francesco grimaldi

Aph Monaco

History: Monaco’s name comes from the 6th century BC nearby Phocaean Greek colony. Referred to by the Ligurians (Italian Region) as Monoikos.
It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, which gave it to the Genoese.
An ousted branch of Genoese family, the Grimaldi, fought for it for a hundred years with them before really gaining control.
Though the Republic of Genoa would last until the 19th century, they let the Grimaldi family to keep Monaco, and, likewise, both France and Spain left it alone for hundreds of years.
France did not annex it until the French Revolution, but after the defeat of Napoleon it was put under the care of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
In the 19th century, when Sardinia became a part of Italy, the region came under French influence again but France allowed it to remain independent.

Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was refounded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa.
Monaco was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi, known as “Il Malizia” (translated from Italian either as “The Malicious One” or “The Cunning One”), and his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco while dressed as Franciscan monks – a monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was already known by this name.
Francesco, however, was evicted only a few years afterwards by the Genovese forces, and the struggle over “the Rock” continued for another century.
The Grimaldi family was Genoese and the whole thing was something of a family feud. However, the Genoese had other battles to fight and in the late 1300s Genoa was in a big fight with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica.


In 1419, the Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon and became the official and undisputed rulers of “the Rock of Monaco”.
In 1612 Honoré II began to style himself “Prince” of Monaco. In the 1630s, he sought French protection against the Spanish forces and, in 1642, was received at the court of Louis XIII “Duc et Pair Etranger”. The princes of Monaco thus became vassals of the French kings while at the same time remaining sovereign princes.

Though successive princes and their families spent most of their lives in Paris, and intermarried with French and Italian nobilities, the House of Grimaldi is Italian. The principality continued its existence as a protectorate of France until the French Revolution.


In 1793, Revolutionary forces captured Monaco and it remained under direct French control until 1814, when the Grimaldi family returned to the throne.


In 1793, Revolutionary forces captured Monaco and it remained under direct French control until 1814, when the Grimaldi family returned to the throne.


Between 1793 and 1814 Monaco was occupied by French (in this period much of Europe had been overrun by French under command of Napoleon)
The principality was reestablished in 1814 only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
Monaco remained in this position until 1860 when, by the Treaty of Turin, the Sardinian forces pulled out of the principality and the surrounding county of Nice (as well as Savoy) was ceded to France.
Monaco became a French protectorate once again. Prior to this time there was unrest in Menton and Roquebrune, where the townspeople had become weary of heavy taxation by the Grimaldi family.
They declared their independence, hoping for annexation by Sardinia. France protested.
The unrest continued until Charles III gave up his claim to the two mainland towns (some 95% of the principality at the time) that had been ruled by the Grimaldi family for over 500 years.
These were ceded to France in return for 4,100,000 francs.
The transfer and Monaco’s sovereignty were recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. In 1869, the principality stopped collecting income tax from its residents—an indulgence the Grimaldi family could afford to entertain thanks solely to the extraordinary success of the casino.
This made Monaco not only a playground for the rich, but a favored place for them to live.

I guess we can easily and fairly say she is the little sister of France and the Itabros.