franklin court

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February 19th 1942: Japanese internment begins

On this day in 1942, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed executive order 9066 which allowed the military to relocate Japanese-Americans to internment camps. A climate of paranoia descended on the US following the attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan, which prompted the US to join the Second World War. Americans of Japanese ancestry became targets for persecution, as there were fears that they would collude with Japan and pose a national security threat. This came to a head with FDR’s executive order, which led to 120,000 Japanese-Americans being rounded up and held in camps. The constitutionality of the controversial measure was upheld by the Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States (1944). Interned Americans suffered great material and personal hardship, with most people losing their property and some losing their lives to illness or the violence of camp sentries. The victims of internment and their families eventually received an official government apology in 1988 and reparations began in the 1990s. This dark episode of American history is often forgotten in the narrative of US involvement in the Second World War, but Japanese internment poses a stark reminder of the dangers of paranoia and scapegoating.

In announcing this victory to Congress, Washington, though he cited almost every other major-general who was with him in battle, did not mention Lafayette’s name. This was the first time Washington had failed to do so in recounting any action in which Lafayette had taken part. Hamilton and Laurens also listed those who had distinguished themselves, and Lafayette was not among them. Dr. James McHenry, another of Washington’s secretaries, likewise called the roll of Monmouth’s heroes. Of Lafayette he said only that the marquis was ‘sadly disappointed’ and 'peculiarly unhappy’ not to have won any laurels that day (for 'the honors of war….have a distinguished place in the breast of a French noble-man’); but he added that, after the retreat was checked, Lafayette’s conduct of the second line was 'very judicious.’ A few months later Washington was to feel called upon to write a letter recommending Lafayette to Benjamin Franklin. In doing so, the commander-in-chief listed the several actions in which Lafayette had fought under his command and acquitted himself gloriously. The battles of Brandywine, Gloucester, and Barren Hill were cited; but Monmouth Court House was passed over in silence.
—  Lafayette In America by Louis Gottschalk. This has always been odd to me. Was it that Lafayette drove his troops too hard on their march to the battlefield in the preceding days? Was it that Lafayette was one of the first officers to quit the field (after arguing with Lee that they should not do so) because he was ordered to fall back? Was it something he did during the battle? Was he afraid or did he not want France to know of a battle he didn’t perform spectacularly well in? Hm.

anonymous asked:

Do you have anything on the relationship between Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson? :)

“The succession to Doctor Franklin at the court of France was an excellent school of humility.” This, Jefferson reflected as he prepared notes for a eulogy that would be read in memory of Benjamin Franklin at the American Philosophical Society on March 1, 1791 after his death. He spoke of Franklin as scientist, statesman and a “great and dear friend, whom time will be making greater while it is spunging us from it’s records.” 

In 1754, when Thomas Jefferson was not yet twelve years old, at a convention in Albany, New York, the American colonists made a proposal, known as the Albany Plan of Union. It was a bid to become a largely self governing province under a national royal governor. It’s author, Benjamin Franklin, notes that the plan collapsed because American thought it was too aristocratic and the British found it too democratic. 

In Jefferson’s famous document Notes on the State of Virginia, he rebuffed European charges that America, among other things, was devoid of genius. “In physics we have produced a Franklin, than whom no one of the present age has made more important discoveries, nor has enriched philosophy with more, or more ingenious solutions of the phenomena of nature,” Jefferson wrote.

1775, twenty-one years later, Jefferson, lodging on Chestnut between Third and Fourth streets in Philadelphia, where the Continental Congress was meeting at the Pennsylvania State house, Jefferson entering the public life looked over Benjamin Franklin’s proposal for the “Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.” This is the first scrap of interaction between Franklin and Jefferson as Jefferson pooled over the document, annotating nearly every paragraph with his own input:

“The said united colonies hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other binding on themselves and their posterity for their common defence against their enemies for the security of their liberties and properties, the safety of their persons and families and their mutual and general welfare.”

Above “their” Jefferson inserted “(a)” and, on the last page of his copy, wrote this significant comment: “(a) qu. what ‘their mutual and general welfare’ means. There should be no vague terms in an instrument of this kind. It’s objects should be precisely and determinately fixed.”

Both men were on the Declaration Committee assigned to drafting the Declaration of Independence. Both Franklin and John Adams scored over Jefferson after he’d finished the draft and Franklin made his own contribution to the document by replacing a word with “self-evident”. The author had consulted with both Franklin and Adams while writing the document. “The enclosed paper has been read and with small alterations approved of by the committee… Will Doctor Franklin be so good as to peruse it and suggest such alterations as his more enlarged view of the subject will dictate?”

When congress went over Jefferson’s draft it was notable how much he hated being edited by such a large group. He withered as he sat in the State House, listening to member after member offering his thoughts, wanting to change this and cut that. Franklin, seated right next to Jefferson noticed his anxiety and told him, “I have made it a rule, whenever in my power, to avoid becoming the draughtsman of papers to be reviewed by a public body.”

Another of Jefferson’s duties in Philadelphia was the design of a seal for the new nation, a task he shared with Benjamin Franklin and John Adams. Reacting to a proposal of Franklin’s that invoked the parting of the Red Sea, Jefferson suggested: “Pharaoh sitting in an open chariot, a crown on his head and a sword in his hand passing through the divided waters of the Red Sea in pursuit of the Israelites: rays from a pillar of fire in the cloud, expressive of the divine presence, and command, reaching to Moses who stands on the short and, extending his hand over the sea, causes it to overwhelm Pharaoh. Motto: Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to god.”

Later 1776, representatives chose to entrust a mission of Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane and Thomas Jefferson to represent American interests in European nations. Jefferson denied this request for family purposes, but Franklin headed to France. Over the years following until he own departure he studied the diplomatic correspondence between the Congress and Benjamin Franklin in France as well as John Jay in Spain and John Adams in Holland. 

Friday, May 7th, 1784 at five p.m., the Confederation Congress added Jefferson to its mission in Europe. He was to join Franklin and Adams in establishing alliances for the new nation. Hector St. John de Crevocoeur advised him, “I beg you’d put Mr. Franklin in mind of introducing you to the good duke of La Rochefoucauld. He is the pearl of all dukes, a good man, and a most able chemist…”

After Franklin left Paris, back for America, he sent Jefferson a draft of the constitution for his input. When giving his grandson Thomas Jefferson Randolph advice, he cited at the bottom of his letter, “It was one of the rules which above all other made Doctr. Franklin the most amiable of men in society, “never to contradict anybody.” When it was Jefferson’s turn to return ot the home land, he visited Franklin at his home and encouraged him to complete his autobiography–Franklin would die a month later on April 17th, 1790 and this was the last time they would see one another. Jefferson wrote of this moment later while still in France:

“On being presented to any one as the Minister of America, the common-place question, used in such cases, was ‘c’est vous, Monsieur, qui remplace le Docteur Franklin?’ ‘It is you, Sir, who replace Doctor Franklin?’ I generally answered ‘no one can replace him, Sir; I am only his successor.’”

In 1809 when the third president of the United States Thomas Jefferson’s terms ended, in the celebration of farewell, Jefferson was soon told that “the ladies” hopes to follow him to the President’s House. “Twinkling” he said: “That is right, since I am too old to follow them. I remember in France, when his friends were taking leave of Dr. Franklin, the ladies smothered him with embraced, and on his introducing me as his successor, I told him I wished he would transfer these privileges to me, but he answered, ‘You are too young a man’”

At Monticello, Jefferson had a busts of many men of the age, including Benjamin Franklin. Through a brilliantly yellow dining room, separated by double pocket doors on rollers, is a small octagon room. There Jefferson and his family would eat and converse in what he called his “most honorable suite,” he would glance up to busts of Washington, Franklin, Lafayette, John Paul Jones and other plaster copies by Jean-Antoine Houdon. 

anonymous asked:

what can you tell us about ben franklin's sex life?

Benjamin Franklin’s wife was named Deborah- she died in 1774. Just a few of the babes that Benjamin Franklin accumulated include  Anna-Louise d`Hardancourt Brillon de Jouy, Madame Helvetius, Margaret Stevenson, Polly Hewson, Madame Foucault, Countess Diane de Polignac, Countess Wilhelmina Golowkin, Catherine Ray, Georgiana Shipley, Madame Le Veillard, Madame Le Roy, Countess Houdetot… 

Franklin himself was frightened by his sexual appetite, admitting in his autobiography that:

“The hard-to-be-governed passion of my youth had hurried me frequently into intrigues with low women that fell in my way.”

Franklin had an an illegitimate son in Philadelphia and neglected his wife. Franklin had a succession of relationships with younger women. Some of the affairs were sexual and others were platonic. Gossip about Franklin and his women followed him throughout his adult life, someone even took the liberty of writing a poem about him:

Franklin, tho` plagued with fumbling age

Needs nothing to excite him.

But is too ready to engage

When younger arms invite him.

There is a legend about a statue of Benjamin Franklin saying that he climbs down at night and goes to the nearest bar. 

Franklin arrived in London on Christmas Eve at the age of 18. He was accompanied by his friend, James Ralph. Franklin and Ralph partied, drank and whored around London for most of 1725. The friendship ended when Franklin made advances to Ralph`s mistress. Franklin returned to Philadelphia in 1726. In the 18 months he was overseas, he had written to Deborah Read once.

For the next several years,Franklin courted a number of women. In 1731, one of his mistresses gave birth to a son. The identity of the woman remained Franklin`s darkest secret.

At the age of 30, Franklin settled down, taking Deborah as his common wife. But one of his more revealing writings, which took the form of a letter to a young man in 1745, was suppressed for almost two centuries. Franklin`s Advice to a Young Man on the Choice of a Mistress was published in of papers. The letter appears to be a response to the young man`s question about how to deal with his raging libido.

Franklin says that there is no medicine against, “The violent natural inclinations you mention” and prescribes marriage as the best remedy. Older wome, he said make better lovers, he asserts, because they are more helpful when you are sick; because “there is no hazard of children”. 

1757-1775 Franklin lived in London as the agent while Deborah, remained in Philadelphia. In 1767 Charles Wilson Peale paid a surprise visit to Franklin in London. As Peale recounted the event, he found the front door unlocked, went up to the second floor to Franklin`s apartment, where the door was ajar. Peale said inside he saw Franklin with a young lass sitting on his lap, and they were kissing and fondling each other. Peale retreated down the stairs, made a quick sketch of the scene and departed- he basically drew smut. 

1776 to 1785 Franklin as United States commissioner to France. He made this note in his diary shortly after his arrival: “We met six or seven country women in company, on horseback and Astride; they were all of fair white and red complexions but one among them was one of the fairest women I ever beheld.”

Franklin proceeded to omg wow the French court in general and its ladies in particular. There was a ceremony in which he was paid homage by 300 young French women, several of whom-picked for their physical beauty. Way to excite the old guy. 

(All sources come from Benjamin Franklin by Carl Van Doren)

Harris County Criminal Court, Franklin Street, Houston, Feb. 18, 2016