frequently used words

so I said something about mezato and takenaka having the eccentric shounen detective vibe and guess what

yep its an AU

in which mezato is an independent reporter who’s famous for not knowing what fear or common sense is when it comes to investigation, and takenaka is a telepath trying to stay alive

pointers under the cut

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The Truth About Learning Japanese

(I’m going to start with a random side note: If I ever get a book deal to write Japanese primer, I’m going to call it I Eat Cake Everyday: A Complete Guide to Japanese with Stupid Sentences.)

It’s been a while since we’ve just talked, so I wanted to just take a moment to do that.

I think every Japanese platform at one point write an article about “the deep truth” of learning Japanese, claiming to give you the golden key that you need to become fluent in only 6 months or 1 year or whatever. 

The argument for those kinds of posts isn’t hard to understand: People are fundamentally similar. If people are fundamentally similar, it is very likely that works for me will will work for you. Thus, if this works for me, it will work for you. This does work for me. Therefore, it will work for you (most likely.)

This is why all articles start with something like, “I guarantee you that I’m no genius. [Insert daily task that the writer struggles with on a daily basis.] I’m just a regular person that tried out a few things until I found a winning formula.”

I, personally, want to do my own take on this kind of article. I won’t offer a golden key, but I’ll talk about learning Japanese.

1. Japanese is Coded in the Most Inefficient Writing System in the World

Kanji, the logographs that are the bane of all Japanese-learner’s existence, comes from China. Kanji itself, 漢字, means “Chinese characters.” Kanji were invented to suit the needs of the Chinese language (from way back when, before Mandarin/Standard Chinese was a thing.) Japanese, on the other hand, is a language isolate, and it is not related to Chinese. So the use of these Chinese characters has over time been used in different ways for different words and with different readings- for Kanji tend to have multiple readings, sometimes being just 2 and at other times 8. 

In Eastern Asia, the use of Chinese characters was widespread. It was used in Korea, in Vietnam, in Japan, to some varying extent in Malaysia, and the territories these nations conquered.

Korea developed an ingenious writing system called Hangeul, which now has all but totally substituted Chinese characters. Vietnam adopted the Roman alphabet with many diacritics. Japanese, well, Japanese developed two writing systems based on morae. These two writing systems could be used to write out the entirety of Japanese. Kanji is not really necessary. Further, there is no evidence to suggest that there are so many homophones such that even with context one could not make head or tails out of what was being said. 

So, Japanese does have a potential unique writing system that is easy to learn (it’s easier than Hangeul in my opinion), but it does not use it exclusively because of cultural reasons. Kanji is just hardwired into the culture.

But here’s where my personal opinion and advice come in: If you have to choose between loving Kanji and hating it, hate it. Don’t romanticize it. Don’t go “above and beyond” what you have to know because of your love for Kanji. Just learn what you have to learn, and leave it at that.

“How many Kanji must someone learn?” The official common use Kanji list (the Jōyō Kanji) lists 2,136 Kanji. How many readings are among these Kanji? Somewhere around 3,869. There are also some variations on Kanji that one should keep in mind and some Kanji that one sees only in names, so add around 400 Kanji to the official list and about 400 new readings.

“How many Kanji must I learn for my first year of Japanese?” All of them. That’s my honest advice. Don’t aim to learn only a few Kanji. If you’re going to learn Kanji, learn them all. Think in that mindset. As soon as you decide you want to learn Japanese, work on Kanji. Before you enter a classroom and learn your first few greetings and whatnot, make sure you know all the common use Kanji, or at least that you’re well on your way to knowing all the Kanji.

2. Language Learning is an Intensive Process

Learning a language is a process that scientists haven’t quite been able to describe accurately. We do know, nevertheless, that it’s a heck of a lot different from learning chemistry or carpentry or bicycling. 

In the Western world, there is this idea that one can learn a language in a classroom, normally as a subject period, with periods lasting somewhere from 50 to 70 minutes. Here’s the truth: it doesn’t work very well. (There are historic reasons for this way of learning a language, but we can talk about that some other time.) The success rates of language acquisition in classrooms is ridiculously low. This does not mean that language classes are bad: but it means that it just isn’t enough.

There are many reasons why learning a language in and of itself may be hard. It’d take forever to talk about all of them. 

But let’s talk a bit about lexicons. A lexicon, here, refers to the dictionary in your brain where you store the words you know. If you’re monolingual- you have a standard dictionary in your brain with a word and definitions. If you were raised bilingual, then you have one lexicon with two words and definitions. That is to say, if you’re an English-Spanish speaker, then you have “cat” and “gato” in the same space in your brain and you know that what applies to one applies to the other. Then, depending on your fluency and use, you may have two supplementary dictionaries where you store all the information about words that don’t exist in the other language and idioms and expressions and things like that. 

Now, if you’re an English speaker and, say, you want to learn German, part of what you’ll learn to do is to process your English lexicon entries into German. What that means is that you learn to engineer English words into German. “Father” turns into “Vater,” “to drink” turns into “trinken,” “Love” turns into “Liebe,” etc. So the words that have no relation with English (the non-cognates), turn into a supplementary lexicon and everything else is put through a mental processor. 

Because the brain can do this is the reason why many people in Europe can speak many languages. The fact that someone can speak Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, Italian, and French is not terribly impressive. The overlap in words (and in grammar) is so immense that what you’re doing is processing one language into another and you’re guaranteed an astonishing success rate.

Japanese, however, is different because it’s a language isolate. You can’t process one language into another. You have to learn words one by one. That takes time. It takes repetition. Memorization is as much an active process as it is a subconscious process. When people talk about the benefits of “immersion,” what they’re talking about most of the time is putting your brain into survival mode, i.e. either you learn all these words (and grammar stuff) or else you will not be able to survive and thus you will die. That is one way of doing it, and if you do not choose this path you have to commit some serious time to this. I believe that if one knows around 5,000 of the most frequently used words in any given language, one is guaranteed to know at least 95% of all the words one will hear/read in a day (given that one doesn’t go read a super technical manual on how to calibrate a nuclear reactor or something like that.) So, the question becomes how will you memorize 5,000 words? How long will that take? If one learns 10 a day, then it’s 500 days, and if one learns 50 a day, it’s 100 days. 

The tradeoff when it comes to speed is that the faster you learn something, the faster you forget. (When you relearn something, it should be faster nevertheless.) So how much time will you commit to learning a language? How will you follow that up? These are important questions.

3. Japanese Media is Considerably Insular

Japan isn’t like the United States. The United States wants every nation to know what music it likes, what fashion it wears, what it believes ideologically and socially, etc. The U.S. is everywhere.

South Korea, recently, is everywhere. K-Pop, K-Dramas, K-SNL, K-Beauty. If you want to know what Korea is up to, it’s pretty easy to find out. They want you know! 

Japan… eh. Japan is pretty good at making anime available globally. People know about Dragon Ball and Sailor Moon and the Mighty Atom and all that. When it comes to dramas and movies and tv shows, they’re not quite interested in that. Ages ago I wrote a post on the misconception of “Whacky Japanese Game Shows,” where I basically explained that most of those shows aren’t game shows but segments on variety shows, the only person in my mind having totally insane game shows being Beat Takeshi.

Okay, fine, what does this mean? This means two important things. First, one’s expose to the language outside of going to Japan or talking to Japanese people will be based highly on anime, which is fine but there are other styles of expressing oneself. One needs a bit of variety. If one goes the information/news route, then one is exposing oneself to something very formal and literary, but dull. Second, it means that when people teach Japanese, they’re going to assume that one wants to speak Japanese for business purposes. This sounds strange to say, but let me put it like this: Japanese is an important part of the world economy and STEM and anime, on the other hand, is not a sufficiently large part of Japanese culture so that the Japanese can figure you want to learn Japanese for that sole purpose. If you want to speak Japanese, then it must be for business purposes (and we’ll consider academics to be within business.) So you learn Japanese through the perspective of honorific and respectful language. This isn’t a bad thing either, but the desire to make you sound nice will often lead to lies about how Japanese actually works at a grammatical level.

(On the other hand, in South Korea the K-Pop/K-Drama boom is such a big deal that people around the world start learning Korean in hopes of auditioning for the big production companies in hopes of becoming actors, singers, dancers, and hosts.)

So here’s my advice: Once you have your feet wet with Japanese, once you know your Kanji and you know how to analyze a sentence (even if the lexicon isn’t all there yet), look at something that isn’t anime. I recommend movies, a lot of which are quite nice. Okuribito (Departures) was a great movie. An (Red Bean Paste) is a more recent film that was wonderful. Look up some movies. Sit down, and watch them. Watch it with subtitles, so you know what the movie’s about. But watch it a second time and a third time without subtitles. Try to see if you can make out a few sentences, read a few signs that appear in the background, take note of expressions or words you keep hearing. No, you won’t be able to understand the whole film all of a sudden, but it’s something new and something good and the more Japanese you learn, the more you will be able to return to the film and make out. Eventually, you will be able to listen to a sentence, pause the film, and look up the words you don’t know.

4. Learning Japanese Doesn’t Happen with One Method Alone

This is rather obvious, but it’s worth finishing this off with. There is an abundance of book series, CDs, cassettes, and even online resources (our own included.)

A language is greater than any method, than any curriculum, than any teacher. No one source has all the answers. One has to be encouraged from day one to look at many resources.

A library is a language learner’s best friend. Why? Because books can be expensive, and you will probably not need all the resources you dabble into for a long time. So, when you begin learning Japanese, look at the entire Japanese section, order a few famous books through InterLibrary Loan, if you have access to that, and sit down and just read the books, as if they were novels. Don’t memorize a thing. Don’t do the exercises. Just figure out their style, their aims, their perspective. Do read the footnotes! The more footnotes a book has, the more useful it tends to be in the long run. Information that isn’t relevant in Lesson 1 may be absolutely vital in Lesson 10. 

Check out some old books if you can. The way people learn a language today is not the same way they learned it 50 or 100 years ago. The most useful Italian grammar book I ever read was written in the 1800′s. Japanese books published before World War II may have some slightly outdated things, such as the /we/ and /wi/ morae, but they will be good for most of everything else. I’m personally dying to get library privileges again somewhere to be able to look into these, so if I find some good book titles I’ll let you know.

Because a lot of language instruction was, until recently, modeled after the way Greek and Latin was taught, reading some of our own material gets you familiar with the lingo, should you heed my advice. So people like to talk about cases and declensions and conjugations and moods and all that. The works of William George Aston are some of the most important books on Japanese historically. So, if you can find originals of those, please do read them.

So yeah, food for thought

chaoswolf1982  asked:

A recent post of yours, mocking Lord Commander Marmalade as he so frequently deserves, used the word "shitskin"... that term is a racial slur commonly used against black people by white supremacists. I know you didn’t mean it in that context, but just giving you heads-up about it, since you seemed unaware.

Wow I had absolutely no idea. Fucking white supremacist fuckbags ruin everything, even insults. Fuck those guys.

ok…..this is gonna be a Very Specific question but…does anyone else with grapheme-color synesthesia mix up words or numbers that are the same color. like 

they don’t have to sound or look the same or anything, but they have similar colors and textures so i just. flip-flop them sometimes, especially if i’m spacing out a little.

dublin and berlin i mix up constantly because they’re both brown and black, and i mix up the words mantra and atrium because they’re both shiny and red. and i confuse the number 3 for the word green. 

for example when i was in first grade i wrote “green” for the answer to “what is 1+2″ and my teacher thought i was trying to sass her.

How to get rid of an INTJ: A guide

- Give them ultimatums
- Frequently use the words “Always” and “Never”
- Wait ‘til they’re focused on something, then ask them “So how’s your family?” Talk about that for 29 minutes
- Suggest that “Since you’re not doing anything this weekend, wanna go to three parties and a concert?”

anonymous asked:

How do you even write in circular gallifreyan? I tried to learn but i don't understand

Here’s my go for a Sherman’s Gallifreyan guide:

You start with drawing a circle:

Then you will look from the chart below (It only has consonants I’ll explain how vowels work soon) what kind of circle represents the letter you want to write.

Consonants take one of four forms and have dots, lines or neither. So if you want to write J it’s only one floating circle, K is the same kind of circle but with two dots and S is a half of circle with three lines. There is no C so you must write S or K instead depending on the sound.

For example the letter H looks like that ↑. The yellow part is the circle and two lines for H and the white circle is the word circle. The lines can go anywhere and if there are more letters that have lines they can also share lines.

Vowels are much smaller circles than consonants. They are usually attached to the preceding consonant, but they can also float on their own.

Those small circles which I have painted red and blue are the vowels.
The photo shows where do they attach to different consonants (red circles) and how do they work on their own (blue circles).

I have added I to go with the H so that they form the word Hi

Here is the same word, but the letters are now seperatery and H shares one line with I. Both ways are correct. A vowel must stand on its own only when it has no consonant to attach to (a word starts with a vowel or you have two vowels in a row). Double letters are denoted by double circles. Words are read and written anticlocwise starting from the bottom.

Sentences are contained within two circles. The outer circle is to just to contain the sentence and the inner circle has punctuations. To fill empty space the inner circle also has those half circles which I have painted greeen in the photo below. They have no true meaning and they are done simply for style.

“Empress of Mars”
I have marked the reading order with numbers. Just like a word, you read them starting from the bottom and then proceeding around anticlockwise. So you start the reading from the bottom with E. Number two is M, three is P, four is R, five is E and six a double letter SS. Then you move on to the next word. As you can see the consonants share some lines so it doesn’t look messy.

Punctuation are added along the edge of the inner sentence circle.
For example dot is a small circle in the inner circle and apostrophe has two lines that go from the inner circle to the word circle.

“The idiot’s lantern” The apostrophe is coloured yellow.

Since I write Circular Gallifreyan very often I have made a photoshop document which has the charts and some frequently used words

(“muista” is Finnish for “remember” if you wondered. It’s to remind me about those lines)

The hardest thing about writing Circular Gallifreyan is making it look good and getting all the letters to fit nicely. I usually leave the other halves of half circles till I have the whole text done and then erase then.

This is a screenshot I took while doing the all things end -quote. At that time it didn’t even have all of the circles so you can believe it’s hard to remember which ones to erase.

That’s the finished quote ↑. It has several sentences and they are placed the same way as words to sentences and letters to words.

That’s the basics of it. I hope this clears things up for you. If not then just ask more. I’m bad at explaining things so I hope this is not too confusing.

finally, it rains

Gunner doesn’t like the rain, so Firework took him out real quick for his evening business while Asher and I decided to go for a walk. It’s been awhile since we took a nice, peaceful walk here on our own road. I’ve been taking him other places on occasion - for dropping in on a bravery class or two, or whatever - but we haven’t had a nice, easy walk in some time.

Not much happens on our road. There are a lot of dogs here and I want to say many of them have fenced-in yards, but really, only two or three of them do, I guess. I know the others walk. But rarely when we do, somehow.

We finally saw the German Shepherd a few houses down again. I hadn’t seen that dog since probably before winter. He’s (she’s?) aggressive, the owner told me one day, apologizing while she drove past and her dog - safely behind a very tall fence that’s far away from the road - barked at us while we walked by. When I hadn’t seen the dog in awhile, I had started to worry that something happened. I’m glad he barked at us today.

It was the most eventful thing on the walk, except maybe the reactive sheepdog’s lady coming out of her house alone briefly, but Asher barely noticed. He took everything calmly and in stride. It was nice.

And because of this peacefulness, I was able to reflect a bit on the two of us.

Asher hadn’t seen a leash until he came to be with me, about 5 months old. And on this walk, I realized some remarkable things that I hadn’t appreciated enough, that I’ve failed to grasp as… pretty lucky, considering.

  • I don’t… remember ever training loose leash manners, really. He fundamentally dislikes the pulling sensation, and maybe feels safe next to me, so he never did it much. Sometimes he gets excited at the beginning of a hike and tries to drag me to the woods, but that’s about it.
  • He checks in with me all of the time. Obviously, I reinforced this from the start, and the reactivity training has reinforced it even more, but he’s always… looked back kind of naturally.
  • When I do something clumsy - drop something, trip, get caught, slow down - he always stops, pivots, looks at me, and waits until I’m ready to go again. I never, ever trained this. I’ve since made it a thing so I can use it off leash, but otherwise I don’t have to ask.
  • He walks loosely but ahead of me. I know some people like their dogs right with them, but Asher doesn’t naturally like to walk that way, and that’s fine by me. If I need him to heel, he generally does.
  • Simple kissy noises - on leash or off leash - let him know that hey, look at me, I’ma change what we’re doing. Doesn’t matter what it is: crossing the street, going into the garage to throw away his poop bag, turning around, moving on from this bush that he’s been sniffing for at least two minutes…

Sometimes I forget how inherently good he is, just the two of us, because the reactivity clouds things up. His sort of “I’m just stuck in a fear period forever, I guess” behavior can be a downer when you’re just asking him to come sit on the couch, but if you take the time…

If you take the time to identify those times of the day that he’s most confident - the morning and when you first come home - you can capitalize. Maybe he’s not into tug right now, but he’ll play right after work, especially if it’s a toy that Gunner has already destroyed and no longer cares about.

If you take the time to identify the things that make him excited and happy (which, let’s face it, is pretty much one thing: being outside), you can capitalize. You can show him that you will give him these good, happy things.

Asher’s behaviors and temperament aren’t like any of the other reactive or fearful dogs I’ve seen on here. We all seem to be pretty different. I’ve been heartbroken recently when I realize he’s suspicious and cautious of baby gates now… when, as a puppy, he brazenly leapt over one after I put it up. He thought it was a game. This is just one example. Did I do something? Was he just always going to turn out this way?

Regardless, I’m doing my best to make him comfortable, to make him happy. Sometimes I just can’t tell the difference between him being afraid or just wanting to be left alone because he’s an introverted grump, and then I can’t tell if I should take action to counter condition or not. When he chooses to lay in the bathroom most evenings, is he anxious and stressed? Or does he just want space away from loud noises?

My birthday’s coming up and my mom always asks me for a list. I told her all I really care about is camping gear. We’ve been borrowing family gear all this time, but I want my own now. I want a tent and sleeping bags.

And I want to get him out there, where he’s happy. And where I’m happy, too.

How to read journal articles critically

So one of the biggest problems I’ve had when I first started doing research was reading journal articles. I remember the first time reading my very first journal article. It was about HDL-cholesterol and different methods in isolating them. It literally took me DAYS to understand what was going on in that article. Since I’ve now had my fair share of journal articles to read, I learned how to critically read them and which ideas to look out for. So I wanted to share my own personal approach on how I tackle these crazy (yet very very useful) journal articles!

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anonymous asked:

wait so there was a study abt swearing making you feel better that you mentioned in curses, do you know if it's real or is it made up?

It’s not made up! However, I’d remind Sally that the potency of the effect does diminish with frequent use of swear words. But that’s not gonna fuckin’ stop her.

Language Barriers

theleadcinnabon asked:

I have a fantasy story that involves lots of groups with different languages, thus language barrier problems are commonplace for awhile. For my plot, I have one character who has a bit of a magic spell on her tongue that allows others to understand what she says, no matter the language, but she can not understand them. There are three different languages present in the group (stuck on a boat). I was hoping for some advice about how to write the overcoming of these language barriers, and how exactly to present the characters learning bits of each others language. I want it be obvious what a huge struggle it is for only the dominant group to be able to understand each other, since they have the largest amount of people on the ship and control it, while the main character is one of the individuals that is verbally isolated, but is trying to find a way home. Any tips on how to deal with these language barriers, and accurately write the process of overcoming them would be much appreciated.

*dons linguist hat*

Okay, language acquisition is a tricky beast, especially for adults, and it’s almost never portrayed accurately in fiction.  We (linguists) are still not 100% sure about how language is acquired (i.e. what structures in the brain are at work there), and how acquisition differs between a first and second language (other than, “it does”) but the key with adult second language acquisition is basically just “use it or lose it.”  Without continued maintenance of a language skill, it atrophies into a useless lump.  It’s like a muscle.

In the situation you propose, the characters will learn each other’s languages piecemeal, and due to necessity.  Certain words will become familiar, perhaps fairly quickly depending on frequency of use, and individual foreign words will become known far sooner than grammatical structure (in fact, the full grammar of a foreign language may never become ingrained in an adult the way it does in a child).  You generally acquire words based on how frequently they are used, but the absolute most frequent words used in a language tend to be thing like “the,” “of,” and “and,” which aren’t very meaningful, so look instead to the frequent contentful words.  These tend to be things like pronouns or numerals, which language acquirers are likely to learn early in the process.  Some words used depend on context, so in your plot, you might have your characters first learn each other’s words for “boat,” “sea,” “wave,” maybe “storm,” etc.  Things that are readily apparent to be talked about.  Also, if Alice and Bob speak the same language and Charlie (a foreigner) is overhearing them, he’ll start to learn their language eventually, but more slowly and randomly than if Alice or Bob were speaking directly to him and actively trying to teach him their language.

In terms of presenting the process in text, you can take a couple of approaches.  The simplest way is just to state that they slowly learned words for (for example) “boat,” “sea,” and “storm.”  Maybe a storm is on the horizon, one character points it out to another and the second character finds they recognize that word when they didn’t previously.  This isn’t very interesting, though.  More interesting is to show this rather than tell it, using dialogue and the POV character’s internal thought process as translator.  For example:

Bob stretched an arm to the horizon, finger outstretched.  "Aa rahaa hai!” he cried.  “Bara tufaan!  Tufaan aa rahaa hai!“  Storm, Charlie thought.  Tufaan means storm.

(Apparently “Bob” speaks Hindi.)

One way I find to be quite realistic, both in terms of narrative and linguistic theory, is to slowly intersperse more and more understandable (i.e. English, or whatever language you’re writing in) words into your inter-character dialogue as the viewport character slowly begins to understand their fellow travelers.  You will have to do some work to write the not understandable parts, though.  Since it’s fantasy, this may be an opportunity to do a bit of conlang development.

Even when they approach fluency in each other’s idioms, adults may never have the skill of a native speaker.  You may see characters make certain errors when trying to speak in a language not their own.  For instance, there may be irregular forms of words that they can’t remember or just don’t know, and use what they think is a regularized form instead.  You can represent this by a character saying "childs” instead of “children,” or “gived” instead of “gave.”  These are errors of the kind that a child learning their first language might make, but they can persist in the adult speech of second-language learners, and even with a “translation convention” in effect (i.e. they’re not really speaking English, but it reads as English), it becomes clear what you’re trying to emulate.

And finally, thank you for wanting to actually make an effort to portray realistic linguistics in fantasy and not just going with a “Common Speech” or something needlessly lazy.

~Mod Nikhil

God of Destruction

Originally posted by taestylips

There are many words that could aptly describe Kim Namjoon. Brilliant, caring, warm-hearted, loyal, and friendly have all been tossed around but the most frequently used word would have to be destructive. His nickname, God of Destruction (most widely used teasingly by friends after another of his outlandish accidents), reflected exactly just how destructive Namjoon could be.

Wherever Namjoon went, destruction followed and everyone knew it. However, it was also widely known that Namjoon never meant to cause any harm. He just happened to be an awful mixture of clumsy, unlucky, and easily excitable.

Despite that dreadful mixture, Namjoon was one of the most wonderful people anyone could ever hope to meet. He won the hearts of all who encountered him with his charm and general good nature. He had a comforting air about him and drew people in like moths to a flame.

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【2016 BTS FESTA】Jiminie’s profile written by V

Name: Park Jimin

Characteristic: Sexy guy

1st place: Volunteering to be the center

7th place: His overall rating

Frequently used word: Ah…, I will hit you

Closeness with me: 100%

Compliment: He always works hard, he’s #1 in working hard (he works hard the most).

Likes: Clothes, accessories, singing, good game, Kim Taehyung, ARMY, being in the center

Dislikes: Martial arts, Jeon Jungkook, Jung Hoseok, seafood

I’m thankful that Jiminie is beside me.

I hate it when Jiminie disses me.

The happiest moment with Jiminie is from the moment I met him in 2nd grade until now, don’t get hurt and be with me.

When I see Jiminie without makeup, it’s funny because there’s slight difference.

What I hope from Jiminie, I just hope that he can always be happy.

The link between Jiminie and I is that we have a similar personality, it’s great that we’re alike.

I want to be Jiminie’s eternal friend (to be his friend forever).

Jiminie’s future drawn by me.
A guy that can be successful for a long long time.

Suga; V; Jungkook; Jin; Rap Monster; J-Hope


Strange and Interesting Facts about Words and Languages
  • TYPEWRITER is the longest word that can be made using the letters only on one row of the keyboard.
  • "Go." is the shortest complete sentence in the English language.
  • The sentence "the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog" uses every letter in the English language.
  • Shakespeare invented the word "assassination" and "bump."
  • The name of all the continents end with the same letter that they start with.
  • The word "lethologica" describes the state of not being able to remember the word you want.
  • The word racecar and kayak are the same whether they are read left to right or right to left.
  • China has more English speakers than the United States.
  • The longest word in the English language is 1909 letters long and it refers to a distinct part of DNA.
  • The longest one-syllable word in the English language is
  • "screeched."
  • No word in the English language rhymes with month, orange, silver or purple.
  • "Dreamt" is the only English word that ends in the letters "mt".
  • There are only four words in the English language which end in "- dous": tremendous, horrendous, stupendous, and hazardous.
  • The name for Oz in the "Wizard of Oz" was thought up when the creator, Frank Baum, looked at his filing cabinet and saw A-N and O-Z, hence "Oz."
  • All 50 States are listed across the top of the Lincoln Memorial on the back of the $5 bill.
  • Maine is the only State whose name is just one syllable.
  • Los Angeles' full name is "El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de los Angeles de Porciuncula."
  • "Stewardesses" is the longest word that is typed with only the left hand.
  • The "sixth sick sheik's sixth sheep's sick" is said to be the toughest tongue twisterin the English language.
  • The plastic things on the end of shoelaces are called aglets.
  • Richard Millhouse Nixon was the first US president whose name contains all the letters from the word "criminal." The second was William Jefferson Clinton.
  • The symbol on the "pound" key (#) is called an octothorpe.
  • The dot over the letter 'i' is called a tittle.
  • The word "set" has more definitions than any other word in the English language.
  • Underground and underfund are the only word in the English language that begin and end with the letters "und."
  • The longest place-name still in use is Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateaturipukakapikimaungahoronukupokaiwe-nuakit natahu, a New Zealand hill.
  • Donald Duck's middle name is Fauntleroy.
  • There is a seven-letter word in the English language that contains ten words without rearranging any of its letters, "therein": the,there, he, in, rein, her, here, ere, therein, herein.
  • The letters KGB stand for Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti.
  • The only 15 letter word that can be spelled without repeating a letter is uncopyrightable.
  • Facetious and abstemious contain all the vowels in the correct order, as does arsenious, meaning "containing arsenic."
  • The word "Checkmate" in chess comes from the Persian phrase "Shah Mat," which means "the king is dead."
  • "a man a plan a canal panama" spelled backwards is still "a man a plan a canal panama"
  • The most popular first name in the world is Muhammad.
  • Skepticisms is the longest word that alternates hands when typing.
  • The fear of vegetables is called Lachanophobia.
  • In England, in the 1880's, "Pants" was considered a dirty word.
  • The book Gadsby, written by Ernest Vincent Wright, has 50,110 words in it, none of them in which contain the letter e.
  • Canada is an indian word meaning "Big Village".
  • "The" is the most frequently used word in the English language (used three times in this sentence alone).
  • More countries use English as their official language than any other. French is second.
  • There are six words in the English language with the letter combination "uu." Muumuu, vacuum, continuum, duumvirate, duumvir and residuum.
  • A "moment" is actually 90 seconds.
  • Mrs. was originally an abbreviation of "mistress," but now is not an abbreviation of anything, except a woman's single lifestyle.
  • The world's largest alphabet is Cambodian, with 74 letters.
  • "Rhythms" is the longest English word without vowels.
  • "Lollipop" is the longest word that can be typed using only the right hand.
  • The letters H, I, O, and X are the only letters that look the same if you flip them upside down or view them from behind.
  • "Queueing" is the only word with five consecutive vowels.
  • The only city in the United States whose name is spelled using only vowels is Aiea, Hawaii.
  • W" is the only letter in the alphabet that does not have one syllable. It has three!
  • "Deeded" is the only word that is made using only two different letters, each used three times.
  • The only words with three consecutive double letters are "bookkeeping" and "bookkeeper".
  • If you spell out every number from 0 to 999, you will find every vowel except for "a". You have to count to one thousand to find an "a"!
  • "Q" is the only letter that is not used in the name of any of the United States.
  • HIV VIRUS is an obvious redundancy, since the "v" stands for "virus."
  • Source:

I don’t think enough has been said about these lines.

They were important enough to survive the adaptation from manga to anime, in part because they give us a ton of information— not just about Kunzite, but about the Shitennou and what they’re doing in the Dark Kingdom.

I have no truck with the notion that the Great Four were brainwashed by Queen Beryl. They clearly suffer, on their second awakening, from a kind of partial amnesia, but it would seem that Beryl suffers along with them. The entire Dark Kingdom muddles forward in a haze of forgetfulness.

(Interestingly, it’s not the same as the total amnesia of Mamoru and the Senshi, who were actually reborn. Rather, it seems more akin to the hangover suffered by Luna and Artemis, who, like the denizens of the DK, merely reawaken after spending several centuries in an extradimensional coma. And, just as the cats recall more and more of their past as their Princess grows in power, so the DKers become more lucid as Metalia claws her way back into consciousness.)

All this to say that the amnesia of the Shitennou does not seem to be wholly the product of malign intent. Indeed, the only bona fide mind control we witness is performed on Endymion (and, in the manga, Kunzite) toward the end of the arc, when Beryl is desperate to graft her will upon others. And in the case of Kunzite, the product is an automaton— markedly different from the ruminating, calculating, philosophizing creature we see a few pages earlier.

Another reason I dislike the brainwashing cop-out is that it sets up a pre-vs.-post-lapsarian schism in the Shitennou’s characterizations. It presupposes that they were their genuine, “true” selves only before they defected to Beryl, and everything following that is an aberration, unrecognizable to those who knew the Great Four before their fall. (Which in turn engenders in fandom an overweening preference for saccharine SilMil-era storylines, but that’s another discussion.)

The manga presents the Shitennou as dupes; their mistrust of the Moon Kingdom leads them to sympathize with the casuistry of Beryl and turn against their prince. At which point their “bodies are changed” — literally melted down and made anew — and this presumably seals their allegiance to Metalia. But it doesn’t say anything about their personalities changing. And indeed, I have to wonder what sort of personalities they have to begin with, if they so swiftly slip out of their roles as trusted retainers and into something so egregious, so unrecognizable.

… Unless, of course, it’s not unrecognizable. prismatic-bell and I had an interesting conversation about this not long ago. She hypothesized that what we see of the Shitennou in the Dark Kingdom is not a radical divergence from their Golden Kingdom-era selves, but rather a malignant outgrowth of things that were already there. Each of the Four retains the essential elements of his character, only with the shadow side facing forward.

This would certainly explain the rapidity of their defection to Beryl. How else could they side willingly with something so vile, if there was not already a sympathetic shadow inside of them, some small darkness whispering, recognizing affinity, tugging them down toward the fatal black lode? (Particularly when we consider that Endymion, a supremely righteous human being if there ever was one, had no trouble seeing through and resisting Beryl’s slanted talk.)

And so I return to the images at the top of this post. Of all the Shitennou — indeed, of all the creatures of the Dark Kingdom — Kunzite is the only one we see expressing a philosophical, indeed aesthetic, appreciation of darkness.* Not even Beryl, who rhapsodizes at length on the glory of her kingdom and the sweetness of its imminent triumph, tenders any sort of sentimental affinity for the defining characteristic of her realm. Kunzite, on the other hand, seems to truly admire the Kingdom qua Dark.

Which makes me wonder— did this love of darkness predate, and perhaps precipitate, his tenure as the leader of Beryl’s henchmen? Certainly it appears to be something other than the party line. It’s his own private mantra, shared by no one, spoken in solitude. Could it have been there from the beginning, a sort of chthonic yearning, an affinity for the habitat of his original, crystalline self: sealed in the earth and hidden from light? Is his love of the Earth a literal love, which extends beyond the sunlit surface right to its molten black core? Is this what makes it so easy for Beryl to bend his ear and turn him away from the light? And might the same feelings be imputed to the other three— or do they, just kids really, simply follow Kunzite’s lead?

None of this is to imply that Kunzite and the others were already, or even incipiently, evil. Merely that there may have been more happening behind the gems of their eyes than we happy-enders (or happy-beginners) would care to entertain. That the stones in their hearts might have had affinities, narratives, and allegiances that do not square neatly with concepts of good and bad, or before and after. That they, like their namesake rocks, have facets that shine and go dark, depending on how you turn them.

* In the original anime, one of Kunzite’s most frequently-used words is utsukushii (beautiful). He applies it once to Zoisite, once to the rainbow crystals, and at least three times to darkness.

anonymous asked:

After watching a Star Trek episode I like to check the wiki for fun trivia, and I found this from Frame of Mind (TNG): "Due to contemporary mental health trends, Braga briefly reconsidered his frequent use of the word "crazy" in the teleplay. He explained, "People use this word, it's a good word, and I decided to use it. When you get too 'politically correct' it shows, and what's 'PC' today won't be five years from now. Star Trek is a show that transcends time, and we try not to date it.""

That was such a great episode. 


【2016 BTS FESTA】Namjoonie’s profile written by Hobi

Name: Rap Monster (Kim Namjoon)

Characteristic: Proportion King, pork neck like lips

1st place: Dribbling when he sleeps

7th place: Being cautious

Frequently used word: Actually…~~

Closeness with me: 99% | 1% mixed of feelings

Compliment: He’s the best leader in the world, rap is masterpiece, dance is cool

Likes: Clothes

Dislikes: Seafood

I’m thankful when Namjoonie shows his leadership. That’s why he’s the leader, thank you so much.

I hate it when Namjoonie is picky. I know it’s tiring but he’s too picky.

The happiest moment with Namjoonie, when I think about the first time we met, that moment still exists now.

When I see Namjoonie sleeping, I feel bad for him. When I see him snoring, it seems that he’s not healthy.  

What I hope from Namjoonie, I hope he thinks a lot about the members like now.

The link between Namjoonie and I, is that we’re friends at the same age, so we can be direct with each other.

I want to be Namjoonie’s friend that can cover his shortcomings. No one is perfect. I want to cover Namjoonie’s shortcomings.

Namjoonie’s future drawn by me.
Rap Monster solo concert
Rap Mon

SugaV; Jungkook; Jimin; Jin; J-Hope