french radical


1453  Constantinople is sacked by Muslim forces

1488  Bartolomeu Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope

1492  Columbus encounters the Americas (God, Glory and Gold.)

1517  Martin Luther’s posting of the 95 Theses

1520  Diet of Worms declares Martin Luther an outlaw

1524-1525  The Peasants’ Revolt takes place in Germany

1534  Act of Supremacy passed in England → Henry VIII becomes head of the Anglican Church

1545  Council of Trent begins The Counter Reformation

1555  Peace of Augsburg (cuius regio, eius religio →whose region, his religion)

1585-1589  War of the Three Henries in France

1588  Spanish Armada destroyed by the English and “The Protestant Wind”

1603  Elizabeth I Dies → Tudor Dynasty Ends and the Stuart Dynasty Begins

1618-1648  The Thirty Years War (Treaty of Westphalia ends the war in 1648)

1642-1646  English Civil War (Roundheads vs. the Cavaliers)

1649  Charles I is executed → Oliver Cromwell begins his rule

1660  Stuart Restoration in England through Charles II

1688-1689  Glorious Revolution in England→ William and Mary of Orange replace James II and sign the English Bill of Rights

1643-1715  Era of Louis XIV  The Sun King (l’etat c’est moi)

1689-1725  Reign of Peter the Great in Russia

1756-1763  The Seven Years War

1789-1799  Era of the French Revolution (Radical Stage → late 1792-1795)

1799  Napoleon comes to power

1805-1815  Napoleonic Wars are waged

1814-1815  The Congress of Vienna meets (Main principles: Legitimacy, Conservatism, Compensation & Balance of Power)

1819  Peterloo Massacre in England

1830  Belgian Independence

1832  Reform Bill in England Passed

1848  Revolutions break out across Western Europe (France, Austria, Italy and Germany)

1861  Serfs emancipated in Russia under Alexander II

1870-1871  Germany and Italy Unification

1884-1885  Berlin Conference is held (“Scramble for Africa”)

1894  Tsar Nicholas II comes to power in Russia (the last of the Romanovs)

1905  Sunday Bloody Revolution in Russia → “The Dress Rehearsal”

1914  Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated → WWI starts

1917  March and November (Bolshevik) Revolutions in Russia

1918  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is signed →Russia withdraws from war

1918  WWI ends

1919  Treaty of Versailles is signed

1918-1921  Russian Civil War (Reds vs. Whites)

1922  Mussolini comes to power in Italy and establishes the 1st Fascist government

1922  Russia officially becomes known as the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) → The Soviet Union

1923  Adolf Hitler leads the Beer Hall Putsch in Germany

1924  Lenin dies

1928  Stalin is firmly entrenched as the leader of the Soviet Union → begins the first of several 5 year plans

1929  Stock Market Crash in the US → The Great Depression begins

1933  Hitler comes to power in Germany

1938  Munich Conference (Peace in our time→Neville Chamberlain)

1939  World War II starts with Germany’s invasion of Poland

1945  World War II ends (V-E Day → May 8, 1945 and V-J Day → August 15, 1945)

1945  First session of the United Nations is held

1945-1989  Cold War (U.S. vs. S.U. begins and begins to end in Poland)

POST WW II  Decolonization → European colonies become independent

1946  Winston Churchill gives the “Iron Curtain” speech

1948-1949 Operation Vittles→the Berlin Airlift

1949  USSR successfully tests first atomic bomb

1951  European Coal and Steel Community formed (sounds like the Zollverein)

1953  Stalin dies and is succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev → destalinization begins

1954  French forces defeated in French-Indochina at Dien Bien Phu

1956  Hungarian revolt against the Soviet Union → it is crushed by the Soviets

1957  Rome Treaty is signed → The European Economic Community (EEC) is created = Common Market

1957  Sputnik is launched by the Soviet Union → the first space satellite

1958  The fifth Republic is born in France and Charles de Gaulle becomes President

1961  Berlin Wall built → dividing East and West Berlin

1961  Soviet Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space

1962  Cuban Missile Crisis → 90 miles off the coast of Florida

1963  Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique is published

1964  Leonid Brezhnev becomes leader of the Soviet Union

1966  Under President Charles de Gaulle, France withdraws from the common NATO military command

1968  “Prague Spring” occurs in Czechoslovakia → it is crushed by the Soviets

1968  Student revolt in France (Paris)

1978  Pole Karol Wojtyla elected Pope → Pope John Paul II → 1st non-Italian in 455 years

1979  Margaret Thatcher becomes the first female Prime Minister of England (“The Iron Lady”) (Mags loathes no one more than this heinous twat)

1979  The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan (eventually becomes their own “little Vietnam”)

1980  1st independent labor union in the Soviet Bloc formed  “Solidarity” led by Lech Walesa of Poland

1980  Ronald Reagan elected President of the US (calls the Soviet Union an “evil empire”)

1985  Gorbachev becomes Soviet leader (implements policies of perestroika and glasnost)

1986  Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in the Soviet Union (specifically the Ukraine)

1989  Berlin Wall comes down

1989  The “Velvet Revolution” occurs in Czechoslovakia → Vaclav Havel becomes President

1989  The Soviet Union withdraws its forces from Afghanistan

1989  Romanian leader Nicolai Ceausescu is overthrown and killed

1990  Lech Walesa becomes President of Poland

1990  East Germany and West Germany reunify into one Germany

1990  The first McDonalds opens in Russia

1991  Attempted coup attempt in the Soviet Union → The Soviet Union begins to disintegrate

1991  Boris Yeltsin becomes President of Russia → former 15 republics of the Soviet Union form the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.)

1991  Yugoslavia begins to break apart

1992  Maastricht Treaty signed

1997  Tony Blair becomes Prime Minister of England → 1st Labor Party leader in 18 years

1999  Eurodollar becomes the single currency of the European Union (EU)

A spectre👻👻 is haunting👻 🌍Europe🌍 — the spectre 👻of communism☭☭☭☭. All the 💪💪powers of old Europe💪 have entered into a 🙏 holy alliance 🙏to exorcise this spectre👻👻👻: Pope 💩💩and Tsar💩👎👎, Metternich💩 and Guizot💩💩💩, French Radicals🇫🇷🇫🇷👎👎👎 and German police-spies🚮🚮🚮🚮. Where is the🎉 party🎉🎉 in opposition that has not been 😿decried😿😿 as communistic☭☭☭☭ by its 😦😦opponents in power😦? Where is the opposition that has not hurled back the branding🔥🔥 reproach🔥🔥🔥🔥 of ☭☭☭☭communism☭☭, against the more advanced🎊 opposition parties🎊🎊🎊, as well as against its 🙅🙅🙅🙅reactionary adversaries🙅🙅? 🕑Two things🕑 result from this fact📕📕: I. ☭☭☭☭Communism☭☭ is already acknowledged by all 💪European powers💪💪 to be itself a 💪💪☭power☭💪. II. It is 🕛‼️🕛high time🕛🕛🕛❗ that ☭☭Communists☭☭☭ should openly, in the 😛😛😛face😛😛 of the 🌍whole🌍 world🌍🌍🌍, publish📕📕 their📕 views📕📕📕, their 🎯aims🎯🎯, their tendencies☭☭, and meet this 🍼nursery🍼🍼 tale🍼📕🍼 of the 👻Spectre👻 of Communism👻👻 ☭ 👻☭ with a manifesto📕📕 of the party📕🎊☭ itself

Whenever I tell someone about the crap that modern feminism has done that is so unimportant (like issuing complaints about “sexist emojis”, trying to ban manspreading, etc) all they do is scream “those aren’t real feminists!”

Who is a real feminist then? Catherine MacKinnon? The well known feminist who said: “In a patriarchal society, all heterosexual intercourse is rape because women, as a group, are not strong enough to give meaningful consent.”

Or the well known feminist, Marilyn French, who said: “All men are rapists and that’s all they are.”

Or another famous feminist, Andrea Dworkin, who said: “I want to see a man beaten to a bloody pulp with a high-hell shoved in his mouth, like an apple in the mouth of a pig.”

You can’t stop people from identifying as feminists. If they identify as one, then they’re a feminist. There are some feminists that are more extreme than others, but they’re still feminists if they say they are. So come up with a different comeback other than “those aren’t real feminists!” Feminists are feminists.

On Prussia’s (and Germany’s) Politics pre-1945

It is unusual from what I have seen in the fandom to portray countries as having any political beliefs of their own. But, I tend to believe that their political beliefs align with the predominant political patterns across the reigns of many monarchs. I think it is evasive to claim that countries have no political wills of their own and follow the policies of their leaders.

With that said, it seems to me, based on his history, that Prussia’s should really be a conservative in the most traditional sense of the ideology. However, that is tempered with a willingness to compromise with ideologies he does not agree with. One has to remember that Prussia spent his formative years in a monastic order, so hierarchy would seem completely natural to him. His entire existence has been built on the idea that there are ranks and orders, so the conservative idea of a hierarchical society would make sense to him. He is distinctly distrustful of populism and the masses because in his mind handing power to the masses is inviting disorder and mayhem. Parliamentarianism and liberalism are directly antithetical to his worldview which is grounded in military orders in which hierarchy and discipline are essential. At no point in Prussian history did liberalism hold significant sway. Even Fredrick the Great as an Enlightened despot did not trust the majority of the populace with political power because he viewed them as too uneducated.

The pattern of Prussian history is also staunchly conservative. Prussia attempted to intervene in the French revolution precisely because radical liberalism could undermine the institution of monarchy. It is necessary to note that Prussia also joined an alliance with Russia and Austria to suppress liberal movements to suppress liberal movements across Europe. This alliance lasts over the reigns of several monarchs. Perhaps most telling is the Prussian reaction to the Revolution of 1848. When faced with a nationalistic, liberal revolution in Berlin, Prussia crushed it with military force. It is clear that, though Prussia embraces the idea of one Germany, the Prussian state would not allow it to exist by the auspices of revolutionaries.

Bismarckian politics are the epitome of conservative politics. The idea of nationalism has been coopted into a limited form that no longer equates nationalism with representation. Nationalism, in this case, became a tool of the Prussian state. Thus, I argue that Gilbert is conservative to his core, but he is willing to embrace ideologies that he does not necessarily agree with. He adopts German nationalism as his own cause and institutes a Parliament. But, the catch is that the Parliament has virtually no political power and still subordinated to the king. Control of the army, in particular, still lay firmly in the hands of the aristocracy.

To address the question that inevitably comes up in German history: I do not think Prussia supported Hitler, but I also don’t think he necessarily opposed him either. Like many classic conservatives, he regarded the Nazis with suspicion but thought they might be useful in combating the radical left and communists. I see Prussia as politically aligned with Hindenburg.

As for Germany, I see him as  more radical. He is a young nation with very little experience of the world (which people tend to forget), so he is more predisposed to support very idealistic, utopian movements. The idea of him was founded in the Romantic movement, so he maintains much of their idealism. But, he has also been exposed to Prussia’s politics, so he does have a conservative predisposition as well.

Thus, he has very little political conflict with his older brother with two notable exceptions: 1848 and 1933. In 1848 I see him, as a young man, siding with the revolutionaries precisely because he believes in the ideal. When Prussia suppresses the revolution, Germany is vehemently opposed. In the second case, Germany is swept up in the utopian vision of fascism and whole-heartedly supports the Nazi party. In that case, he sees his brother as antiquated and stuck in the 19th century. It does not occur to him to have the same caution about what may or may not come from a fascist revolution.  

anonymous asked:

Can you tell us more about the rivalry between TJeff and Ham? If it was like the musical or different, I'd like to know more about it

Here you go. Two days and three thousand words later, all sources come Jefferson and Hamilton: The Rivalry That Forged a Nation by John Ferling. Here you go:

It is probable that Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson met for the first time in 1783 after Madison in an effort to get Jefferson back into public life after the death of his wife, Martha finally convinced him to take a position as an envoy to Paris, France. Traveling to the coast before his departure, he reached Philadelphia just after Christmas, about two weeks before General McDougall and his officers arrived from Newburgh to urge commutation and spread rumors of a possible officers mutiny. Hamilton, of course, was a member of the Congress, and it is probable that he met Jefferson sometime during the Virginian’s seventy five days in Philadelphia, especially since they both counted Madison as a friend.

Both had contrasting views on the Constitution- Hamilton was a member of the Federalists who wished to ratify the constitution and Jefferson was opposed to the thought of it. Their rivalry does not start there- they barely knew one another in this time while Jefferson was in France during which the Constitution was birthed into life.

While it is probable they met in 1783, it is certain they met in 1789. This was the year that Washington was made president of the United States. Washington first began to fill his cabinet, he first offered Robert Morris the position of Treasury Secretary but he declined and recommended Hamilton. Jefferson, on his way back to the States stepped off into England to learn that Washington had nominated him to be secretary of state and that the senate had already confirmed the appointment. That was not the reason that Jefferson was returning to America, however and did not want to job- only accepted after a second offer from Washington.

The half year in the cabinet together was peaceful, though they disagreed with one another nearly every meeting- they also were good at speaking. Hamilton was even invited to Jefferson’s for dinner several times and they dined together.

In 1790, Madison, Jefferson and Hamilton negotiated the “Compromise of 1790″ in which Madison badly wanted the capital to be located on the Potomac. Hamilton asked Jefferson to intercede with southern congressman to support the Assumption Bill. Jefferson had remained on the side lines during this battle. The agreement that they allegedly reached called for Madison and Jefferson to persuade a couple of recalcitrant Virginia congressmen to support assumption, and for Hamilton to convince some Pennsylvania representatives, who longed for Philadelphia to be the nation’s capital, to consent to locating the capital on the Potomac. Madison had long since mastered the arts of backroom negotiating and Hamilton was the master at intrigue. Ever after. Jefferson depicted himself as a guileless innocent who was taken advantage of by Hamilton.

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anonymous asked:

I'm interested in learning more about anarcho-syndicalism, what book or books can I read to get a better idea of what it is? Is it reconcilable with Marxism or a separate school of thought?

Two of the best books in order of goodness:

1. Syndicalism in France, which was actually written contemporaneously by one of the American historians who founded the New School.  It’s very good and comes from an era when people didn’t feel the need to like mythologize about it and shows how the idea of anarcho-syndicalism came out of the organizational makeup of French radicalism.  Also it’s free

2. Radical Unionism.  This has a more international focus and talks about American, Italian, Spanish, and British syndicalism and (because it was written now) talks about the reasons that syndicalism fell and its transformation into the communist union movement.  However I feel like it does a big job fighting old battles and stuff.

Is it reconcilable with Marxism?  Eh, I think that the come from different places and thus make different conclusions.  Marxism as a theory and philosophy has fundamentally been a theory of parties and intellectuals, while Syndicalism grew out of the interaction between mutual aid societies and unions.  And like, these all have their problems and I don’t think that picking some kinda side is particularly useful, especially because, hot take, syndicalism isn’t really a relevant ideology anymore now that unions aren’t that big a force and mutual aid societies barely exist in most cities.  I’d say there’s a lot for syndicalism and the history of the movement is important, and it’s just as important to like look at the history of syndicalism without acting as if it’s some kind of great tragedy and these people didn’t understand their circumstances.  Rather you should like learn about the movement from its own perspective and get why it failed on its own terms and in the context of basically the entirety of radicalism outside of the Bolsheviks failing during the 1st World War.  I think the issue is more ‘figure out the conditions of the Bolshevik’s success’ than ‘why did this specific disagreeing ideology fail’.

A spectre👻👻 is haunting👻 🌍Europe🌍 — the spectre 👻of communism☭☭☭☭. All the 💪💪powers of old Europe💪 have entered into a 🙏 holy alliance 🙏to exorcise this spectre👻👻👻: Pope 💩💩and Tsar💩👎👎, Metternich💩 and Guizot💩💩💩, French Radicals🇫🇷🇫🇷👎👎👎 and German police-spies🚮🚮🚮🚮. Where is the🎉 party🎉🎉 in opposition that has not been 😿decried😿😿 as communistic☭☭☭☭ by its 😦😦opponents in power😦? Where is the opposition that has not hurled back the branding🔥🔥 reproach🔥🔥🔥🔥 of ☭☭☭☭communism☭☭, against the more advanced🎊 opposition parties🎊🎊🎊, as well as against its 🙅🙅🙅🙅reactionary adversaries🙅🙅? 🕑Two things🕑 result from this fact📕📕: I. ☭☭☭☭Communism☭☭ is already acknowledged by all 💪European powers💪💪 to be itself a 💪💪☭power☭💪. II. It is 🕛‼️🕛high time🕛🕛🕛❗ that ☭☭Communists☭☭☭ should openly, in the 😛😛😛face😛😛 of the 🌍whole🌍 world🌍🌍🌍, publish📕📕 their📕 views📕📕📕, their 🎯aims🎯🎯, their tendencies☭☭, and meet this 🍼nursery🍼🍼 tale🍼📕🍼 of the 👻Spectre👻 of Communism👻👻 ☭ 👻☭ with a manifesto📕📕 of the party📕🎊☭ itself.

The Assassin’s Pocket Pistol: The FN 1910′s infamous history.

The FN 1910 pistol has been one of the the most successful pocket pistols ever made. One of John Browning’s pistol designs, it’s been made from 1910 all the way to 1983, sold across the world from China to Sweden and has been the primary sidearm for countries like the Netherlands, France, Finland, Peru, Venezuela and copied by Japan as the Hamada pistol. However, the FN1910′s small size and reasonably powerful calibers made it a common weapon for the assassination. And 3 big assassinations feature the 1910.

The Archduke’s Final Ride: June 28, 1914.

First is the most famous, Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Franz Ferdinand was both the heir to the entire old and failing Austro-Hungarian Empire and a controversial figure in the eyes of Austrian nobility, marrying Sophie, a lower royal member. With the rise of nationalism in Hungary and Serbia, the Austro-Hungarians decided to hold a number of maneuvers in Sarajevo and invited Ferdinand and Sophie to watch, which they used also as an ersatz honeymoon.

At the same time, a number of revolutionaries were angry at this choice. For Serbian nationalists, both the maneuvers and the arrival of Franz Ferdinand were seen as almost spits in the face, as they were occurring during the anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo, a day of national pride for Serbians. And so a group named Young Kosovo organized an assasination attempt on the Archduke. These young men, most under 20 years of age began plotting the assassination, to attack a parade being held for the Archduke. And soon around 6 assassins arrived in Sarajevo, with 3 FN 1910′s between them, cyanide pills and a number of grenades.

Their plan to attack the motorcade/parade for the Archduke on June 28, 1914 went horribly at first. Two assassins didn’t attack due to police presence, one didn’t due to feeling sympathy for Sophie. One actually threw a grenade, only for it to bounce off Franz Ferdinand’s car and ended up blowing up another motorcade car and injuring civilians. Said assassin then leaped into a river, only to find it about 4 feet deep and taking a cyanide pill, only to find it expired and the Sarajevo police finding him puking into the riverbed.

Our main man, Gavrilo Princip gave up at this point, walking to a local bar to make himself feel better with booze in standard fashion. Back at Sarajevo City Hall, Franz Ferdinand argued with the Mayor, effectively telling him off about the attacks and the ridiculous idea of proceeding down the original route. Ferdinand got the great idea to go to a local hospital treating the victims from the grenade attack as a sign of solidarity. Except his driver didn’t know and drove until the car broke down on Franz Josef street.

Right in front of the bar where Gavrilo Princip was at.

We all know what happens from here, Austria Hungary declares war on Serbia, Russia declares war on Austria Hungary, Germany declares war on Russia and so on, eventually locking all of Europe at war with each other and leading to millions of deaths in a span of 4 years. All due to a car breakdown and a FN 1910.

Le président a été abattu: May 7, 1932.

Next is probably the most unknown. Paul Doumer. Doumer was a French Politician who served as many things, he served as the Governor-General of French Indochina, where he managed to take the colonies from a money pit, losing millions of francs a year to a profitable site for French investment, at the same time forcing a number of Vietnamese who couldn’t pay the taxes into day laborers. He joined the French Radical party, became the Minister of Finance several times over his career, President of the French Senate in 1927 and then elected president on May 13, 1931, beating the Aristide Briand.

However, his work as president was short and relatively buring due to May 7, 1932. While at a book signing at the Hôtel Salomon de Rothschild, he ran into Paul Gorguloff, a mentally unstable Russian immigrant who shot Doumer three times with his FN 1910, with Doumer dying the next day. Gorguloff’s reasoning for the attack was due to his hatred of France not backing the White Movement in Russia during the Russian Civil War. Gorguloff was hung on September 14, 1932 and Doumer’s more infamous successor, Albert Francois Lebrun took power a bit back in August.

Kingfish’s Final Bill: September 8, 1935.

The final one is a more…controversial assassination.

Huey Long. The 40th Governor of Louisiana during the late 1920′s and early 30′s, Long was and still is a very controversial politician. He was a Democrat and outspoken populist, famed for his “Share Our Wealth” program and “Every Man Is A King” system. This added an asset tax on corporations in an attempt to stave off The Great Depression while making a number of public works projects to keep the economy going. He managed to amass around 7.5 million members of his “Share Our Wealth” clubs and by 1935 was getting more letters than FDR.

However 1935 was going to be Long’s last year. On September 8, 1935, Long was in the State Capital awaiting a verdict on a variety of bills, ranging from housing development bills to one made to gerrymander a political opponent, Judge Benjamin Pavy out of a job. His son in law, Dr. Carl Weiss hears the news and right as the bill past, walked up to Long and shot him with an FN 1910. Long’s body guards fired back and killed Weiss, but Long ended up dying on September 10, 1935. His death revealed a long string of policies effectively allowing him to pick who got what job, and to this day is one of the more controversial politicians in Louisiana history.

Maybe It’s Not Too Late (chapter 1/?)

Okay so this is a really bad fanfic, but I’m very emotional about my precious gays Marco and Tom, so here it is!

Read it on ao3: x

Marco can’t stop thinking about Tom, and Star is overly supportive of this

Fandom: Star vs. The Forces of Evil

Rating: General Audiences (which will probably change later)

Warnings: None

Categories: M/M

Characters: Marco Diaz, Star Butterfly, Tom

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Uncredited Artist     French Radical and Abolitionist Olympe de Gouges     1784

“Women have the right to mount the scaffold, therefore they should also have the right to mount the rostrum.” Olympe de Gouges 


July 28th 1794: Robespierre et al. executed

On this day in 1794, Maximilien Robespierre, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, Georges Couthon and many of their peers were executed by guillotine in Paris. Robespierre, Saint-Just and Couthon were leading figures in the French Revolution and were radical Jacobins. They served on the Committee of Public Safety, which ruled France during the bloody ‘Reign of Terror’ which saw mass violence and executions of ‘enemies of the revolution’. There was a coup against the Committee on July 27th 1794, which prompted a reactionary movement against the bloody policies of the Reign of Terror. For their role in the violence, Robespierre, Saint-Just and Couthon were executed.

A 👏 spectre 👏 is 👏 haunting 👏 Europe 👏 — the 👏 spectre 👏 of 👏 communism. 👏 All 👏  the 👏 powers 👏 of 👏 old 👏Europe 👏 have 👏 entered 👏  into 👏 a 👏 holy 👏 alliance👏  to 👏 exorcise 👏 this 👏  spectre: 👏 Pope 👏 and 👏 Tsar, 👏 Metternich 👏 and 👏 Guizot, 👏 French 👏 Radicals 👏 and 👏  German 👏 police-👏spies.👏  Where 👏 is 👏 the 👏 party 👏 in 👏 opposition 👏 that 👏 has 👏 not 👏 been 👏 decried 👏 as 👏 communistic 👏 by 👏 its 👏 opponents 👏 in 👏 power? 👏 Where 👏 is 👏 the 👏 opposition 👏 that 👏 has 👏 not 👏 hurled 👏 back 👏 the 👏 branding 👏 reproach 👏 of 👏 communism, 👏 against 👏 the 👏 more 👏  advanced 👏 opposition 👏  parties, 👏 as 👏 well 👏 as 👏 against 👏 its 👏 reactionary 👏 adversaries?👏  Two 👏 things 👏 result 👏 from 👏 this 👏 fact:👏  I. 👏 Communism 👏 is 👏 already 👏 acknowledged 👏 by 👏 all 👏 European 👏 powers 👏 to 👏 be 👏 itself 👏 a 👏 power.👏  II. 👏 It 👏 is 👏 high 👏 time 👏 that 👏 Communists 👏 should 👏 openly, 👏 in 👏 the 👏 face 👏 of 👏 the 👏 whole 👏 world, 👏 publish 👏 their 👏 views, 👏 their 👏 aims, 👏 their 👏 tendencies, 👏 and 👏 meet 👏 this 👏 nursery 👏 tale 👏 of 👏 the 👏 Spectre 👏 of 👏 Communism 👏 with 👏 a 👏 manifesto 👏 of 👏 the 👏 party 👏 itself.👏  To 👏 this 👏 end, 👏 Communists 👏 of 👏 various 👏 nationalities 👏 have 👏 assembled 👏 in 👏 London 👏 and 👏 sketched 👏 the 👏 following 👏 manifesto, 👏 to 👏 be 👏 published 👏 in 👏 the 👏 English, 👏 French, 👏 German, 👏 Italian, 👏 Flemish 👏 and 👏 Danish 👏 languages.
Let Me Tell You A Story....

In 1792, France declared war against Austria, beginning the French Revolutionary Wars. In 1793, the Committee of Public Safety, gained dictatorial control over France during the Reign of Terror. During the Reign of Terror, 16,594 were executed by guillotine (2,639 in Paris alone).

After 1792, the United States saw a massive influx of French refugees, most of course fleeing from the violence and turmoil of the French Revolution. Cargo vessels were used to transport thousands of French refugees, as food and jobs were scarce in France at this time, unless you wanted to serve in the army in Austria. Even then, there was a unnamed “list” of names of those to be sent to the guillotine, and only by luck or by rumor were you warned to flee the country.

All walks of society arrived, in Philadelphia, Boston, Charleston and of course New Orleans. Members of the royal court, noble men and  women reduced to the clothing on their backs, as well as the lowliest craftman who fled the country in hopes of finding work in America to feed his starving family.

At first Americans welcomed the French refugees. Thousands settled in the Ohio country, Philadelphia, Tidewater Virginia, and in the Louisiana countryside. After all, they had been our allies during the American Revolutionary War, and with them the French brought new food, new crafts, new fashions, and the Americans wanted to appear as cultured and worldy as possible.

Then the fear came. 

As the war in Europe raged on, the American became suspicious of the French…

These French people are too radical. We had our revolution, but we didn’t cut anyone’s head off right? Napoleon is gaining power… What if the French try to overrun us?! Just the other day I saw a French man in the street shouting to the crowd about liberty and equality! What if they try to overthrow our new government and make us French?!

Then the borders closed.

Then came the Naturalization Act.

“That no alien shall be admitted to become a citizen of the United States, or of any state, unless… he shall have declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, five years, at least, before his admission, and shall, at the time of his application to be admitted, declare and prove… fourteen years residence within the United States, and five years in the state, &c. where he applies…”

Then came the Alien and Sedition Acts.

“ In case of war, or actual threatened invasion, the President shall make a proclamation. That whenever there shall be a declared war between the United States and any foreign nation or government, or any invasion or predatory incursion shall be perpetrated, attempted, or threatened against the territory of the United States.. all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of the hostile nation or government, being males of the age of fourteen years and upwards, who shall be within the United States, and not actually naturalized, shall be liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured and removed, as alien enemies.”

So what happens when you flee war and starvation in your own country, only to have the country you fled to turn around and accuse you of being enemies of the state, terrorists if you will, just because…you are French? 

Many in society today will brag that their families are descended from French nobility, especially in the South, not knowing that the very person their pride is built on was a foreign refugee.

Let that sink in.

Hom Nguyen “When in front of the monumental portraits of Hom Nguyen, the eyes are captured. a smell almost emerges from the painting. The painter makes the idols unstable  and looks deeper in the inmost depths of their souls.

the french painter Hom Nguyen radically transformed our insight of humanity.
 By combining the emotion of the realism and the explosion of the expressionism, demonstrates not only maturity but also stunning artistic sensitivities. The impact is here, violent and irremediable.”

Title: Prince

When Shay said to Charles that they[The Templars] should start their own revolution, a bunch of people, including my own brother, believed that Shay supported the Reign of Terror and that he’s willing to go to extremes to accomplish Templar goals.

I refuse to believe that. Not only is there a lack of evidence to prove that Shay supported the radical French Templars and the Reign of Terror but having Shay support the Reign would do a complete 180 on his story. The reason he left the Assassins in the 1st place is because he unintentionally slaughtered innocents.

image from madeinmasyaf