francoist

ask-changeling-eight  asked:

Your movement of anti fascism will fail. Do you know why? Because fascism doesn't exist. We killed it after world war 2. Honestly if you did even a little research into fascist Italy Japan or Germany you'd see you're just like them. Black uniforms, masks with skulls, attacking people to instill total fear into the hearts of people who don't agree with you. Fighting fascism with fascism doesn't make you the good guys, it makes you a slightly different version of fascist.

Sigh.  The sad thing is that we get messages just like this from clear, well-informed experts on fascism like ask-changeling-eight all the time.  

Because fascism doesn’t exist. We killed it after world war 2

Oh, that’ll be a huge surprise to Francoist Spain or the Estado Novo regime in Portugal or the people suffering under the fascists of Daesh/ISIS/ISIL or the 200+ fascist cults, political parties, and terrorist groups that have existed since WW2.  You should tell them.

you’d see you’re just like them. Black uniforms, masks with skulls,

Of course, because fascism (which we’ll remind you no longer exists according to yourself) is defined by the clothes people wear.  That’s in the dictionary-definition of fascism, right?

fas·cismˈfaSHˌizəm/nounan authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization.synonyms:authoritarianism, totalitarianism, dictatorship, despotism, autocracy; More (in general use) extreme right-wing, authoritarian, or intolerant views or practice.

fascism [fash-iz-uh m] noun1.(sometimes initial capital letter) a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.2.(sometimes initial capital letter) the philosophy, principles, or methods of fascism.3.(initial capital letter) a political movement that employs the principles and methods of fascism, especially the one established by Mussolini in Italy 1922–43.

fascism noun  fas·cism \ˈfa-ˌshi-zəm also ˈfa-ˌsi-\

1often capitalized :  a political philosophy, movement, or regime (such as that of the Fascisti) that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition2:  a tendency toward or actual exercise of strong autocratic or dictatorial control early instances of army fascism and brutality — J. W. Aldridge

attacking people to instill total fear into the hearts of people who don’t agree with you.

Right.  Because advocating for apartheid and genocide = just another, perfectly normal opinion that we may not agree with and should just have a polite debate about over tea.  

Or maybe fascism (which, of course, you’ve informed us doesn’t exist), isn’t even a valid opinion but instead is a historically & scientifically-discredited belief that is common to the beginning of every genocide in human history.  

Fighting fascism with fascism doesn’t make you the good guys, it makes you a slightly different version of fascist.

Now where have we heard this liberal false equivalency bullshit before?  


hooligan-nova “Fighting fascists makes you a fascist” makes no sense. The defining feature of fascism is not violence.

If I fight a mugger I’m not a mugger. If I fight a bear it doesn’t make me a bear.
Fascism is about control and antifascism is about refusal of that control. 


Let’s leave the last word for Holocaust survivor Frank Frison, shall we?

“If fascism could be defeated in debate, I assure you that it would never have happened, neither in Germany, nor in Italy, nor anywhere else. Those who recognised its threat at the time and tried to stop it were, I assume, also called “a mob”. Regrettably too many “fair-minded” people didn’t either try, or want to stop it, and, as I witnessed myself during the war, accommodated themselves when it took over … People who witnessed fascism at its height are dying out, but the ideology is still here, and its apologists are working hard at a comeback. Past experience should teach us that fascism must be stopped before it takes hold again of too many minds, and becomes useful once again to some powerful interests.”   

ask-changeling-eight, if you’d like to actually learn about what fascism is and how it developed so you don’t look like such an ill-informed jackass the next time you decide to opine on the topic, we’d recommend having an adult read & explain this book to you.


anonymous asked:

You mentioned Palestinians going to the Communist University in Moscow? Do you have any stories about any of them?

Oh yeah, my favorite of them was Muhammad Najati Sidqi. He grew up traveling the Arab world, but after the British took control of Palestine, he got a job in the Department of Posts and Telegraphs and the Jews there introduced him to communism, so he went to the KUTV in Moscow. While he was there - this is probably my favorite part of his life - he corresponded personally with Stalin, Bukharin, and Khalid Bakdash (a Kurdish communist who became the General Secretary of the Syrian Communist Party, known as the “dean of Arab communism”), met Mao Tse Tsung and future Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru, and fell in love with a Ukrainian communist and married her.

He returned to Palestine with her in 1928 and became a leader in the PKP. He ran the Arab East (the Comintern’s Arabic newspaper) from Paris for a couple years while dodging a British crackdown on the PKP, and then spent a year in Uzbekistan studying “the national problem under socialism.” After that he was one (1) of four (4) Palestinian Arabs to fight on the Republican side during the Spanish Civil War. (He got blacklisted by the Palestinian national movement for this, especially in the newspaper Filastin, because the Palestinian nationalists backed the Francoist side, mostly to spite Britain and France and in solidarity with the Moroccan Army of Africa that fought alongside Franco.) While there, under a Moroccan alias, he wrote for the newspaper Mundo Obrero, trying to convince Moroccans to desert Franco, and also tried to convince the Spanish communists to organize an anti-colonial revolt in Morocco, but they didn’t want to work with “beastly savage” Moroccans.

He left thereafter, writing a polemic on the incompatibility of Islam and Nazism called al-Taqālid al-islāmiyya wa-l-mabādiʾ al-nāziyya: hal tattafiqān? (The Islamic Traditions and the Nazi Principles: Can They Agree?) to combat the Nazi-sympathetic faction of the Palestinian national movement around Hajj al-Husseini. Because he cited the Quran and other Islamic texts, he was purged from the party in 1940 for lack of secularism, and surprisingly for a communist in the Middle East, he lived out the rest of his life peacefully in Cyprus, Greece, and Lebanon, his daughter becoming a well-known doctor in the Soviet Union.

10

The export users of the Messerschmitt Bf 109, before and during the Second World War, top to bottom:

Bulgaria
Croatia
Finland
Hungary
Italy
Romania
Slovak Republic
(Francoist) Spain
Switzerland
Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Japan only bought 5 unarmed airframes for testing and as such never used them in combat, and after the war it was also used by Czechoslovakia and Israel in the form of the Avia S-99.

On This Day: July 19
  • 1848: A women’s rights convention takes place in Seneca Falls, New York.
  • 1877: In the midst of the Great Strike of 1877, Pittsburgh workers drove soldiers out of town.
  • 1899: Marxist Saul “Paul” de Groot born in Amsterdam.
  • 1907: Anarcho-syndicalist José Xena Torrent born in Cassa de la Selva, Catalonia. He was active with the CNT and one of the editors of Ideas.
  • 1907: Around 800 police in the Royal Irish Constabulary mutiny during Belfast Dock Strike.
  • 1915: Anarchist Vernon Richards born in London. She was an editor, author and companion to Marie Louise Berneri until her death during childbirth in 1949.
  • 1917: The Provisional Government issued an order for the arrest of Lenin, who was forced to go underground.
  • 1920: Second world congress of the Communist International (Comintern) begins in Petrograd.
  • 1926: Henri Gauche (aka René or Henri Chaughi) dies. Longtime contributor to Les Temps Nouveaux. Gauche originally agreed with “Manifesto of the Sixteen”, and went to the front during WWI to fight — though by 1916 he concluded he was wrong.
  • 1933: The Council of War in Brussels, Belgium, condemns two anarchist conscientious objectors: Hem Day and Léo Campion.
  • 1936: Josefa (Pepita) Inglès and other anarchist took part in the street fighting in Barcelona which beat back the Francoist coup.
  • 1937: Italian anarchist Giuditta Zanella writes an article about the murder of Francisco Ferrer, which she witnessed, under the alias of “Yudith” for the Italian anarchist expatriate paper Guerra di Classe.
  • 1943: During WWII, an anarchist congress meets clandestinely near Toulouse, at the farm of Alphonse Tricheux and Paule Tricheux, to assess the political situation and attempt to reorganize the anarchist movement. Among those attending are André Arru, Voline, Maurice Laisant and Charles Laisant, etc.
  • 1947: Korean activist and campaigner for reunification Lyuh Woon-hyung is assasinated by a right-wing nationalist in Seoul.
  • 1951: César Saborit Carrelero, anarchist guerrilla and member of action group of José Lluis Facieras, is killed by two police officers of the “Brigada politico-social” at Barcelona, Spain.
  • 1973: Battle of the Grapes: 467 striking farmworkers arrested in California.
  • 1979: The Sandinista rebels overthrow the government of the Somoza family in Nicaragua.
  • 1990: Anarcho-syndicalist Ruth Bösiger dies. She was companion of André Bösiger. He was active with the Ligue d’Action du Batiment (League of Housing Action) and he was one of the founders of the CIRA , the library and archive of international anarchist material in Switzerland.
  • 2012: Syrian Civil War: YPG forces capture the city of Kobanî, Syria.
  • 2014: Up to 100,000 people demonstrate in London in solidarity with Palestine after Israel renews assault on Gaza.
4

What a shame to be Spanish right now and have this subject as president of the government. Embarrassing. And even worse its corrupt and francoist Popular Party being still the first force after ALL we have seen. Spain has what it deserves.
What a scene we have in our hands.

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Speechless.

This happened this morning in Bilbo. A man is sitting having a coffee when a Betis [a football club from Seville] hooligan go for him saying:

- Hey! You, Gabilondo! [random Basque surname] Arriba España! [Francoist motto] You, are you pro-ETA?

And the hooligan hits him in the face, just like that, while his friends laugh. The hooligan went on saying:

- Shitty Basque, I will end you, shitty Gabilondo, you nauseating thing, pro-ETA.

We know that almost every football team has hooligans. But this is more than beating someone up for being a supporter of the other football team because that’s what hooligans think it’s a nice idea. This is HATRED and RACISM at its finest. And the saddest thing is that we’re 100% sure that if this same situation was caused by Basque hooligans somewhere in Spain, they’d be judged using the anti-terrorism law and the law for hate crimes. 

Spanish Nationalist leader General Francisco Franco (1892 - 1975) salutes during the singing of the Nationalist national anthem at Burgos Cathedral, Castile, Spain, 24th November 1938. He is attending a holy mass in memory of José Antonio Primo de Rivera (1903 - 1936), founder of the Falange Española, the only legal political party in Francoist Spain.

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Great discourse - a bit old but good nonetheless- from Gabrel Rufián (ERC):

Chairwoman. Ladies and gentlemen. Mr. Rajoy, Mr. Rivera. Mr candidate, Mr IBEX [spanish stock market].

(laughs)

First of all, I wanted to show you something (he shows the map of the general elections where almost all is blue, representing the PP [right-wing with francoist past], with the exception of Catalunya, the Basque Country and the regions Huelva, Seville and Jaén), this is not a challenge, these are countries, different people who vote differently.

We are this (points out Catalonia), in which among all of you add only one mayoralty. It’s called winning and it’s called losing. And you lost. It’s called democracy. Be a democrat and respect it.

(Murmurs, the president asks for silence.)

That said, if you will allow me, I will take my five minutes to ask a series of questions that I think are pertinent, and that I hope you respond.

In fact, I also hope that after this five minutes, the cave [right-wing parties], do not compare me with all the dictators of contemporary European history, with all but Franco, him, you always forget.

Mr. Rajoy, why Carme Forcadell can end up in a court after fulfilling a democratic mandate and Fernández Díaz, Mr. Fernández Díaz maybe in the Vatican embassy after conspiring from his office?

Why Santi Vidal, can be-can not be a judge again because he said that he is independent and Alfonso can be one again after saying that “We have destroyed their health care”?

Why are you so pissed off about a “Visca Catalunya lliure” [Long live free Catalonia] and so little with a “This the prosecution will destroy it”? Why?

Mr. Rajoy, why in a state with 2.7 million poor children, with 32% of child poverty, why in the second most unequal state in Europe, you and the national orange front, Ciutadans [new right-wing party, their color is orange] (laughs), consider that the problem of childhood, of the educational system in Spain is that children study Catalan in Catalonia?

(Voices - The president asks for silence)

Why so Catalans study English, which does not seem wrong, have to do math in Spanish?

Do you realize that you are monolingual (he points out), telling bilinguals (he points to himself), that they have to be trilingual?

(laughs)

Catalan children speak two languages, Catalan and Spanish, so they speak a language more than you. Why do they have to stop doing it?

How can it be said that the Castilian-speaker is excluded, persecuted and threatened in a land, in a country, where the head of the opposition is a Jerezana [from Jerez, region in Spain], arrived in Catalonia eight years ago?

How can you lack respect in this way for those Andalusians, Galicians, Murcians, Extremadurans, who left their skin [worked really hard] in places like where I come from, Santa Coloma de Gramanet, so that their children and grandchildren learn the language of the country that welcomed them.

Be ashamed, and stop.

Mr. Rajoy, why do you remember so much with chest blows, while proclaiming yourselfs Constitutionalistsn of the Article 105, when during 40 years you forgot about articles as beautiful as the 47 and 128?

Why your constitution is worth to threaten a town, and not to give them a roof?

Why are we the ones who break the constitutional order and we attack the national sovereignity if you were the ones who broke it and delivered it, one summer night of the year 2011?

Mr. Rajoy, Mr. Rivera, why do you bother so much about an Estalada [independentist flag] hanging out in a balcony, and so little that the butcher of Badajoz, General Yagüe [francoist], has neighborhoods in his honor?

(applause)

Why the fact that hundreds of thousands go out on Diada [national catalan festivity] in Catalonia is a provocation, and that Spain is the second country with the most disappeared in Europe, and the planet, reconciliation?

Why a constituent process that brings together 72 deputies of 135, ranging from the center-right-liberal-conservative to the most disruptive left is a drift, and that you are only able to compromise with your white mark, with that kind of Mr. Smithers of Spanish politics [Ciutadans] (laughter), is a sense of state?

Why do you give so many lessons of Catalan reality if you are the last and penultimate political force in Catalonia?

Why independence, Mr. Rajoy, is Pujol, 3%, embargoed highquarters and Andorra, and you, Unionism, are not Rato, Eres, Gurtel and Panama? [All corruption cases]

(applause)

Why do you give us anti-corruption lessons, if while in the Parlament of Catalunya a gangster is called a gangster, while here, you play Candy Crush? [It’s not uncommon for politicians to be on their phones unfortunately]

Why are we the deceived and indoctrinated when you have won the elections again with one more deputy for each corruption case in the last 4 years?

Mr. Rajoy, Mr. Rivera, why a process that only demands ballot boxes and that holds an absolute parliamentary majority is antidemocratic, and that you to preside your state you put a man, from a palace, whom no one has voted, is democratic normality? [The king]

Well, his father did have a vote, of a certain Francisco Franco Bahomonde, perhaps the name rings a bell. (murmurs) [He refers to the fact that our former king was raised into power by Franco]

Mr. Rajoy, Mr. Rivera, if the Spanish state after 8 years of reactionary and neo-liberal policies owes more than 100% of its GDP, why is it an urn in an electoral college in Catalonia what threatens Spanish sovereignity?

Mr. Rajoy, why are ther populations - and I finish Mr. President.

Mr. Rufan has to finish.

Why are there populations of 28 inhabitants with a brand new AVE station and others of hundreds of thousands, which are roasted every morning in a Rodalias?

Mr. Rajoy, why 80 years later, Lorca is still in a gutter of Granada, and Billy the Kid is running half-marathons in Madrid? [Government makes it nearly impossible to dig mass graves from the Civil War]

(applause)

I’m done, Mrs. President.

This is for Mr. Sanchez. [From the “socialist” party - more center rn] Mr. Sanchez, how much more - I would just like to say -, how much more governability of this country will ypu give up for not giving a voice to ours?

How much more will you prefer Rajoy to an urn in Catalonia?

Be brave.

And I end up with a question for the companions: Iglesies and Domènech.

Comrades, do you imagine a country with a residual PP? Do you imagine a country with the sufficient social, political and parliamentary majorities to initiate and complete a constituent process for a republic?

The country that you imagine already exists and is called Catalunya.

Help us, because we will always help you here. Thank you very much and good afternoon.

anonymous asked:

so, I've read about the basque's culture from my textbook, and I would like to say that I just love the aspect of your language being a part of the pre-indo European. it's really fascinating that it hasn't been overrun by popular culture or anything like that. I was wondering if you had maybe any facts that textbooks may miss or just some general cool facts (tbh the facts will all be cool but *shrug*)

It  makes me so happy that some people are interested on this omg

Some facts:

-Basque is acutally not as much spoken as it was some years ago. In the franquist dictatorship it was prohibited to learn/teach basque because spanish was the “authentic” and “only possible language in Spain” In the francoists words. jfc


-In many cases, in order to have a public employement here (is tha how you call it??  like public services?¿¿?) You have to know how to speak basque fluently.  …I personally find that quite wrong becasue its difficult for imigrants/non basque speakers to work in public services that way. :I


-The Basque country is quite independent from Spain. We have our “own” economic system and a side goverment. 


-We have 6 main different dialects of basque. (Sometimes I can’t understand when a northen basque speaks to me lol)


-Also many words in Spanish come from Basque. example; Ezkerra-> Izquierda (”left”)


-Basque is one of the most difficult languages in the world. Just look at this fkin table of how to decline verbs in different times:

We even have a “indefinite-past” verb form that it can’t be translated because it doesn’t exist in any other daMN LANGUAGE. (it could kinda be translated as the “aorist” verb form in ancient Greek tho)




OKAY ENOUGH BASQUE SORRY FOR THE SPAM. I JUST GET HYPED TALKING ABOUT IT BECAUSE ITS SUCH A BEAUTIFUL LANGUAGE

spain is weird because if you genuinely like francisco franco and support francoist spain and go around waving the francoist flag everyone’s cool with it but being independentist or supporting independentist catalonia is The Worst for some reason

sammybabe17  asked:

can you recommend some books for me to read because im very interested in what youre into

this list might be a little random, but it’s all books i adore/think about a lot that i think other people should read:

a density of souls by christopher rice - his first novel, and still his very best, in my opinion. i read it because he’s the son of my favorite writer and also gay, but he is an incredible writer of his own merit. this is the story of stephen, a soft, beautiful boy, and he will absolutely break your heart. (most people who follow me will love this book. all i’m sayin.) - GAY

the carnivorous lamb by agustín gómez-arcos - this is my favorite book. it feels like it was written for me by someone who knows me very well and wants me to be happy. it’s the book that the film do começo ao fim (from beginning to end–a film that if you haven’t seen, you should RUN TO WATCH) is based is loosely based on, but it’s even better. it’s about two brothers who are in love with each other and have been their entire lives growing up in francoist spain, and it’s the most fucking beautiful love story you’ll ever read. the older brother is unbelievably protective of his sweet angel of a baby brother, and oh. my. god. the unfolding of their love will have you rolling around on the bed and screaming into your pillow. - GAY AND INCESTUOUS AND UNDERAGE (!)

drawing blood by poppy z. brite - another book that feels like it was written to be read by me. this is the story of trevor mcgee and the destruction of his family. it’s a horror story, have no doubt, but at the heart, it’s a love story between trevor and zach, two boys who cling to each other when life tries to break both of them. it’s set in new orleans and north carolina, and it feels like i know every single person in missing mile, every single backroad. plus you get to meet steve and ghost, two characters who have more of their story told in lost souls, and ghost is my favorite poppy character/one of my favorite characters of all time. <3 - GAAAYY

cry to heaven by anne rice - oh goddd, this book. it’s set in 18th century italy, and it’s the story of the castrati (eunuchs), and of one in particular named tonio who has a love affair with guido, his instructor. it’s monstrous and beautiful and decadent and painful, all signs that you are reading an anne rice book <3 - GAAAAY

de profundis by oscar wilde - this is a letter, not a book, but it’s so important. this was the letter that oscar wrote to his young lover, bosie, a man who he cherished and who tormented him by being an impossible human being. bosie’s father, the marquess of queensbury, was the reason that oscar was jailed in the first place. he was arrested for gross indecency, aka being gay. it’s a letter written by a broken man, heart and spirit, and it’s at the core of my love for oscar wilde. he’s my number one hero, a man who always knew what to say, who was dark and tormented under his velvet and lovely poses, and of all his beautiful works, this is my favorite. - G A Y

the vintner’s luck by elizabeth knox - set in france in the 1800s, this is a story of a man and his long, quiet love story with an angel. it’s such a sweet and meandering story, and the characters are so real and the setting is absolutely gorgeous. i read this way before i got into supernatural, and so i didn’t have any kind of wariness about a love story involving angels. (this book is nothing like supernatural in any way.) - GAYY

belinda by anne rice - this is a may/december romance between a children’s book illustrator in his 40s and a 16-year-old girl named belinda. i am suuuuch a sucker for age differences, and this book delivers in a way that lolita doesn’t. i love lolita, don’t get me wrong. it’s one of my favorite books. but belinda is a sweeter love story, a truer one, without the psychosis. and the religious blasphemy in this book just DOES. IT. FOR ME. - UNDERAGE

the cement garden by ian mcewan - a fucked-up story of the unraveling of a family. it’s kind of a horror story, at the heart of it, and the children in this story are nearly feral. it’s delicious and heartbreaking and will have you holding your breath the entire time. - INCESTUOUS

back roads by tawni o’dell - another story of abandoned children in isolation from everyone else (a favorite theme of mine; it was destined for me to become a fan of supernatural and wincest), this one is about harley and his three younger sisters that he has to take care of. i think about this story all the time. OH, and harley in this book is who jared named his dog after. just by the way. ;) - INCESTUOUS

geek love by katherine dunn - this book will break your fucking heart. it’s about a carny family of freaks with secrets with and from each other that will have you white-knuckling the book and crying as you read. one of the very best stories i’ve ever read. here’s the opening paragraph:

“When your mama was the geek, my dreamlets,” Papa would say, “she made the nipping off of noggins such a crystal mystery that the hens themselves yearned toward her, waltzing around her, hypnotized with longing. ‘Spread your lips, sweet Lil,’ they’d cluck, ‘and show us your choppers!’”

i hope you like these, if you decide to read them. i couldn’t recommend a single one of them enough. <3

A day such as this, 15th of October of 1940, the president of Catalonia Lluís Companys was shot by fascist dictator Franco’s orders. He was tortured and sentenced to death for being president of Catalonia and having declared it an independent country. His death was one more of the many repressions the fascist regime led against the Catalan people, meant to show that the Francoists would have no mercy.

Companys is the only democratically elected president in European history to have been executed by a fascist dictatorship, and seventy-five years later the council of war which sentenced him is still in force.

This week, the current Catalan government declared the 15th of October the National day in memoriam of the victims of Francoism.

Francesc Sabaté Llopart (March 30, 1915 L'Hospitalet de LlobregatCataloniaSpain – January 5, 1960 Sant Celoni, Catalonia), also known as “El Quico”, was a Catalan anarchist involved in the resistance against the Nationalist regime of Francisco Franco.

Biography[edit]

At the age of 10 Sabaté left his clerical school and by the age of 17, he had joined the anarchist action group Los Novatos (“The rookies”), a part of the Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI, also known as CNT-FAI because of its close links to the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo industrial union). This group was involved in insurrections against the government of the Second Spanish Republic in late 1933 and fought against the army’s coup attempt at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War in July 1936. In 1935 Sabaté refused military service, the beginning of his life outside the law. Also in this year, Los Novatos carried out its first robbery (characterised by the group as “expropriations”) to fund a prison relief group.

During the Civil War, Sabaté fought on the Aragon front with the CNT-FAI’s “Young Eagles Column”. When this division was forcibly assigned a Stalinist commissar who crushed the free initiative of the column, Sabaté and two of his comrades shot him dead and deserted to Barcelona where they carried out many missions on behalf of the FAI against the Stalinist authorities. Eventually Sabaté was arrested by the Communists, but with the help of his wife, he with a few other militants managed a prison break. When the war ended he was in the 216th Division (“Durruti Column”) that crossed the French border. In France duringWorld War II, he spent time in concentration camps and fought with the Maquis resistance against the Vichy regime.

After the end of the War, Sabaté returned to Spain to carry on insurgent activities against Francoist Spain. His first action was the freeing of three anarchists from police custody. In large part these took the form of further robberies from wealthy businessmen and large banks to fund anarchist activities. He also assassinated Falangist notables and Civil Guard members. After attempting to assassinate a police commissioner, accidentally attacking the wrong car, killing its occupants, Quico fled back to France, but was arrested and jailed for six years.[1] He was often described as having been the regime’s “Public Enemy Number One” during this time. In 1960, at the age of 45, he was killed in Sant Celoni by the Somaten (a Catalan paramilitary organisation, then mainly formed of Francoist fascists) and the Civil Guard, along with four companions.