English animal words with no known cognates
  • newt < MidE (an) evete [found in some dialects as eft; is this a relic of the failed sound change of variance between v and w? for vowel reduction, cf. ant~emmet)
  • bird < OE bird, bridd
  • dog < OE dogga [sometimes found as docga];   cf. frog < OE frogga, diminutive of frosc~frox ‘frog’ (cf. German Frosch) with an unknown -gga element also found in many other animal words with difficult etymologies, such as:
  • pig < OE *picg [pigg?], only found in compounds; poss. related to Low German bigge
  • hog < MidE hogge
  • toad < OE tadie
  • bat < allegedly MidE bakka < PGmc blak- (whence -l-?) with -t by confusion from Latin blatta
  • shrew < OE screawa
  • stoat < MidE stote; poss. related to ON stutr ‘bull’ by way of ‘male animal’ (cf. Eng. deer and Ger. Tier ‘animal’, Eng. stag < PGmc *staggijaz ‘male animal in its prime’)