franconia

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Druidenstein - Druid’s Stone

The sandstone boulder is named “Druid’s Stone” because of legends of celtic priests using the rock as a sacrificial place. 

Der Sandsteinfelsen im Mäbenberger Wald wurde 1465 erstmals als markantes Flurzeichen “Hohlstein” erwähnt.
Sagen um den Felsen als Opferplatz keltischer Priester gaben dem Stein im 19.Jd. seinen Namen “Druidenstein”.

Die Jakobuskirche in Miltenberg. Miltenberg in Unterfranken (Lower Franconia) in Bayern, Southern Germany has a population of 9,000. It lies on the Fränkischer Rotwein Wanderweg (Franconian Red Wine Hiking Trail). Tourism is very important for the local economy. Visitors are mainly day trippers from the urban agglomerations in Hessen (Frankfurt, Offenbach, Darmstadt, Hanau).

Die Brezeln - pretzels, a typical South German food. There are several accounts regarding their origin - most assume that they have Christian backgrounds and were invented by monks. The pretzel has been in use as an emblem of bakers and their guilds in South German areas since the 12th century. Within the Christian Church, they were regarded as having religious significance for both ingredients and shape. The knot shape has been claimed to represent hands in prayer, while the 3 holes supposedly represent the Holy Trinity: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Pretzels made with a simple recipe using only flour and water could be eaten during Lent, when Christians were not supposed to eat eggs, lard, or dairy. As time passed, pretzels became associated with both Lent and Easter. They have most firmly taken root in Franken in Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg and adjoining areas and have been an integral part of German baking traditions for centuries.

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Bamberg is a town in Oberfranken, Bayern (Bavaria) on the river Regnitz. Its historic center is a UNESCO world heritage site. During the post-Roman centuries of Germanic migration and settlement, the region included in the Diocese of Bamberg was inhabited for the most part by Slavs. The town, first mentioned in 902, grew up by the castle Babenberch, which gave its name to the Babenberg family. On their extinction it passed to the Saxon house. The area was Christianized chiefly by the monks of the Benedictine Fulda Abbey, and the land was under the spiritual authority of the Diocese of Würzburg. In 1007, Holy Roman Emperor Henry II made Bamberg a family inheritance, the seat of a separate diocese. The purpose was to make the Diocese of Würzburg less unwieldy in size and to give Christianity a firmer footing. In 1008, after long negotiations with the Bishops of Würzburg and Eichstätt, the boundaries of the new diocese were defined. Pope John XVIII granted papal confirmation the same year. Henry II ordered the building of a new cathedral, which was consecrated in 1012. From the mid-13th century onward the bishops were princes of the Empire and ruled Bamberg, overseeing the construction of monumental buildings. In the 1200′s, the see obtained large portions of the estates of the Counts of Meran. The old Bishopric of Bamberg was composed of an unbroken territory extending from Schlüsselfeld to the Franconian Forest, and possessed estates in the Duchies of Carinthia and Salzburg, in the Nordgau (now Upper Palatinate), in Thuringia, and on the Danube. By the changes resulting from the Reformation, the territory was reduced nearly one half in extent. 

The witch trials of the 17th century claimed about 1000 victims in Bamberg - the famous Drudenhaus witch prison is no longer standing today. In 1647, the University of Bamberg was founded. Bambrzy (Posen Bambergers) are German Poles, descended from settlers in villages around Posen in the 1700′s. When the secularization of church lands took place (1802) the diocese had a population of 207,000. Bamberg lost its independence in 1802, becoming part of Bavaria in 1803. It was first connected to the German rail system in 1844, which has been an important part of its infrastructure since. After a communist uprising took control over Bavaria in the years following WW1, the state government fled to Bamberg and stayed there for 2 years before the Bavarian capital of Munich was retaken by Freikorps units. The first republican constitution of Bavaria was passed in Bamberg. In 1926 Bamberg served as the venue for the Bamberg Conference, convened by Adolf Hitler in his attempt to foster unity and to stifle dissent within the then-young Nazi party. Bamberg was chosen for its location in Upper Franconia, reasonably close to the residences of the members of the dissident northern Nazi faction but still within Bavaria. In 1973, the town celebrated its 1000th anniversary.