frank adam

Vera Rubin, the groundbreaking astrophysicist who discovered evidence of dark matter, died Sunday night at the age of 88, the Carnegie Institution confirms.

Rubin did much of her revelatory work at Carnegie. The organization’s president calls her a “national treasure.”

In the 1960s and 1970s, Rubin was working with astronomer Kent Ford, studying the behavior of spiral galaxies, when they discovered something entirely unexpected — the stars at the outside of the galaxy were moving as fast as the ones in the middle, which didn’t fit with Newtonian gravitational theory.

The explanation: Dark matter.

Adam Frank, an astrophysicist who writes for NPR’s 13.7 blog, described dark matter by comparing it to a ghost in a horror movie. You can’t see it, he writes — “but you know it’s with you because it messes with the things you can see.”

Adam continued:

“It was Vera Rubin’s famous work in the 1970s that showed pretty much all spiral galaxies were spinning way too fast to be accounted for by the gravitational pull of the their ‘luminous’ matter (the stuff we see in a telescope). Rubin and others reasoned there had to be a giant sphere of invisible stuff surrounding the stars in these galaxies, tugging on them and speeding up their orbits around the galaxy’s center.”

Vera Rubin, Who Confirmed Existence Of Dark Matter, Dies At 88

Quotes for the signs said by artists with the same zodiac sign

Aries:  “In three words I can sum up everything I’ve learned about life: it goes on.” (Robert Frost)

Taurus:  “Life is what happens to us while we are making other plans.”
(Allen Saunders)

Gemini:  “Even strength must bow to wisdom sometimes.” (Rick Riordan)

Cancer:  “Women and cats will do as they please, and men and dogs should relax and get used to the idea.” (Robert A. Heinlein)

Leo:  “You only live once, but if you do it right, once is enough.” (Mae West)

Virgo:  “My thoughts are stars I cannot fathom into constellations.” (John Green

Libra:  “Be yourself; everyone else is already taken.” (Oscar Wilde)

Scorpio:  “Fairy tales are more than true: not because they tell us that dragons exist, but because they tell us that dragons can be beaten.” (Neil Gaiman)

Sagittarius:  “If you tell the truth, you don’t have to remember anything.” (Mark Twain)

Capricorn:  “We read to know we’re not alone.” (William Nicholson)

Aquarius:  “I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.”(Thomas A. Edison)

Pisces:  “I may not have gone where I intended to go, but I think I have ended up where I needed to be.” (Douglas Adams)

HAVE SOME MORE MODERN KYLUX~

in which Kylo Ren is a beautiful fucking mystery who doesn’t know how to look both ways before crossing the street. 

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