somewhat separate from the local agricultural populations.

Origins and Spread
The early origin of Fulani People is most fascinating and deepened in mystery with widely divergent opinions. Many scholars believe that they are of Judaeo-Syrian origin. However, it is generally recognized that Fulani descended from nomads from both North Africa and from sub-Sahara Africa. They came from the Middle-East and North Africa and settled into Central and West Africa from the Senegal region they created the Tekruur Empire which was contemporary to the Ghana Empire. Then, they spread in all the countries in West-Africa, continuing to lead their nomadic life style. They created here and there mixed states where they sometimes were the dominant group. But more often, they were absorbed by the indigenous population whom they had dominated.

While some have speculated over the origin of Fulani people, current linguistic and genetic evidence suggests an indigenous West African origin among the Peul. The vast majority of genetic lineages associated with them reflect those most commonly seen in other West Africans. Their language is also of West African origin, most closely related to that of the Wolof and Serer ethnic groups. Historical and archaeological records indicate that Peul-speakers have resided in western Africa since at least the 5th century A.D. as well. Interestingly, rock paintings in the Tassili-n-Ajjer suggests the presence of proto-Fulani cultural traits in the region by at least the fourth millennium B.C. Scholars specializing in Fulani culture believe that some of the imagery depicts rituals that are still practiced by contemporary Fulani people.

The Fulani were the first group of people in West Africa to convert to Islam through jihads, or holy wars, and were able to take over much of West Africa and establish themselves not only as a religious group but also as a political and economic force. They are the missionaries of Islam and continued to conquer much of West Africa. The Fulani are primarily nomadic herders and traders. Through their nomadic lifestyle they established numerous trade routes in West Africa. Many times the Fulani go to local markets and interact with the people, getting news and spreading it through much of West Africa.

The History of the Fulani?
The history of the Fulani seems to begin with the Berber people of North Africa around the 8th or 11th century AD. As the Berbers migrated down from North Africa and mixed with the peoples in the Senegal region of West Africa the Fulani people came into existence. Over a thousand year period from AD 900 - 1900, they spread out over most of West Africa and even into some areas of Central Africa. Some groups of Fulani have been found as far as the western borders of Ethiopia. As they migrated eastward they came into contact with different African tribes. As they encountered these other peoples, they conquered the less powerful tribes.

Along the way many Fulani completely or partially abandoned their traditional nomadic life in favor of a sedentary existence in towns or on farms among the conquered peoples. The nomadic Fulani continued eastward in search of the best grazing land for their cattle. Their lives revolved around and were dedicated to their herds. The more cattle a man owned, the more respect he was given. Today, some estimate as many as 18 million Fulani people stretch across the countries of West Africa. They remain to be the largest group of nomadic people in the world.

Rise to Political Dominance
Beginning as early as the 17th and 18th centuries, but mainly in the 19th century, Fulas and others took control of various states in West Africa. These included the Fulani Empire founded by Usman dan Fodio (which itself included smaller states), Fouta Djallon, Massina and others. M. Delafosse suggested that with the expansion of the Fulani from Futa to Darfur, all this region became known to the Arabs as Takrur.

Culture & Language
The language of Fulas is called Pulaar or Fulfulde depending on the region, or variants thereof. It is also the language of the Tukulor. All Senegalese who speak the language natively are known as the Halpulaar or Haalpulaar'en, which stands for “speakers of Pulaar” (“hal” is the root of the Pulaar verb haalugol, meaning “to speak”). In some areas, e.g. in northern Cameroon, Fulfulde is a local lingua franca.

With the exception of Guinea, Fulas are minorities in every country they live in (most countries of West Africa). So some also speak other languages, for example:
Portuguese and Kriol in Guinea-Bissau
French and Arabic in Mauritania
Hausa and French in Niger
French and English in Cameroon
Wolof and French in Senegal
Sango and French in Central African Republic
Bambara and French in Mali
English, Hausa and Ghanaian languages in Ghana
English and some indigenous languages in Sierra Leone, particularly Krio, that lingua franca.
Hausa, other Nigerian languages and English in Nigeria

Fula are primarily known to be pastoralists, but are also traders in some areas. Most Fula in the countryside spend long times alone on foot, moving their herds; they were the only major migrating people of West Africa, though most Fula now live in towns or villages.

[As they conquered different towns and peoples, they would take captives from those tribes. Those captives became their slaves, adopting the language and lifestyle of the Fulani, and working their fields for them. Today, although no longer officially slaves, the ex-slave caste (rimaaybe or maccube) has no sense of their original ethnicity. Although distinct ethnically from the true Fulbe, their identity is now so intertwined with them that they are themselves called Fulani.

Read more at: http://www.modernghana.com/news/349849/1/who-are-the-fulani-people-their-origins.html

Comment: printsbymoniqueisabella said “#Fulani (Foo-lah-nee)
Also known as: #Fulbe, #Peuls.

Fulani’s are located in West Africa (Senegambia to Chael, Nile river, #Sudan and #Ethiopia). The largest concentration is in #Nigeria, #Senegal and #Guinea.
Fulani are very proud people and are use to ruling over others, there mission is to continue to conquer as much of #WestAfrica.
The most important object in Fulani #society is cattle. The number of cows a person owns is a sign of its #wealth.
The total Fulani population is more than 6 million and 99% religion is #Islam. It is said to be Fulani is to be a #Muslim. #Africa #Africanculture #identity #blackculture #iloveculture #photography #tribe #art #blackwomen #moniqueisabella #textileartist #textiledesigner #newaccount #follow #learn#inspire #create”

Comment: sdstyle_ said “Festival Thiodaye°
#festival #thiodaye #Senegal #galsen #fulbe #holiday #travel #summertime #africa #summer2k15 #happy #peul #cool #fouta #sdstyle #fashion #mode #elegance #africanstyle #whitedress #afrika #culture #love #pround #me #Beautiful #bestmoments #bestofday”