fugitive slaves

White Southerners certainly weren’t states’ rights doctrinaires. They were perfectly fine with an aggressive federal government if it worked to preserve slavery. They had no objection when Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, requiring free states to aid in the return of runaway slaves — overriding many of those states’ own laws. When South Carolina issued its secession ordinance in 1860, it even complained that Northern states had passed laws nullifying the Fugitive Slave Act; complained, in other words, that Northern states were refusing to obey the federal government! It was only when the federal government threatened the institution of slavery that the Southern elite invoked states’ rights.
—  William Black, in this article
On The Civil War: It Was About Slavery

“The Civil War was not fought over slavery but over…..” Whenever someone rolls out this argument, especially in reference to racism in America, they are either intentionally trying to whitewash history or are completely ignorant of it. South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union. Here is what they wrote in their articles of secession:

“We assert that fourteen of the States have deliberately refused, for years past, to fulfill their constitutional obligations, and we refer to their own Statutes for the proof.

The Constitution of the United States, in its fourth Article, provides as follows:

No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up, on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

This stipulation was so material to the compact, that without it that compact would not have been made. The greater number of the contracting parties held slaves, and they had previously evinced their estimate of the value of such a stipulation by making it a condition in the Ordinance for the government of the territory ceded by Virginia, which now composes the States north of the Ohio River.

The same article of the Constitution stipulates also for rendition by the several States of fugitives from justice from the other States. The General Government, as the common agent, passed laws to carry into effect these stipulations of the States. For many years these laws were executed. But an increasing hostility on the part of the non-slaveholding States to the institution of slavery, has led to a disregard of their obligations…

The ends for which the Constitution was framed are declared by itself to be “to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity.”

These ends it endeavored to accomplish by a Federal Government, in which each State was recognized as an equal, and had separate control over its own institutions. The right of property in slaves was recognized by giving to free persons distinct political rights, by giving them the right to represent, and burthening them with direct taxes for three-fifths of their slaves; by authorizing the importation of slaves for twenty years; and by stipulating for the rendition of fugitives from labor.

We affirm that these ends for which this Government was instituted have been defeated, and the Government itself has been made destructive of them by the action of the non-slaveholding States. Those States have assume the right of deciding upon the propriety of our domestic institutions; and have denied the rights of property established in fifteen of the States and recognized by the Constitution; they have denounced as sinful the institution of slavery; they have permitted open establishment among them of societies, whose avowed object is to disturb the peace and to eloign the property of the citizens of other States. They have encouraged and assisted thousands of our slaves to leave their homes; and those who remain, have been incited by emissaries, books and pictures to servile insurrection.”

South Carolina certainly believed defending the institution of slavery was important enough they made it the central point in their argument for seceding.

The next state to secede was Mississippi:

“Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery - the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product, which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an imperious law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun. These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization. That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin.

It has grown until it denies the right of property in slaves, and refuses protection to that right on the high seas, in the Territories, and wherever the government of the United States had jurisdiction.

It refuses the admission of new slave States into the Union, and seeks to extinguish it by confining it within its present limits, denying the power of expansion.

It tramples the original equality of the South under foot.

It has nullified the Fugitive Slave Law in almost every free State in the Union, and has utterly broken the compact, which our fathers pledged their faith to maintain.

It advocates negro equality, socially and politically, and promotes insurrection and incendiarism in our midst.”

Mississippi certainly believed slavery was the main reason they were willing to leave the Union and was pissed the North was advocating for black equality.

How did Georgia feel about slavery and secession?:

“The people of Georgia having dissolved their political connection with the Government of the United States of America, present to their confederates and the world the causes which have led to the separation. For the last ten years we have had numerous and serious causes of complaint against our non-slaveholding confederate States with reference to the subject of African slavery. They have endeavored to weaken our security, to disturb our domestic peace and tranquility, and persistently refused to comply with their express constitutional obligations to us in reference to that property…

By anti-slavery it is made a power in the state. The question of slavery was the great difficulty in the way of the formation of the Constitution. While the subordination and the political and social inequality of the African race was fully conceded by all, it was plainly apparent that slavery would soon disappear from what are now the non-slave-holding States of the original thirteen. The opposition to slavery was then, as now, general in those States and the Constitution was made with direct reference to that fact. But a distinct abolition party was not formed in the United States for more than half a century after the Government went into operation. The main reason was that the North, even if united, could not control both branches of the Legislature during any portion of that time.

The North demanded the application of the principle of prohibition of slavery to all of the territory acquired from Mexico and all other parts of the public domain then and in all future time. It was the announcement of her purpose to appropriate to herself all the public domain then owned and thereafter to be acquired by the United States. The claim itself was less arrogant and insulting than the reason with which she supported it. That reason was her fixed purpose to limit, restrain, and finally abolish slavery in the States where it exists. The South with great unanimity declared her purpose to resist the principle of prohibition to the last extremity. This particular question, in connection with a series of questions affecting the same subject, was finally disposed of by the defeat of prohibitory legislation.”

Georgia believed slavery was the central reason for secession, not just slavery in the slave-holding states but expanding the practice to the Western Territories.

What say you Texas?:

“Texas abandoned her separate national existence and consented to become one of the Confederated Union to promote her welfare, insure domestic tranquility and secure more substantially the blessings of peace and liberty to her people. She was received into the confederacy with her own constitution, under the guarantee of the federal constitution and the compact of annexation, that she should enjoy these blessings. She was received as a commonwealth holding, maintaining and protecting the institution known as negro slavery - the servitude of the African to the white race within her limits - a relation that had existed from the first settlement of her wilderness by the white race, and which her people intended should exist in all future time. Her institutions and geographical position established the strongest ties between her and other slaveholding States of the confederacy. Those ties have been strengthened by association. But what has been the course of the government of the United States, and of the people and authorities of the non-slave-holding States, since our connection with them?

We hold as undeniable truths that the governments of the various States, and of the confederacy itself, were established exclusively by the white race, for themselves and their posterity; that the African race had no agency in their establishment; that they were rightfully held and regarded as an inferior and dependent race, and in that condition only could their existence in this country be rendered beneficial or tolerable.

That in this free government all white men are and of right ought to be entitled to equal civil and political rights; that the servitude of the African race, as existing in these States, is mutually beneficial to both bond and free, and is abundantly authorized and justified by the experience of mankind, and the revealed will of the Almighty Creator, as recognized by all Christian nations; while the destruction of the existing relations between the two races, as advocated by our sectional enemies, would bring inevitable calamities upon both and desolation upon the fifteen slave-holding states.”

Texas not only argued they were leaving the Union because of slavery but made a special point of claiming slaves were inferior and have no agency.

The articles of secession from the rest of the Confederacy states are short, pro-forma statements claiming their right to secede. These four states felt the need to go into detail as to why they believed it necessary to fracture the Union. When they did make economic arguments it was always in reference to slavery-either the impact ending slavery would have or the “unfairness” of being treated differently with regard to treaties for being pro-slavery. At the heart of every argument for seceding was their belief that they were entitled to own other people. Period. Full stop.

“The Civil War was not fought over slavery” claim is a lie, an intentional lie to make those who supported the Confederacy then and now feel better about themselves. After the South lost the War and anti-slavery sentiment increased, it became harder to argue that slavery was a legal, moral institution. Those who seceded from the Union, took up arms against their fellow Americans and almost ended the United States as it was known needed to feel good about themselves. They needed a way to claim the damage they caused and the decisions they made to secede were “noble.” Even though slavery was the original reason they gave, they knew they couldn’t use it any longer, especially if the goal was to claim you acted “nobly.” They needed to come up with other, after-the-fact reasons. The most prevalent of these hindsight reasons was/is “states’ rights.” States’ rights makes it sound like they were defending the rights of the people in their state against the big, bad, evil federal government. It made their acts sound “noble.” It was and is complete bullshit. The States’ Rights argument for the Civil War is nothing more than an attempt to whitewash history and vacuum the collective conscious of the South for going to war over their perceived right to own other people as property. Don’t take it from me, take it from the white, Southern politicians who wrote the passages above as to why they felt they needed to secede from the Union.  

in da2 there’s a banter between varric and fenris where they talk about the money fenris owes and whether he’ll come by the tavern for wicked grace later, and he says ‘never miss it’ and i got reAL fuckin weepy out of nowhere. it’s such a normal sitcom conversation and you wouldn’t normally think anything of it in a game full of Serious Character Development but it’s fenris getting to choose who and what he spends his time on and he sounds so settled and happy, he has friends and he has his own place (sortof) and he has hawke, he made a life where he gets to choose every single aspect of it, and he chooses to have a nice night out at a bar with friends. he has a reputation for being a grumpy loner but i think he was a loner by necessity, not innate character.

his character arc in this game fkcing kills my ass. he started out a fugitive ex-slave on the run, who had suffered abuses and a desperate pursuit for years, alone, ends with his freedom, surrounded by a circle of friends who love him, some time to have a little normal in his life, a little peace. or as much as anyone in hawke’s inner circle can have.


March 20th 1852: Uncle Tom’s Cabin published

On this day in 1852, American author Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin was published. Previously published as a serial in the anti-slavery periodical the National Era, Uncle Tom’s Cabin tells the story of a black slave and recounts the harsh reality of his enslavement. Stowe was an ardent advocate of the abolition of slavery, and wrote the novel in response to the passage of the controversial 1850 Fugitive Slave Act which was part of the Compromise of 1850. The Act ordered Northern citizens to assist in the return of runaway slaves from the South, thus forcing the generally anti-slavery North to become complicit in the continuance of the ‘peculiar institution’. The popular discontent over the slavery issue helped make Uncle Tom’s Cabin the best-selling novel of the nineteenth century and saw its translation into sixty languages. The novel helped keep the flames of anti-slavery sentiment alive, and is therefore sometimes attributed with helping start the American Civil War. While still hailed as a great anti-slavery work of its day, the novel falls short of modern expectations with its stereotypical portrayal of African-Americans.

“So you’re the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war”
- what, according to legend, Abraham Lincoln said upon meeting Stowe in 1862

In 1848, Ellen Craft and her husband William escaped from their masters in Macon, Georgia, hiding in plain sight. With her fair skin, Ellen was able to pass as white. She cut her hair short and dressed as a young man. William masqueraded as her servant. The couple left Macon, traveling North by trains and steamboats and arrived in Philadelphia on Christmas Day.

Ellen and William settled in Boston, where they started a family. William established a prosperous furniture-making business. They also became popular speakers at abolition movement events, stirring the hearts and minds of audiences with their daring escape from slavery.

In 1850, the Craft’s productive life as free people was disrupted by the Fugitive Slave Act, a law that made it illegal for residents of free states to harbor escaped slaves. Bounty hunters from Macon tracked the couple down in Boston, but with the help of Bostonians– black and white– they managed to elude recapture. Spooked by the incident, the family relocated to England.

After the Civil War, the Crafts returned to Georgia, where they dedicated a great deal of their time and resources to helping former slaves find employment and gain an education. Despite attempts by hostile white Georgians to thwart their efforts and ruin their lives, the couple remained in the state for the next 20 years.

In 1890, the William and Ellen moved to Charleston, SC to live with their daughter. Ellen passed away that year. William died in 1891.

Image source: Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, General Research and Reference Division, illustration from the publication The Negro in History by Carter G. Woodson, c. 1922.

Eastman Johnson (1824-1906)
“A Ride for Liberty - The Fugitive Slaves”
Oil on paperboard
Located in the Brooklyn Museum, New York City, New York, United States

Johnson portrayed an enslaved family charging for the safety of Union lines in the dull light of dawn. The absence of white figures in this liberation subject makes it virtually unique in art of the period—these African Americans are independent agents of their own freedom. Johnson claimed to have based the painting on an actual event he witnessed near the Manassas, Virginia, battlefield on March 2, 1862, just days before the Confederate stronghold was ceded to Union forces.

The biggest irony about Lost Cause mythology is the idea that the South seceded to protect states’ rights. One of the major reasons that the South was paranoid enough about the end of slavery to secede is that the federal government was allowing the Northern states to ignore the Fugitive Slave Act in favor of their own state laws on the matter (i.e. don’t send escaped slaves back into slavery). They wanted the federal government to force those states to do what they wanted. It was literally the opposite of an actual states’ rights issue. “States’ rights” was then, as it is now, almost exclusively used as code for “states’ rights to oppress, backed by the support and assistance of the federal government and the other states.”

Almost from the time that Spaniards began importing Africans to work the Cauca River gold diggings in Colombia, blacks managed to escape; a few sought refuge among the Manabi and Mantux Indian tribes of the tropical coast of northwestern Ecuador. The zambo descendants of these blacks and Indians became tribal leaders and created a major Pacific-coast headquarters known as El Portete.51

This particular settlement acted as a kind of beacon, attracting other bondmen who chose to flee rather than accept a living death panning the streams of southern Colombia for gold dust. It also attracted the attention of the Spaniards, not only because it was a haven for fugitive slaves but also because it was an ideal base for ships sailing between Panama and Peru. Occasional Spanish vessels in trouble attempted to land at El Portete but where driven away by the attacks of the zambo-led tribesmen. In 1556, therefore, Gil Ramírez Dávalos, governor of the audiencia of Quito, began sending troops to smash the troublesome Afro-Indians and seize the town. He succeeded in capturing the settlement, but the rebels reverted to guerrilla tactics. The troops holding El Portete fell victim to malaria and other tropical diseases at an alarming rate and eventually evacuated the area.

Subsequent efforts to subdue the Afro-Indians failed, and Francisco Arias de Herrera broke the stalemate in 1598 by drawing up a compact with the zambo leaders in which the latter agreed to accept the nominal suzerainty of the king of Spain.52 For all practical purposes, however, they remained autonomous.

This was not to be the final example of African-controlled Indian groups resisting Spanish domination in northwest Ecuador. In 1650 a slave ship proceeding from Panama foundered in a storm off Cape Francisco. Two dozen slaves managed to scramble ashore, murdered the Spaniards who survived the wreck, and somehow established themselves as rulers among the local Indians and zambos. Eventually emerging as chief of these liberated blacks was the ladino Alonso de Illescas. Later, thanks largely to good fortune and a combination of resourcefulness and ruthlessness, he established himself as suzerain over all Negroids and Indians in the present-day provinces of Esmeraldas, Imbabura, and Pinchincha.53 Illescas also battled to a standstill the infrequent Spanish expeditions sent into his domain. Not until early in the eighteenth century, when Pedro Vicente Maldonado y Sotomayor cut a trail from the mountain capital of Quito to the northwestern coast of Ecuador, would Spain exercise more than shadowy authority over the region.

—  [Leslie B. Rout, Jr., The African Experience in Spanish America, p. 116-117]


Hidden Figures: Mary Ann Shadd Cary #BlackHERstoryMonth 17/28

Mary Ann Shadd Cary, born Mary Ann Shadd in 1823, was an African American teacher, journalist, lawyer, suffragist, and staunch advocate for the emigration of free Black Americans to countries outside of the United States that had abolished slavery. Cary was born to free Blacks in Wilmington, Delaware, and her father was an outspoken anti-slavery activist that had been a soldier in the Revolutionary War, a conductor of the Underground Railroad,  an active member of the American Anti-Slavery Society, and, in 1833, named President of the National Convention for the Improvement of Free People of Colour in Philadelphia. After it became illegal to educate African-American children in the state of Delaware, Cary’s family moved her and her siblings to Pennsylvania, where she received a Quaker education.

In 1840, at the age of 27, Cary established a school for Black children in West Chester, Pennsylvania, and later established a second school in New York. When the Fugitive Slave Act was passed in 1850, allowing for the capture and return of slaves even in states where slavery had been abolished (which often led to the capture of free Blacks that had received their freedom legally or never even been enslaved), Cary’s family moved to Canada.

Cary became a fierce emigrationist activist in Canada, publishing and editing ‘The Provincial Freemen,’ wherein she wrote essays about racism, slavery, gender discrimination, and her support for race and sex equality. She was the first woman publisher and editor in Canada and the first Black woman publisher in North America. She encouraged African-Americans to relocate to Canada, where they could find economic and political freedom, and was a fierce supporter of independent, free Black settlements and farming communities. While in Canada, she married Thomas F. Cary, a Toronto barber, and after his death in 1860 she returned to the United States with their children.

In the U.S. she served as a recruiting officer to enlist black volunteers for the Union Army in the state of Indiana during the Civil War, and after the war’s end, she taught at Black schools back in Delaware as well as in Washington, D.C. In 1880, she founded the Colored Women’s Progressive Franchise Association in D.C., and in 1883, at the age of 60, Cary became the second Black woman in America to earn a law degree, graduating from Howard University. In 1893, she died from stomach cancer in Washington, D.C. Her former home on U St. is recognized as a National Historic Landmark.

#HiddenFigures #BlackHERstoryMonth

Lams AU Masterpost

@publius-esquire and @madtomedgar have been writing a fantastic, extended Hamilton/Laurens fanfic since 2013. The basic premise is that Laurens survived the Battle of the Combahee River. Politics, angst, sex, and sometimes a combination of all three. 

They aren’t written in a serialized format, but I’ve made a list that puts them in chronological order. There are a few ficlets that can really go anywhere, so I’ve just placed them strategically. If you’d rather read them in order of when they were posted, you can here or here. Most stories that need a content warning have one at the start.

Last updated: August 1st, 2016. Most recently updated story is starred and bolded.

Keep reading

shadowsoundeffects13  asked:

Also (I'm aware I was here minutes ago) what are your opinions on president Franklin pierce?

Despite all the tragic things that befell Franklin Pierce, he is seen as one of the worst American Presidents in history and it seems to be for good reason. 

Franklin Pierce’s presidency began in tragedy. Weeks after his election, on January 6th, 1853, the President and his family had been traveling from Boston by train when their car derailed and rolled down an embankment near Andover, Massachusetts. Pierce and his wife Jane survived, but in the wreck found their only remaining son, eleven year old Benjamin was crushed to death and his body was nearly decapitated. Unable to hide the gruesome sight from either him or his wife, they both suffered severe depression afterward, which likely affected contributed to Pierce’s poor performance as president “You have summoned me in my weakness, you must sustain me by your strength.” he said in his Inaugural Address. Jane avoided social functions for much of her first two years as First Lady. 

When he took office, the country was experiencing a great era of economic prosperity and relative tranquility. For the time being, the Compromise of 1850 seemed to have resolved the various sectional conflicts–primarily over slavery–that had been dividing the country. At this point, the fourteen president of the United States was the youngest president to ever be inaugurated. Unlike all presidents before him he was the first to memorize his Oath of Office and the second not to affirm it on a Bible (John Quincy Adams was the first) he did it on a Law Book. He avoided the word “slavery” but alluded to his wish to bring that “important subject” to rest and maintain a peaceful union as threat of Civil War had been looming in the horizon back even in seventh president Andrew Jackson’s two term presidency. 

In his cabinet he attempted to bring figures from all stretches of American humanity. Much like fifth president James Monroe he tried to gather people who represented all parts of America. He decided to allow each of the parties factions some appointments, even those whom had not supported the Compromise of 1850 which was lowering fears. Pierce sought to represent all factions in government and federal positions yet could fully satisfy none of them. Party members found themselves unable to secure positions for their friends, which put the Democratic Party on edge and fueled bitterness between separate factions. Northern newspapers began accusing Pierce of filling his government with pro-slavery secessionists, while southern newspapers accused him of abolitionism. No matter what he did, he seemed to be struck. 

Pierce made mistakes by not communicating with his Vice-President, William R. King, which was not entirely his doing. By the start of their term, King was severely ill with tuberculosis and went out of the country to Cuba to attempt to recuperate. He died at his home a few days after returning one month into the presidency–the office of vice president would stay vacant for the rest of the term and Pierce was left without a second in command. With the death of the president’s only child and the death of his vice president hovering above the splintering partisan, it was not looking very positive. 

It was not that Pierce didn’t care or was unfit for the job. Pierce was up and at-em hoping to create a more efficient government than his recent predecessors. One of Pierce’s reforms was to expand the role of the United State Attorney General in appointing federal judges and attorneys, which was an important step in the eventual development of the Justice Department. On economic policy, Pierce charged his Treasury of Secretary with reforming the treasury department which was being managed unwell and Guthrie increased sight of Treasury employees and tariff collectors, many were withholding money from the government. Despite laws requiring funds to be held in the Treasury, large deposits remained in private banks with the Whig administrations. Guthrie reclaimed these funds and wished to prosecute corrupt officials, but with only mixed success. It was attempting to rid of brooding corruption. 

Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, at Pierce’s request led surveying missions for possibly transcontinental railroad routes, increasing train tracks. Davis employed the Army Corps of Engineers to supervise construction projects in the nation’s capital which included expanded the United States Capitol and the construction of the Washington Monument. 

The Pierce administration fell in line with the expansionist movement, and William L. Marcy lead the charge as Secretary of State. They re-negotiating provisions from the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which required the US to prevent Native American raids into Mexico from New Mexico Territory. It was negotiated and a treaty with Mexican President was re-created in December of 1853. It included now southern Arizona and pieces of southern New Mexico. The treaty brought more land. 

Pierce’s presidency brought a new trade agreement with Britain after American fisherman began to feel assaulted by the increasing supervision by the U.K’s navy. The treaty was ratified in August 1854, which was seen as a first step towards the American annexation of Canada. Gaining control of Central America was another goal and the treaty of Clayton–Bulwer from 1850 was failing to keep Great Britain from expanding change. Minister to England Buchanan was not successful in getting the British to renounce their Central American possessions. Three U.S. diplomats in Europe drafted a proposal to the president to purchase Cuba from Spain but the publication of the Ostend Manifesto, drawn up by the Secretary of State, awoke scorn of northerners who saw it as an attempt to annex a slave-holding possession and bolster Southern interests.

Pierce favored reorganization of the military as well. The Secretary of War and the Navy Secretary found the Army and Navy in poor condition, with low forces, and a reluctance to gather new technology, and terrible management. Commodore Matthew C. Perry visited Japan  in an effort to expand trade. Perry signed a trade treaty with the Japanese which was successfully ratified. The 1856 launch of the USS Merrimac, one of six newly commissioned steam ships, was one of Pierce’s “most personally satisfying” days in office.

What Pierce is best known for ans associated with is Kansas–Nebraska Act and it was ultimately his downfall. The bill formally organized Kansas and Nebraska into territories, opening them to settlement and railroad building; it also repealed the ban on slavery in Kansas mandated by the Missouri Compromise in 1820, declaring that the citizens of each territory–not Congress–had the right to choose whether the territory would allow slavery. Pierce was hesitant of the bill, knowing it would result in bitter opposition from the North. He was convinced to support the bill regardless. It was greatly opposed and rallied public disagreement. Northerners remained mainly suspicious of the Pierce administration and what he was accomplishing. The Whigs split and the conflict destroyed them as a national party. The Kansas–Nebraska Act was passed in May 1854. The political turmoil that followed saw the short-term rise of two political parties and the founding of the Republican Party.

The passage of the act startled so much violence between groups that the territory became known as Bleeding Kansas. Free-Staters set up a government, and drafted the Topeka Constitution, which Pierce called an act of rebellion and sent federal troops to break up a meeting of the Topeka government. After the passage of the act coincided with the seizure of escaped slave Anthony Burns in Boston, Northeners were in his support which Pierce was determined to follow the Fugitive Slave Act to the letter, and dispatched federal troops to enforce Burns return.

At the end of his term, Pierce expected to be renominated by the Democrat party. In reality his chances of winning the nomination were slim, let alone re-election. The administration was widely disliked in the North for its position on the Kansas–Nebraska Act, and Democratic leaders were aware of Pierce’s electoral vulnerability. This loss marked the only time in U.S. history that an elected president who was an active candidate for reelection was not nominated for a second term. Pierce endorsed Buchanan, though the two remained distant; he hoped to resolve the Kansas situation by November to improve the Democrats’ chances in the general election. He installed John W. Geary as territorial governor, who got the pro-slavery legislators. Geary was able to restore order in Kansas, though the electoral damage had already been done—Republicans used “Bleeding Kansas”.

In his final message to Congress, delivered in December 1856, he attacked Republicans and abolitionists. He took the opportunity to defend himself on policy, and on achieving peaceful relations with other nations. The final days, Congress passed bills to increase pay of army officers and to build new naval vessels, also expanding the number of those enlisted. It also passed a tariff reduction bill he had long wanted. Pierce and his cabinet left office on March 4th, 1857, the only time in U.S. history that the original cabinet members all remained for a full four-year term

Franklin Pierce’s administration only furthered the process of the oncoming Civil War and led to far more bad than good. 

On May 24, 1854, federal marshals arrested Anthony Burns, a fugitive from slavery, in Boston.His arrest touched off protests by abolitionists across the city. 

The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, part of the Compromise of 1850, stated that all escaped enslaved people had to be returned to their owners and that all free states had to abide by this law.  In Boston, federal authorities tested this new law in 1854 with the arrest of Anthony Burns.

Anthony Burns, who was born into slavery in Virginia, had escaped to Boston, where he found work first at a pie company, and later at a clothing dealer. Shortly after arriving in Boston, Burns wrote a letter to his brother. The letter was intercepted by his owner Charles F. Suttle, who then traveled north lay claim to Burns. After federal marshals captured Burns on May 24, Burns’ case went to federal court.

The Anthony Burns Trial led many Bostonians to question and protest the Fugitive Slave Act. The city erupted in protests, and was put under martial law.  The documents pictured above give us a rough idea of how much money the government spent for the cavalry, troops, and ammunition used to control the protesters.

On June 2nd, federal authorities escorted Burns the ship that would return him to an enslaved life in Virginia, while thousands of Bostonians who opposed slavery lined the streets, booing, and hissing.

After Burns ‘ return to Virginia, the Twelfth Baptist Church in Roxbury raised money to free Anthony Burns.  On February 22, 1855, a year after the trial, he returned to Massachusetts as a free man. He went on to study at Oberlin College and later became a Baptist preacher in Canada.

Bills from the Anthony Burns case, 1854-1855, Early Records #5, Folder 7, Boston City Archives


Capoeira (/ˌkæpuːˈɛərə/; Portuguese pronunciation: [kapuˈejɾɐ]) is a Brazilian martial art that combines elements of dance, acrobatics and music, and is usually referred to as a game. It was developed in Brazil mainly by West African descendants with native Brazilian influences, probably beginning in the 16th century. It is known for quick and complex moves, using mainly power, speed, and leverage for a wide variety of kicks, spins, and highly mobile techniques.

The most widely accepted origin of the word capoeira comes from the Tupi words ka'a (“jungle”) e pûer (“it was”), referring to the areas of low vegetation in the Brazilian interior where fugitive slaves would hide. Practitioners of the art are called capoeiristas.

@marsixm replied to your post “people condemning the article for its “cognitive dissonance” like…”

the thing that gets me is its like you dont have to even LIKE the article you dont have to LIKE alex tizon (and like hes dead and sos his mom so its not like theyre getting money or praise themselves off this) the point is to RAISE LIKE…A DIALOGUE, AWARENESS about whats going on, thats the whole point. you dont need to agree with him you just need to like Know

tbh it’s also the idea that he “didn’t do anything”, when he (a) tried to give her access to money, (b) tried to give her access to transportation, © tried to get her healthcare, (d) helped her get legal status in the US; all things that foster agency and that are withheld by abusers in the context of domestic violence. when you’re escaping a relationship where your choices have been systematically taken from you, it’s only retraumatizing to have the choice to leave be made for you as well. yes, he could call the police on his parents, but so could have lola herself? 

because, really: this wasn’t the antebellum south. there’s no fugitive slave act. this situation as it played out in the US has a lot more in common with run-of-the-mill endemic domestic violence than it does with america’s history of chattel slavery. it’s likely a very different story in the philippines but despite living as a slave, lola ought to have about as much cache with the american police as tizon does. 

that wasn’t the choice she made though. as heart-wrenching as it is to watch, you let survivors go back to their abusers as many times as it takes for them to find the agency to make the decision to leave on their own. 

and tizon gets that: i think he gets that fact even earlier than when he has his “just let her be” revelation, because even as a teenager he repeatedly tries to put the power to change her fate into her hands, and seems confused and frustrated when she rejects it. her freedom only begins with the first choice she makes for herself. tizon gives her the space to recover from a lifetime of subjugation, tries to get her to tell her own story, raises awareness of the plights of thousands of others like her when she demurs.

do we condemn all children of abusers for not “””calling out””” their abusive parents? do we condemn all children of abusers for having complex relationships to both survivor and assailant? i just. am at a loss to define this particular story as anything else.


I want somebody to write about Ahsoka. About how she walked out of the Temple with her head held high, and a tiny bag containing the sum of her life outside the Jedi Order, because Jedi are not encouraged to keep mementos. She has two changes of clothes, a cloak to hide her blades and enough money to live for a week. 

Ahsoka hugs her master, and kisses his cheek too because she can do that now. And maybe she had a crush on him for about half a minute when she was twelve and didn’t know him and maybe she didn’t. Because she’s been his padawan for three years and she knows his worth she bows to him and calls him Master Skywalker. And because she’s been his padawan for three years and she knows his worth her last words to Anakin Skywalker in every universe are, watch out for yourself skyguy.

He’ll call her Snips like his heart is breaking and it is, because this is yet another lesson on attachment that he has failed to learn and he wraps her padawan’s braid around his flesh wrist as a reminder (and in the coming months it’ll become a burden weighing him down, giving him yet another reason to hate the Jedi) but he hasn’t learned the lesson he was meant too and this isn’t his story anyway.

I want somebody to write about the shuttle that takes her away from the Temple and how she cries like she’s breaking because she has been betrayed

I want the three days Ahsoka spends in the lower city hunting down her lightsabers because she will not give them up. 

I want Ahsoka going to Senator Chuchi because she like Padme and Lux never gave up on her. And Padme is too close to the Jedi for comfort, and Lux is too close to her for comfort.  Chuchi aiding her because Ahsoka is her friend and because she is one of ten people in the Galaxy who has stood against Grievous and lived and in these dangerous times you never know what friends you’ll need. Ahsoka leaving Coruscant on smuggled onto a supply ship, hopping a ride on a destroyer, taking off in her personal cruiser, something fast and light.

Ahsoka removing the focusing crystals from her lightsabers and fixing the crystals beside the teeth of the akul she slew with her first lightsaber to her headdress as nothing more then pretty trinkets because one day she will take up her lightsabers again but today she cannot be a Jedi and a lightsaber is a Jedi’s weapon. Because she visited Ilum twice and bled for her crystals each time and she cannot, will not erase her past. 

Ahsoka traveling to Kiros, to Shili, to Onderon, to planets she has been before, to planets she has never seen, to planets she has only seen as a soldier glancing at her surroundings after three days of hard fighting in mud and gore.  

Ahsoka on Onderon because she has friends across the galaxy but Lux, Lux who is her friend before many is on Onderon while the Senate is out of session. She rides beasts on Onderon, explores the jungle and city and does the things she never could as a Jedi. Saw and Lux teach her to cheat at cards and drink in bars and if they get caught up in a few bar fights they never struck first. She does the things the Temple denied her. They’ll get drunk and talk about their losses, about Steela, and Mina, and Barriss and this endless war and if she kisses Lux it is because she can now without concern that she is betraying something she holds dear.  

Ahsoka will enjoy peace until it itches under her skin betraying her. She has been a warrior since she was four and a soldier since she was thirteen. She turns seventeen on Onderon and has a proper party with friends for the experience and leave three days later with Saw in tow, because Saw is another child soldier looking for another war. Mandalore has an ongoing civil war that the Jedi are ignoring, and the rightful heir is a friend who cannot accept republic aid without betraying everything his aunt held dear.

Ahsoka Tano with a blaster on one hip and a mandalorian blade on the other training soldiers to fight a war for peace on a planet that doesn’t want it against a former clone of the republic. Three months later she’ll call that irony. 

Three months later they’re winning the war when the Force cries out for all those who can hear it. Ahsoka knows the news before it ever reaches Mandalore. The Jedi are traitors they say. The Jedi are dead they say. Beacons at the temple call for the return of the Jedi, and Ahsoka wonders how many of her friends were caught in the trap before the survivors started to catch on.

She’ll use the force that night to dissemble her lightsabers and refit the crystals to her blades. When she puts them back together she activates them with a touch of her mind and the crackle hum of the blade is comforting. She’ll drop the force and let her blades fall, catching them eager hands and sweep through a reverse shien drill, as familiar as breathing.

(Ahsoka will leave Mandalore and the people she trained will die when the Deathwatch accepts aid from the newly formed Galactic Empire. Korkie’s execution will be broadcast planetwide. She mourns him but can do no more.)

Ahsoka leaving Mandalore behind and trying to raise Anakin, Obi-Wan, Yoda. When those fail she reaches out to Padme, to Lux, to Chuchi. Chuchi and Lux answers and directs her to Bail Organa and the seeds of the Rebellion. She’s one of millions that attends Padme Amidala’s funeral.

Ahsoka Tano lives openly under her own name. She makes it four months before a squadron of clones cuts her down. Captain Rex leads them.

Ahsoka Tano lives as a fugitive, gathering support, freeing slaves, distinctive green and yellow blades reminding the galaxy that the Jedi are not as destroyed as the Empire would like them to be. Her cell is the best the Rebellion has to offer, and Saw serves as her second for the six years it takes for the Empire to hunt them down. She tells her people to cut and run, but they stand by her in the final days. Her people take out a full battalion with half a dozen bombs and themselves in the process. Ahsoka  is hunted through the sewers like a rat by troops lead by Darth Vader. She separates him from his men and takes a run at him in an appropriately climatic and secluded location. Maybe she hesitated when she felt her old master through the force. Maybe he did. There were only two witnesses to that fight and only one survivor. This is the last time anyone hears from Tano.

(And a Togruta by the name of Barriss books passage off that shithole of a world.)

Ahsoka Tano lives as a fugitive, smuggling, infiltration and sabotage operations, carrying blasters never mind Master Kenobi’s disdain for them. Her lightsabers are never beyond her grasp but she uses them only to kill now, and then only when she is certain there will be no witnesses. She’s the finest operative the Rebellion has and her greatest talent is her ability to wreck a slaving operation in less then twenty-four hours.

Maybe she lives long enough to meet Luke Skywalker and Leia Organa and tell them without remorse the sort of man their father used to be, having long since figured out what became of Anakin Skywalker. Maybe she doesn’t. Either way Ahsoka Tano still has stories that need to be told.

Be clear that the Constitution is soiled with the stain of slavery — the three-fifths clause, the requirement that fugitive slaves be returned, the clause allowing the international slave trade to persist for a generation after its ratification. The hypocrisy of our Constitution’s wording, in which euphemisms must be found every time the institution of slavery is protected, reveals the founding fathers’ chagrin. Once the student of American history discovers what the euphemisms mean, he cannot help reading the Constitution as an inexact copy of George III’s regime, not a set of truths requiring centuries of fealty.